```                                           PHYSICS
Physics is the study of the proper-        tor quantity and its unit is       The branch of science which
ties of matter and energy.                 m/s2.                              deals with the study of relative
A decrease in the velocity with    movement of interacting
MOTION                          time is called deceleration or     surfaces is called tribology.
The length of the path be-          retardation. It is otherwise       In order to increase stability,
tween two points is the dis-        known as negative accelera-        a person climbing a hill bends
tance between them.                 tion.                              forward.
Physical quantities that have       • If the acceleration remains      The flying of birds is a con-
only magnitude and no               constant, i.e., it does not        sequence of Newtons third
direction are called scalar         change with time it is said to     law of motion.
quantities.                         be uniform acceleration.        Equations of Motion
Eg: Distance, speed, time,          • The earth attracts every-        Three exists some relation be-
work, mass, density, tempera-       body towards its centre. The       tween velocity acceleration
ture etc.                           acceleration with which freely     and the time intervals during
falling bodies are attracted       which we study the motion of
Physical quantities that have
towards the earth is called the    a body. These relations are
both magnitude and direction
acceleration due to gravity. It    called equations of motion.
are called vector quantities.
is same for all bodies and its     They are:
Eg: Displacement, weight,           value is 9.81 m/s.                      V = u + at
velocity, acceleration etc.
Inertia is the tendency of a            S = ut + 1/2 at2
Speed is the distance travelled     body to continue in its state
by a body in unit time. It is a                                             2as = v2 – u2
of rest or the state of uniform
scalar quantity. Its unit is m/s.                                      where v - final velocity
motion along a straight line.
u - initial velocity
Distance              Galileo discovered law of in-
Speed                                                             t - time interval
Time                ertia.
An athlete run some distance       a - uniform acceleration
Velocity is the displacement
before taking a long jump, by      s - displacement
per unit time. It is a vector
quantity and its unit is m/s.        running the athlete gives him-     The force required to stop a
self larger inertia of motion.     moving body depends on its
Displaceme nt                                              mass and also on its velocity.
Velocity                            As the train starts moving, a
Time                man sitting inside leans back-     Momentum (P) is defined as
Acceleration is the rate of         wards because of inertia of        the product of mass and ve-
change of velocity. It is a vec-    rest.                              locity of a body i.e, P = mv
DeputyCollectorRankFile
Momentum is a vector quan-         called adhesion.                       etal force.
tity                               Weight can be defined as the           Friction can be reduced by
Unit of momentum is Kg m/s.        force with which earth attracts        changing over from sliding
FORCE                        a body.                                to rolling
Weight, w = m × g                  When a man circles round the
Force is any influence that
earth in a spacecraft, his mass
tends to change the state of       Mass remains constant while
rest or the uniform motion in a                                           remains constant but weight
weight varies from place to            becomes zero
straight line of a body.           place.
Unit of force is Newton                                                   Two object lossing the same
Friction is a force that resists       weight when immersed in wa-
The force of attraction bet-
ween like molecules is called      the movement of one surface            ter must have the same den-
cohesion.                          over another.                          sity
The force of attraction be-        The force required by a re-            Centrifugal force helps to
tween unlike molecules is          volving body is called centrip-        separate cream from milk.
GRAVITATION
The attractive force of earth,
or other celestial body, on an
object is called gravity.
The earth attracts everybody
towards its centre. The
acceleration with which the
freely falling bodies are
attracted towards the earth is
called the acceleration due to
gravity (g).
Value of g = 9.8 m/s2
The value of g at the centre of
earth is zero.
The value of g is very high at          Gravitation keeps the planets in orbit around the Sun.
polar region.                                                             of the earth. Therefore, the ac-
region and low in the equatorial
The value of g is very small at                                           celeration due to gravity expe-
region.
equitorial region.                                                        rienced on the moon will be less
The weight of a body on the
The weight of a substance is                                              than the acceleration due to
moon will be less than its
zero at the centre of earth. As                                           gravity experienced on the
weight on the earth. This is so
the mass of the substances         because the mass of the moon                                       1
increases the gravitational                                               earth. This will be about     g.
1                                                             6
force between them also            is      of the mass of the earth
81                              On the moon an astronaut can-
increases.                                                                not drink lemonade with the
The weight of a body in                            1                      help of a straw because - There
earth is very high in the polar    its radius is      of the radius
3.66                     is no atmosphere on the moon.
DeputyCollectorRankFile
The mass of a body which               The line on earth’s surface           smallest surface area.
determines the gravitational           passing through the places         The spherical shape of rain
having zero dip is called the         drops and mist drops are due
force of attraction due to earth
magnetic equator. It passes           to surface tension. The
is called gravitational mass.          through Thumba.                       spherical shape is attained to
Escape velocity is the minimum
VISCOSITY AND                          maintain equilibrium.
speed which a spacecraft must                                             Soap bubbles also tend to form
have to escape from the earth's      SURFACE TENSION                         themselves into shapes with
gravitational force. It is             Capillary action is responsible       minimal surface area.
7 miles/s. (or 11.2 km/s)              for the absorbance of water by     Soap is added to water to
The escape velocity of a body          the plants and oils by the wick       reduce the surface tension, so
is different and different             of lamps.                             clothes (or whatever else) get
Fluids flow with zero viscosity       much cleaner.
celestial bodies.
is called superfluids (anti-       Water has a fairly low viscosity;
In the absence of an effective
gravity property).                    things like shampoo or syrup
force of gravity, bodies become        The force within the liquid           have higher viscosities.
weightless in artificial satellites.   which opposes the relative         Viscosity also depends on
Gravitational field is the space       motion of one layer over the          temperature : engine oil, for
around a massive body in               other is called viscosity.            instance, is much less viscous
which gravitational force of           Venturimeter is used for mea-         at high temperatures than it is
attraction is felt.                    suring the rate of flow of liq-       in a cold engine in the middle
Planets move slower along              uids.                                 of winter.
Viscosity is the internal fluid
their orbits when they are                                                     ELASTICITY
friction.
farthest from the sun (at              Surface tension is the property
apogee) and they move faster                                                  Elasticity is the ability of a
along their orbits when they           whereby they appear to be              shape and size on the removal
are nearest to the sun (at             covered by a thin elastic              of the deforming force.
perigee)                               memberane.                         Glass is more elastic than
Gravitation is responsible for         Surface tensions is caused by          steel and steel is more elastic
keeping the Earth and the other        unbalanced molecular cohe-             than rubber.
planets in their orbits around         sive force.                        If a body does not regain its
Unit of surface tension is N/m.       original size and shape after
the Sun; for keeping the Moon
When the temperature of fluids        the removal of deforming force,
in its orbit around the Earth;
increases viscosity decreases.        it is called a plastic body and
for the formation of tides; for        The surface tension decreases         this property is called plasticity.
natural convection, by which           with rise of temperature.             Eg: Clay, Plasticine etc.
fluid flow occurs under the            Surface tension is a property
influence of a density gradient        of a liquid by which the free             DENSITY &
and gravity; for heating the           surface of a liquid behaves like          PRESSURE
interiors of forming stars and         a stretched elastic membrane,
planets to very high tempera-          having contractive tendency.
Mass
The larger the surface, the                 Density 
tures; and for various other                                                                   Volume
more energy there is. To
phenomena observed on                  minimize energy, most fluids                         Density of a body
Earth.                                                                  Re lative density 
assume the shape with the                            Density of water
DeputyCollectorRankFile
Eye Opener
ut havi ng any
hi  gh  vo lt age cable witho
ts on a very                                       out due to
When a bird si                    fe  at he rs   tends to spread
r on it , it s                                       of the bird
in sula ti on cove                       ie;  feat he  rs on ei ther side
electrostati c re
pulsive force.                                    sitively charged
. (e ith er both become po
d of like natu  re                                   takespla ce.
become charge                  ly   ch  ar ge  d) .H ence repulsion
e negative
or both becom
Thrust
The amount of water vapour                  Pr essure            N / m 2 or Pascal
Area
in the air is termed as humidity.
The total normal force exerted
When a piece of ice floating                        by a fluid on a surface is called
on the surface of water in a                                                            to accomplish work - it is like
thrust. Its unit is Newton (N).     the "currency" for performing
bucket melts completely, the
Pressure increases with depth       work. To do 100 joules of work,
water level will remain the
The pressure inside a baro-         you must expend 100 joules of
same.
meter remains high under a          energy.
An iron nail floats on mercury                      calm climate.
but sinks in water because the                                                          Power is the rate of doing work
Mercury is used as the liquid
specific density of iron is                                                             or the rate of using energy,
in thermometers as it does not
lower than that of mercury and                                                          which are numerically the
wet glass.
higher than that of water.                                                              same. If you do 100 joules of
Pascal’s law states that pre-
A petrol fire cannot be                             ssure in a fluid in equilibrium
work in one second (using 100
extinguished by throwing                                                                joules of energy), the power is
is the same everywhere.
water on it since the density                                                           100 watts.
Water distribution in cities,
of water is more than the                                                               Unit of energy is joule.
flush tank, hydraulic brake,
density of petrol, water sinks                                                          The energy possessed by a
below the petrol when it is                         hydraulic lift, hydraulic press
etc are working based on            body due to its position in a
poured over a petrol fire.                                                              field of force or configuration
The density of sea water is                         Pascal’s law.
The lactometer used to test         is called potential energy.
higher than the density of                                                                   P.E = mgh
river water, therefore it is                        the purity of milk is based on
the principle that the greater      m = mass       g = gravity
easier to swim in the sea than
density of a liquid, the lesser     h=height (distance between
in river. This is why a ship
will be the immension of an         the body and the surface)
entering from river mouth to
sea rises up a little.                              object.                             Energy of a body due to its
Ice floats on water because its                                                         motion is called kinetic energy.
WORK, ENERGY
weight is less than the weight                                                               Kinetic energy = 12 mv 2
of an equal volume of water.                         AND POWER                               (m = mass, v = velocity)
Ice floats on water but sinks                 Work refers to an activity                The change in the kinetic
in alcohol because the density                     involving a force and                energy of an object is equal to
of alcohol is lower than that                      movement in the directon of the      the net work done on the
of water.
force. A force of 20 newtons         object.
The density of water is maxi-
mum at 40C                                         pushing an object 5 meters in        Mechanical energy can be
The pressure at a point on a                       the direction of the force does      either kinetic energy (energy of
surface is the thrust acting                       100 joules of work.                  motion) or potential energy
normally per unit area around                 Energyis the capacity for doing           (stored energy of position).
that point.                                        work. You must have energy           Objects have mechanical
DeputyCollectorRankFile
energy if they are in motion        speed in a circle in a horizon-      Machanical advantage of a
and/or if they are at some          tal plane over his head, does
position relative to a zero         no work.                                machine = effort
potential energy position           Unit of work is Newton metre
Rate of doing work is called        (Nm).                                         WAVES
power. Its unit is watt          LEVERS                                     Electromagnetic waves are
work                                                            coupled periodic electrical
Power                            A lever is a simple machine
time                                                            and magnetic disturbances
Escape velocity is the velocity    consisting of a rigid rod pivoted
created by oscillating electric
at a fixed point called the
with which a projectile must be                                             charges.
fulcrum. It is used for shifting
projected in order that it may                                              All waves of the electro mag-
or raising a heavy load or
escape the earth’s gravitational                                            netic spectrum travel at the
applying force in a similar way.
pull.                                                                       same velocity, a quantity
A body in which a force is felt          known as the speed of light.
The escape velocity from the       is called resistance (R) and the         The speed of light is approxi-
surface of the earth is 11.2 kms   force applied here is called             mately 3×10 8 m/s (about
The escape velocity from the       effort (E).                              186,000 miles per second).
planet, Jupiter is 61 km/second.   If the fulcrum comes in                  Electromagnetic waves can
For Mercury it is 42 km/second.    between resistance and effort            travel through vacuum.
According to law of                such levers are called Ist order         Transverse wave is a type of
conservation of energy of          levers.                                  energy wave in which motion
Albert Einstein, energy can        Eg: balance, nail puller see-saw,        of the particles is perpendicu-
neither be created nor be                                                   lar to the motion of the wave.
a pair of scissors etc.
destroyed but it may be                                                     Wave on a rope and waves on
If resistance comes in between           the surface of water are trans-
transformed from one form to
effort and fulcrum then such             verse.
another.                           levers are called II nd order            If the motion of the particles
The energy possessed by the
levers.                                  is along the direction of mo-
water collected in the reser-
Eg: Wheel barrow, nut cracker            tion of waves, it is called a lon-
voir of a dam is potential en-
etc.                                     gitudinal wave.
ergy                                                                       Sound waves in a medium
When a force acts upon an         If effort is between resistance
and fulcrum such levers are              (solid, liquid or gas) are longi-
object causes a displacement                                               tudinal.
called III rd order levers.
then, it is said that work was                                             Transverse waves travel in
done upon that object.                                                     the form of crests and troughs
There are three key ingredi-      Eg: Pincers, Icetongs etc.               while longitudinal wave trav-
ents to work - force, displace-   Efficiency of a machine                  els in the form of compres-
ment, and cause.                      Power output                         sions and rarefactions.
The work done by a force on       = Power input                            Earthquake waves are infra-
a body is defined as the prod-                                             sonic waves.
uct of the magnitude of the
force and the distance moved                         Levers can be used to exert a large force over
a small distance at one end by exerting only a
in the diection of force.
small force over a greater distance at the other.
Work done = force × distance
A boy, swinging a stone, tied
to a string, with a uniform
DeputyCollectorRankFile
The property which distin-         the sound waves get reflected         Hz) are called infrasonic
guishes transverse waves           and they can change their             waves.
from longitudinal waves is         direction. They use this              Sounds of frequency higher
polarization.                      method to catch insects also.         than 20,000 Hz are known as
Diffraction is the property in     Since sound waves need a              ultrasonic and are inaudiable.
waves of turning round the         medium to travel they cannot          SONAR stands for Sound
edges of an obstacle.              be transmitted through                Navigation And Ranging. It
Sound can be heard around a        vacuum.                               uses ultrasonic waves.
corner due to diffraction.         The audible frequency of
Sound travels faster throu-
When a wave strikes a surface      human ear is between 20 hertz
gh solids, expecially, throu-
of separation of two different     and 20,000 hertz (20 KHz).
gh metals.
media, some of it is thrown        A speed greater than the
back into the original medium.     speed of sound is referred to         The intensity of sound is
This property of bouncing of       as supersonic.                        measured in decibel.
the waves is called reflection.    Velocity of sound in the air is       The intensity of polite con-
The property of sound reflec-      340 m/s.                              versation is 40 db-30 db.
tion is used by bats (which        Sound consists of waves of            During night the allowed in-
cannot see in the dark) for fly-   alternate compression and             tensity of sound in a hospital
ing during night .                 rarefaction that transmit ki-         area is 40 db.
Visible light is electromagnetic   netic energy through a me-            The reverberation of sound in
wave in the range of frequen-      dium.                                 a hall results due to continued
cies 4.3×1014 to 7×1014 Hz.        Frequency of a sound wave             reflection
Electromagnetic waves do not       is th e number of wa ve-              Sound travels faster in steel
require any material medium        lengths (vibrations) that are         Sound can travel only
for their propagation, they        completed in a given period           through a medium. It cannot
can travel in vacuum.              of time.                              travel through vacuum. It trav-
RADAR is the abbreviation of       Doppler effect is the change          els through solids, liquids and
Radio detection and ranging.       in a sound wave’s frequency           gases.
(and wavelength) that is              Equipment for generating or
SOUND                        caused when the hearer and            using sound includes musical
Sound is a travelling wave.        sound source move relative            instruments, hearing aids,
Sound requires medium to           to each other.
sonar systems and sound
travel.                            Sounds are distinguished
Sound cannot travel through        from each other by pitch (fre-
casting equipment. Many of
vacuum.                            quency), loudness (inten-
these use electro-acoustic
Study of sound is known as         sity) and quality.
We ca n recogn i se our               transducers         such     as
Acoustics.
friends from their voices due         microphones and loud
Echo and reverberation are
to the quality of sound.              speakers.
due to the reflection of sound.
For the production of echo         Phonogram is a machine to
reproduce sound.
How do bats fly at
there should be a minimum
distance of 17m between us         Th e speed of soun d de-                      night?
and the reflecting surface.        pends on the medium the               Bats can fly in the dark
Bats can fly in the dark           waves pass through.             because ultrasonic            waves
because they can generate          Sounds with frequencies         produced by them during flying are
lower than the lowest limit     reflected back to them from the
ultrasonic sound and if there
obstacles in their way and hence
is any hindrance in their way      of human hearing (about 20
they can fly with out difficulty.
DeputyCollectorRankFile
LIGHT                       LASER is a source of intense         James Clark Maxwell
monochromatic light in the ul-       founded that lights are
‘The corpuscular theory’               traviolet, visible or infrared re-   electromagnetic waves.
related to light was proposed       gion of the spectrum.                Wave theory of light was dis-
by Issac Newton in 1675.            LASER beams are used in the          covered by Christian
Study of light is known as op-         medical field to perform minute      Huygens.
tics.                               operations.                          Microwave Amplification by
Light an electromagnetic radia-        LASER was discovered by              Stimulated Emission of Radia-
tion.                               Theodore Maiman in 1960.             tion was discovered by Charles
Through vacuum electro                 Visible spectrum is the band         H. Towns.
magnetic waves travels with a       of colours obtained when a ray
speed of 2.9979×108 m/s.            of light passes through a
prism.                               change of direction of light
Paper, cardboard and stone are
Spectrum consists of seven           when passing from one
examples for opaque substa-                                              transparent substance to
nces (substance which do not        colours viz Violet, Indigo, Blue,
another. When we put a stick
passess light).                     Green, Yellow, Orange and Red
in water it seems to be bended.
Substances which allow the             (VIBGYOR).
It is due to refraction.
light to pass through are called    Violet light is scattered most,
transparent substances.             blue somewhat less, and green,
of waves of light as it passes
Eg: glass                           yellow and orange still less, in
through a narrow aperture.
that order.
The particle which is sup-                                                  The spreading of light rays
Red light is scattered least.
posed to travel faster than light                                        towards the screen from a
is tachyon                          The beautiful colour of the
projector in film theatre is due
Tachyons were discovered by            soap foam and oilspread water        to diffraction.
E.C.G. Sudarshan.                   is due to interference of light.     Dispersion is the splitting up
On a rainy afternoon a rainbow         Red, green and blue are the          of light ray into different
is seen in the east                 primary colours.                     colours. Rainbow is formed
A rainbow is always seen in the        Green objects placed in red          due to dispersion. The seven
opposite direction of the sun.      light will appear black.             colours of light has different
Rainbow is caused by reflec-           In the spectrum violet light has     wavelength. Hence when light
tion, refraction and dispersion     short wave length and high fre-      passes through a prism each
of light by the water particles     quency. While red light has          colour gets refracted at
present in the atmosphere.          the highest wave length and          different angles.
LASER is Light Amplification           the least frequency.                 A bubble of water shines be-
by Stimulated Emission of Ra-       A diamond sparkles due to to-        cause of total internal reflec-
diation.                            tal internal reflection because      tion.
Laser is the surface intense ra-       it has a high refractive index.      Refraction of light through air
diation.                            Scattering of light is respon-       having very large temperature
sible for sky being seen as          gradients causes a mirage.
Eye Openes:                     blue. This is because blue and       A periscope is a device which
If two bulbs of power 40w and           violet colour have short wave        works by the principle of re-
length and hence scatter more.       flection and refraction.
100w are joined in series and
MASER is Microwave Ampli-            When there is thunder we see
connected to the domestic
fication by Stimulated Emis-         the lightning first and hear the
electric supply terminals, the          sion of Radiation. It was dis-       thunder later because the ve-
40w bulb glows much more                covered by Charles H. Towns.         locity of light is greater than
brighter than the 100w bulb.            Refraction is the sudden             the velocity of sound.
DeputyCollectorRankFile
The term light year is a unit       cal lens, instead of a spherical    quence of the phenomenon of
employed in measuring Dis-          lens.                               multiple refraction and inter-
tance.                              As the age advances, the            ference
The rays which appears to           elasticity of eye becomes very      An astronaut on an earth sat-
originate outside the earth -       much reduced. As a result the       ellite will observe the sky as
The cosmic rays                     near point of eye recedes           Black.
In a Doctor’s stethescope the       gradually resulting in pres-        The shortest height of a plane
sound is intensified because of     byopia. It can be corrected by      mirror required to show the full
reflection of sound                 convex glasses.                     size image of a person of height
Light from the sun reaches the      When we observe distant                        L
earth in 8 minutes.                                                     ‘L’ cm is 2 cm .
objects, the focal length of the
Light travels fastest through       eye lens increases and if we        Dioptre is the unit of power of
vacuum. Through vacuum              observe the objects near by,        lenses.
light travels with a speed of       the focal length of eye lens        Concave mirror is used as a
3×108m/s.                           decreases.                          burning glass.
The shortest distance for clear     Twenty - Twenty means per-          For the rear view, motorists use
vision is 25 cm.                                                        convex mirror.
fect vision.
Myopia or short sightedness                                             To concentrate light on the
The image formed on the retina of
teeth, the dentists use concave
is such a type of defect in         the human eye is real and in-       mirrors.
which one can see nearby ob-        verted.                             Film is a part of the camera
jects clearly but is difficult to   The lens in the human eye in        which is analogous to the
see objects at long distances.      convex.                             retina in the human eye.
Here image of the substance         Pigments are substances used
falls in front of the retina.       to colour paints, filters, plas-   HEAT AND THER-
Myopia can be corrected by          tics and other materials.
using a concave lens.
MODYNAMICS
The sky generally looks blue
Hypermetropia or long                                                    Absolute zero is the lowest
because the blue colour of
sightedness is such a type of                                            possible temperature which is
short wave length is scattered
defect in which one can see                                              equal to 0K or -273.16°C or -
more than the longer waves of
distant objects clearly whereas                                          459.69°F.
red light.
nearby objects look blurred.                                             Temperature is the degree of
Here the image of the sub-          It is true that the violet waves
hotness and heat is a form of
stance falls behind the retina.     are dispersed, even more than
energy which increases the
Hypermetropia can be cor-           the blue. However, the sky           temperature of a body.
rected       by      using      a   does not appear violet be-
Specific heat capacity of a
convex lens of appropriate fo-      cause the sunlight is relatively
substance is the amount of
cal length.                         weak in violet light.                heat required to raise the tem-
Persons suffering from both         Red colour has the longest           perature of the substance
myopia and hypermetropia            wavelength and shortest              through 1°C
use bifocal lenses to with-         frequency whereas violet             As we go up in the atmo-
stand the condition.                colour has the highest               sphere, the temperature de-
Astigmatism: This defect is         frequency and shortest wave          creases.
due to the cornea not being         length.                              Plasma is the fourth state of
spherical. This defect can be       The formation of brilliant           matter. Solid, liquid and gas are
corrected by using a cylindri-      colours in soap film is a conse-     other three states of matter.
DeputyCollectorRankFile
A black surface absorbs heat                                            The law of magnetic poles
more than other colours.                       Eclipse                  states that like poles repel, un-
Cryogenics is concerned with      Lunar eclipse occurs when the         like poles attract.
the production, control and       earth comes between the sun           A freely suspended magnet
and the moon. While solar             stands vertical at magnetic
application of extremely low
eclipe occurs when the moon           south pole
temperatures.
comes between the sun and the         “Ferromagnetic’’ sub-
At ultra high temperature mat-    earth.                                stances are those which can
ter exist in plasma form 99%                                            be magnetised to a great ex-
of matter in the Universe is in      Water has maximum density at       tent.
plasma form.                         4o C. Water expands when it        Iron steel, nickel ,cobalt,alloys
One calorie is the amount of         freezes.Water occupies maxi-       of these substances, and ga-
heat needed to raise the tem-        mum volume at 0oC.                 dolinium are ferromagnetic
perature of 1gm of water by          The Clinical Thermometer is        substances.
1oC.                                 specially designed to measure      Paramagnetic materials have
Steam causes more severe             human body temperature.            feeble magnetic properties.
burns than water of the same         Normal human body tempera-         Platinum , solutions of salts
temperature because steam            ture is 36.90 C (or 98.4°F)        of iron, oxygen, manganese,
possess more heat energy due         Melting point of mercury is -      palladium, osmium etc are ex-
to latent heat than water.           39°C and that of alcohol is -      amples of paramagnetic sub-
stances.
Transmission of heat from            115°C.
Inside a magnet, direction of
one point to another without         The main source of energy in
magnetic lines of force is from
heating the medium is called         the biosphere is solar energy
south to north.
radiation.                           which reach earth by means of
Tesla is the unit of strength
Cotton dresses are safe for          radiation.                         of magnetic field.
wearing while cooking.               Water expands on freezing.         The instruments which are
Due to this reason when wa-
Conduction is the process of                                            dependent of magnetic power
ter is filled in a bottle and is   of electricity are fan, tele-
net energy transfer through a
allowed to freeze the bottle       phone receiver, Dynamo etc.
substance without the move-
breaks, and during winter wa-
ment of the substance itself,        ter pipes break in cold re-
but by molecular collisions.                                            ELECTRICITY
gions.
Very poor conductor, such as
Laws of electrolysis were for-
glass are called Insulators. Air      MAGNETISM                         mulated by Michael Faraday
is a good insulator.
(Father of electricity).
Mica is a good conductor of          ‘Lodestones’, are natural mag-     Electric fittings are earthed
heat, but a bad conductor of         nets.                              because in case of a short cir-
electricity.                         Magnetic lines of force cannot
cuit, the current passes to the
Perspiration is maximum, when        penetrate certain materials as
easily as they can penetrate air   earth to overcome the dam-
temperature is high and air is                                          ages.
or vacuum. Such materials are
humid.                               called “diamagnetic.’’             Filtered water at normal tem-
Evaporation takes place at all       Diamagnetic materials have         perature is better conductor of
temperatures and is accompa-         negative susceptibility.           electricity than filtered hot
nied by cooling.                     Bismuth, antimony, zinc, silver,   water and distilled water.
Melting point of ice can be          copper, gold, lead, water, al-     Conductors are substances
raised by the decrease of pres-      cohol, hydrogen and the in-        that allow electric charges to
sure.                                ert gases are diamagnetic.         flow through it .
DeputyCollectorRankFile
Metals and graphite are good        force or voltage across oppo-
conductors of electricity.          site forces when subjected to
Conductors Insulators
Silver is the metal having          a mechanical strain and con-        silver              glass
lowest resistance.                  versely, to expand or contract      copper              rubber
The best conductor of elec-         in size when subjected to an        gold                oil
tricity is silver.                  electromotive force.                aluminum            asphalt
Free electrons constitute cur-      220-230 volt is the voltage at      iron                fibre glass
rent in a conductor.                which the alternate current         steel               porcelain
Insulators do not allow current     (a.c) is supplied for house         brass               ceramic
to flow through it .                hold use in India.                  bronze              quartz
Current through a conductor         The frequency of household          mercury             (dry) cotton
is the flow of electrons            a.c in India is 50 hertz.           graphite            (dry) paper
through it.                         An inductor is a device which       dirty water         (dry) wood
Rubber, plastic, paper, glass,                                          concrete            plastic, air,
passes dc but blocks ac.
mica etc are insulators.                                                                    diamond,
Alternating current is used
Elements such as silicon and                                                                pure water
germanium allow feeble cur-         more widely than Direct Cur-
rents to pass through them          rent.
resistance to the electric current
and they are known as semi-         ac (alternating current) is more
and melts at a fairly low tem-
conductors.                         dangerous than dc (direct cur-
perature. The fuse wire must
Air without moisture (dry air)      rent).
have a low melting point.
is an insulator.                    Usually the air inside an elec-
A fuse wire is used to prevent
tric bulb is removed because
The unit of electric charge is                                              an unduly high electric cur-
when the filament (tungsten) is
Coloumb. It is equal to the                                                 rent to pass through a circuit.
heated in the presence of air, it
charge of 6.25×1018 electrons.                                              Capacitor is a device used to
forms oxide by combining with
Ch arg e                                                      store electrical energy but it
Current                           oxygen present in the air and
is not a device to store elec-
tric charge.
A high current is produced in       Nichrome is used as a heating
The emf or potential difference
a low resistance circuit when       element in many appliance be-
measured in volt is called volt-
two wires of main comes in          cause it has high resistivity and
age.
contact with each other. This       it resists oxidation in air when
red hot.                                A convenient unit to measure
is called short circuiting.
An electric bulb makes a bang           electric power is the kilowatt
Electric bulbs are filled with
when it is broken because there         hour (kwh). This is often sim-
gases like argon, neon,
is a vacuum inside the electric         ply called a unit.
nitrogen etc.
bulb. When the bulb is bro-             1 kwh = 1000 watt x 3600 sec-
When an isolated conducting
sphere is given a positive          ken air rushes in at a great            onds
charge, its mass decreases.         speed from all sides to fill the        In our houses, electric wiring
This is because, ‘giving            vacuum and this produces the            is done in parallel connection
positive change’means               sound.                                  so that all instruments in the
‘taking electrons out of it’.       To avoid overloading, a de-             house could get equal supply
The principle on which quartz       vice called a ‘fuse’ is inserted        of electricity.
crystal in watch works is peizo     in series with the circuit.             when two cells of e.m.f
electricity. Peizo electricity is   The fuse is a piece of wire             ‘V’volts each are connected
the property of some crystals       made of financial Lead.                 in series the effective emf is
to develop an electromotive         The fuse offers a great deal of         V+V=2Vvolts
DeputyCollectorRankFile
When one cell is reversed ,the     is connected in the live wire      Germanium, silicon, carbon
effective emf is V-V=0 volts,      Along with fluorescent tubes       etc are semi conductors.
ie, zero volts.                    are fitted with a choke. Here      A transistor transfers a sig-
In parallel connection of          the choke coil steps up the        nal from a low resistance to
equal emf cells,whatever be        line voltage.                      high resistance .
the number of cells used the       An electrical appliance is         The word transistor came
effective emf will be equal to     earthed to prevent shock           from the process of transfer
the emf of a single cell.          One should not connect a           and the resistor.
When we want a stronger cur-       number of electrical appli-        ELINT is electronic intelli-
rent for a longer time parallel    ances to the same power            gence.
connection is used.                socket because this can dam-       Triode was invented by Lee
A source of emf containing         age the domestic wiring due        De Forest.
two or more cells is called a      to over heating                    IC chip is a circuit which
battery.                           A capacitor (condenser) is         performs the functions of
In a dry cell the negative         used to store electric charge      transistors, diodes, resistors,
electrode(cathode) is zinc and     "Hydro Power" is the term          condensers etc altogether.
positive electrode(anode) is       used for electricity produced      The largest IC chip manu-
carbon rod.                        through water                      facturing company in the
The emf of a voltaic cell is       Electricity for domestic pur-      world is INTEL.
1volt.                             pose is measured in kWh            Electrons are carriers of
The emf of a dry cell is 1.5       The power of ordinary torch        current in a npn transistor.
volts.                             cell is 1.5 volt.                  Holes are the carriers of
Colour of the light of sodium      In the rechargable batteries       current in a pnp transistor.
vapour lamp is yellow.             used in touch light, electric-     The frequencies transmitted
Colour of the light of chlorine    shavers etc. nickel and cad-       by a TV station is called
vapour lamp is green.              mium are used as electrodes.       channel.
Light of nitrogen vapour lamp                                         Soft X-rays are X-rays having
is red.                           ELECTRONICS                         high wavelength and low
Light of mercury vapour lamp                                          energy. As these are absorbed
Electronics is the study of
is white.                                                             by body tissues they are not
nature, control and applica-
Light of neon vapour lamp is                                          used in taking photographs of
tion of electrons.
orange red.                                                           internal organs.
Light of hydrogen vapour           Modem is Modulator De-             X-rays       having       short
lamp is blue.                      modulator.                         wavelength but high energy
In our houses we get 220V          Rectifiers are used to convert     are called hard X-rays. These
ac.The value 220 represents        Alternating Current (AC) to        are used in the photography
effective voltage                  Direct Current (DC).               of internal organs.
The advantage of ac over dc        An electronic oscillator is a      In order to study internal
is that it can be transmitted      device which converts DC           atomic structure of crystals,
over long distances with mini-     energy into AC energy.             we use X-rays
mum power loss                     Silicon is used in solar cells.    “IC” chips for computers are
Resistance of carbon decrea        Materials whose resistivity        usually made of Silicon
ses with increase of tempera-      lies in between conductors        The process which makes the
ture.                              and insulators are called semi    current to pass in the same
In an electrical circuit a fuse    conductors.                       direction is called rectification
DeputyCollectorRankFile
TELECOMMUNI-                         Alexander Graham Bell in-
CATION                      vented the telephone.
A revolution in wireless tele-    The first commercial tele-
communications began in the       phone services were set up in
first decade of the 20th cen-     1878 and 1879 on both sides
tury, with Guglielmo Marconi      of the Atlantic.
winning the Nobel Prize in        Telex means Teleprinter Ex-
Physics in 1909 for his pio-      change.
neering developments in wire-     INTELSAT (International
The first commercial electrical   Organisation), with its head-
telegraph was constructed by      quarters in Washington DC,
Sir Charles Wheatstone and        was established on February
Sir William Fothergill Cooke,     12, 1973. It operates space
and its use began on 1839.        equipment and earth stations
Optical fibre provides cheaper
owned by telecommunication
bandwidth for long distance
entities in each country.                  communication
INTELSAT’S 13 satellite sys-
thirds of the world’s interna-
Samuel Morse
tional telecommunication ser-
Samuel Finley Breese
vices to more than 140 coun-         Morse was an American
tries including India.            contributor to the invention
In 1901, Guglielmo Marconi              Father of cybernetics -              of a single-wire telegraph
established wireless communi-           Norbert Weiner                     system based on European
Newfoundland and Poldhu,                and Ranging.                              the Morse code.
Cornwall (England), earning             RADAR is a device that uses
him the Nobel Prize in Phys-
radio waves to detect the po-
ics for 1909                                                            NUCLEAR PHYSICS
sition of objects such as
aeroplanes, missiles etc.             A Geiger Counter or Geiger -
The Nobel Prize in                Radar was invented byAlbert H.        Muller Counter is used for de-
Physics 2010                 Taylor and Leo C. Young.              tecting and measuring radia-
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010       The first telecommunications          tion.
was awarded jointly to Russian
device was the telegraph.             Radio-Carbon Dating or Car-
born scientists, Andre Geim and
bon dating, widely employed to
Konstantin Novoselov “for ground      A television camera takes 25 or
30 electronic photographs             determine the age of fossils of
breaking experiments regarding
(called frames) of a scene ev-        animals or plants. The radio-iso-
the two dimensional material
tope carbon-14 is used in Car-
graphene”, a super-thin and           ery second.
bon dating process.
strong form of carbon with high       Hybrid computers are a com-
conductivity that can be used for                                           Chain reaction is a self sus-
bination of the analog and            taining series of nuclear fis-
touch screens and light panels.
digital computers.                    sions, each one started by
DeputyCollectorRankFile
n
Nuclear Fuosino                                                 232 which becomes lead-208;
and Fissi                                                   rubidium-87 which changes
avily wei gh ed                    into strontium-87; and potas-
ess   of fo  rmation of a he                             ed
The   pr oc                                     or e low wei gh                    sium-40 which changes into
s by  th e  fu si on of two or m                  th  e m os t likely
nucl eu                        fu si on  . O  n earth,                              argon-40.
nucl    ea  r                                       rium and
nucleus is ca lled                   –T  ri ti um   reaction . Deute                     Nuclear fusion is also known
is Deute     ri um                                     of nucl eus of
fusion reaction                        hy dr og  en  . The splitting                        as thermo-nuclear reaction
th isotopes      of                                       ed nucl ear
Tritium are bo                           vi ng  eq   ua l weigh t is ca ll                    because it demands extremely
o pieces     ha                                             Nuclear
an atom into tw                        di sc ov   er ed nuclear fission.                   high temperatures.
ahn in 19       39                                         ons in the
fission. Otto H                     a m  as si ve   nu cl eus into phot                    A breeder reactor is that which
litt in g of                                                   ic
fi ssion is the sp                                             other subatom               produces more fissionable
m a   ra ys , fr ee  neutrons, an d                ese  tw o
form of gam                                       between th                          material than it burns.
m ai n differen ce
pa rt icles. The                ssion is the sp
li tt ing of an              The enormous energy re-
se s  is  th at  fi
pr oces                          more smaller on
es                  leased in an atomic explosion
atom in to two or                    th e                               is due to the conversion of
while fusi on is
mass into energy.
Neutron is used to trigger-off
neutrons emitted in a previ-                                                                 the nuclear fission reaction.
Alpha particles () are posi-          Atom bomb is an example of
ous fission.
tively charged. Basically           nuclear fission reaction, while
Proton was discovered by                              rays are Helium nuclei.
Rutherford.                                                                                  Hydrogen bomb is that of
Gamma rays are electromag-             nuclear fusion reaction.
Electron was discovered by                            netic radiation emitted by the         More energy is produced in a
J.J.Thomson.                                          nuclei of radioactive ele-             fusion reaction than fission
James Chadwick discovers the                          ments.                                 reaction.
neutron.                                              A tracer is minute amount of           The monozite found abunda-
Out of the three radiations -                         a radioisotope, added to a             ntly in coastal areas of Kerala
alpha, beta, and gamma,                               large amount of non-radioac-           contains thorium.
gamma radiation is most pen-                          tive isotopes of elements.             The temperature required for
etrating.                                             Half-life is the time taken for        the maintenance of fusion is
Enriched uranium is uranium                           half of any amount of a radio-         about 350000000°C.
with more of the isotope of                           active isotope to decay.
Uranium - 235.                                        Radiocarbon 'carbon - 14'                   ATOMIC
The age of rocks may be cal-                          has a half-life of 5,730 years.          REACTORS
culated through radioactive                           Isotopes used in dating rocks
dating using uranium iso-                             include Uranium-235 which              Nuclear power is the fourth-
topes.                                                                                       largest source of electricity in
India after thermal, hydro and
Power Plant                                        Location                    State            renewable sources of elec-
Narora Atomic Power Station                        Narora                      Uttar Pradesh    tricity.
Rajasthan Atomic Power Station                     Rawatbhata                  Rajasthan        In 2010, India has 19 nuclear
Tarapur Atomic Power Station                       Tarapur                     Maharashtra      power plants in operation
generating 4,560 MW while 4
Kakrapar Atomic Power Station                      Kakrapar                    Gujarat
other are under construction.
Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant                     Kudankulam                  Tamilnadu
The first atomic reactor in In-
dia is 'Apsara' in Trombay
Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant                          Kaiga                       Karnataka        (Maharashtra)
DeputyCollectorRankFile
NPCIL                      The original fuel in the fast     travelled by light in one year
Nuclear Power Corporation              breeder reactor is plutonium      through space.
of India Limited is a Public           and uranium oxides or car-        1 light year = 9.46×10 12
Sector Enterprise under the                                              Kilometres
bides.
administrative control of the                                            1 Parsec = 3.26 light years
Department of Atomic Energy            Cadmium rod is used in a re-      A galaxy is a vast collection of
(DAE), Government of India.            actor to absorb neutrons.         billions of stars, dust and
The main objective of NPCI             Willers Frank Liby discov-        hydrogen gas isolated in space
is operating the atomic power          ered carbon dating.               from similar systems.
stations and implementing              Coal is the most important raw    Galaxies are the building
the atomic power projects for                                            blocks of the universe.
material for thermal power
generation of electricity
plant.                            The sun and the eight planets
Flyash is a waste product of      belong to the milky way galaxy,
whose Indian name is Akash-
India's first breeder reactor is     thermal power plants.
Ganga.
set up at the place known as         Cobalt-60 is commonly used
Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu.                                               Milky way is a spiral shaped
in radio therapy because it       galaxy. There are nearly 1011
The early reactors were              emits beta rays which has         stars in the galaxy.
known as Atomic Piles.
more energy than the X-rays.      Among numerous dim stars in
Heavy water , graphite and                                             the sky, there are some groups
neutrons are used as modera-       SPACE PHYSICS                       of bright stars. These groups
tor in nuclear reactors.                                               of stars stars. These groups
Coolant is a fluid used in         Space exploration began with        of stars forms certain shapes
nuclear reactors to remove the      the launching of Russia’s          or patterns and are called
heat produced in the core.          Sputnik-1 into space on            constellations. The conste-
The coolant used in fast            October 4, 1957.                   llations were given the name
breeder reactors is generally      Sputnik-2 carried a dog             of the figures they resembled.
liquid sodium.                      ‘Laika’to space.                   There are 89 constellations.
Heavy water is used as a cool-     The U.S.A. entered the space        The largest of these is Hydra,
ant as well as a moderator          arena on January 31, 1958 with     which contains at least 68 stars
for nuclear reactors.               the launching of the Explorer-1.   visible to the naked eye.
The moderator in a nuclear          This satellite is credited with    A satellite is a heavenly body
making the important               that rotates around a planet.
reactor slows down the fast
discovery of the Van Allen         Venus is the brightest object
moving neutrons.
radiation belts around the         in the night sky, leaving out the
The commonly used modera-           earth, where electrons and         moon. It is visible either in the
tors are graphite, heavy water      protons from the sun are           early morning in the eastern
and berilium.                       trapped by earth’s magnetic        sky or in the early evening in
The main source of solar en-        field.                             the western sky and is called
ergy is nuclear fusion.            The extremely large distances       “morning star” and “evening
between the various heavenly       star”.
The fast breeder reactor gets       bodies like the stars and          Sun is our nearest star. It is a
its name from the fact that it      planets can be expressed in        hot sphere of gas - 74%
utilizes excess free neutrons       terms of two units namely light    hydrogen, 25% helium and 1%
to breed new fissionable ma-        year and parsec.                   other elements.
terial.                            One light year is the distance      The sun is at a distance of 8
DeputyCollectorRankFile
light minutes from the earth. ie,     Communication Technology is             light travels in one year at the
it takes about 8 minutes for          located at Ahmedabad.                   speed of 3,00,000 km/sec.
light to travel from the sun to       The credit for starting space           Astronomical Unit is another
the earth.                            science research in India goes          unit of distance in space. It is
An asteroid is an irregular,          to Vikram Sarabhai.                     the mean distance between
rocky hunk, small both in size        Moon has no atmosphere                  earth and Sun. One light year
and in mass compared to a             because its gravity is not              contains nearly 63282 Astro-
plannet.                              sufficient for any atmosphere           nomical Units.
In the belt which lies between        to held on to it.                       Par sec (Parallactic second) is
Mars and Jupiter there are            All stars have idential chemi-          yet another unit of distance in
thousands of minor planets or         cal composition but they differ
asteroids.                                                                    space. One par second is equal
in surface temperatures. This           to 3.08x1016m.
Ceres is the largest known            is the reason for the difference
asteroid.                                                                     Lambert is the unit of inten-
in spectra of stars.
Meteor is the streak of light                                                 sity of light.
The outward stream of protons
observed in the sky. They are                                                 Pascal is the unit of pressure.
and electrons on the surface
formed when a particle of             the sun during solar flares and         Angstrom is the unit of the
matter enters the earth’s             sun-spot activity constitute            wave length of light.
atmosphere and become                 the solar wind.                         Poise is the unit of viscosity
incandescent as a result of                                                   of fluid.
friction with atmospheric                 UNITS AND                           Curie and Rutherford are unit
atoms and molecules. Meteor        MEASUREMENTS                               of radio activity.
are also called shooting stars.
Unit of Plane angle is radian
Stars twinkle because of            The purest form of gold is 24              Unit of solid angle is steradian
refraction of light.                  carats. Ornaments are usually            Newton is the unit of force
The tail of a comet points away       made of 22 carat gold. One               Joule is the unit of energy and
from the sun. This is due to          metric carat is equal to 200
work
Unit of power is watt
The colour of a star is an          The weight of precious
indication of its temperature.                                                 Hertz is the unit of frequency
gems are also measured                   Coulomb is the unit of electric
The plannet that has got a well
developed set of rings is             in carat.                                charge
saturn.                             One gallon is equal to 4.546               Unit of electric capacitance is
station is situated at Srihari-     One horse power is equal to 746            Ohm is the unit of electric re-
kota.                                 watts.                                   sistance
When a person is orbiting in a      Light year is a unit of distance           Becquerel is the unit of radio
used in astronomy.                       activity
satellite, his weight becomes
zero.                               Light year is the distance that            Henry is the unit of inductance
The ink of the pen leaks out in
an aeroplane because pressure        Several systems of unit have been in use for describing measurement.
of ink inside is more than the      The common systems are the C.G.S. system (centimeter, gram, second);
ambient pressure.                   the F.P.S. system (foot, pound, second) which is the British system, the
The Space Application Centre            MKS system (meter, kilogram & second) and now internationally
for training in Satellite             accepted is the System International Units, abbreviated as S.I. units.
DeputyCollectorRankFile
Quantity                                                                                 Unit          Weber is the unit of magnetic
Length .......................................................................... Metre (m)            flux
Mass ...................................................................... Kilogram (kg)              Lumen is the unit of luminous
Time ........................................................................... Second (s)            flux
Electric Charge .......................................................... Ampere (A)                  Lux is the unit of illuminance
Temperature ................................................................. Kelvin (K)               Unit of electric conductance
Frequency.................................................................... Hertz (Hz)               is Siemens
Force, Weight ............................................................. Newton (N)                Joule is the unit of work.
Work, Heat .......................................................................... Joule           Dyne is the unit of force.
Power, Radiant flux ........................................................ Watt (W)                 Newton is yet another unit of
Pressure, Stress ........................................................... Pascal (Pa)              force.
5
Electric charge or flux ..................................................... Coulomb (C)             One newton = 10 dynes
Electrical potential difference, Electromotive force (emf) ..... Volt (V)                             Centigrade, Fahrenheit are
Electric resistance, ................................................................ Ohm             the units of temperature.
Electric capacitance ........................................................ Farad (F)               Degree is the unit of angle.
Magnetic flux ............................................................ Weber (Wb)                 Mho is the unit of conduc-
Magnetic flux density, magnetic induction ....................... Tesla (T)                           tance.
Inductance ................................................................... Henry (H)               Fathom is the unit of depth of
Electrical conductance ..................................................... Siemens                   the sea. One fathom is equal
Radioactivity......................................................... Becquerel (Bq)                  to 6 feet.
Catalytic activity ................................................................. Katal             In India, National Physical
Thermodynamic temperature .................................. Degree Celsius                            Laboratory of NewDelhi is re-
Derived Units                                                                                          sponsible for the maintenance
Area ................................................................. square metre (m2)               and improvement of physical
Volume ....................................................................... cubic metre             standards of length and time.
Speed, velocity........................................ metre per second (m·s-1)                       Solar day is the period be-
Acceleration ................................. metre per second squared(m/s2)                          tween noons of two consecu-
Jerk ............................................... metre per second cubed (m·s-3)                    tive days.
Angular velocity .............................................. radian per second
Momentum .................................................. Newton second (N·s)                      BRANCHES OF
Torque, moment of force ......................................... Newton metre
Wavenumber ...................................................... Reciprocal metre                          SCIENCE
density, mass density ................. kilogram per cubic metre (kg·m-3)
Actinology
specific volume ....................................... cubic metre per kilogram
entropy ...................................................... joule per kelvin (J·K-1)                A branch of science which
electric field strength ............................................... volt per metre                 deals with the chemical effects
magnetic field strength ....................................... ampere per metre                       of electromagnetic radiation.
molar energy .......................................................... joule per mole           Aerodynamics
specific energy .................................................. joule per kilogram                  The study of the motion and
energy density ............................................. joule per cubic metre                     control of solid bodies (eg. air
surface tension .................................................. newton per metre                    craft, rockets, missiles etc) in
thermal conductivity..................................... watt per metre kelvin                        air.
dynamic viscosity .................................................. pascal second               Aeronautics
electric charge density ............................ coulomb per cubic metre                           A branch of science which
electric current density ............................ ampere per square metre                          deals with flight through air.
steridan ................................................................................. rad2        The branch of physics con-
DeputyCollectorRankFile
cerned with the physical prop-                      forces which change their                      which deals with effect of
erties of celestial bodies and                      motion.                                        motion without reference to
the interaction between mat-                  Electronics                                          mass or force.
ter and energy with them.                           A branch of science dealing           Optics
Astronautics                                              with the study and develop-                    It is the branch of physics
The scientific study of travel                      ment of circuit involving ther-
dealing with the study of light.
outside the Earth’s atmo-                           mionic values, semi conduc-
tors and other electrical com-        Rheology
sphere.                                                                                            The study of the deformation
ponents like resistance, ca-
Audiology                                                                                                and flow of matter.
pacitors, inductances etc.
The science of hearing                                                                    Solid state Physics
Electrostatics
Ballistics                                                The study of the effects as-                   The branch of physics which
The study of path (motion) of                       sociated with electric charge                  deals with the nature and prop-
projectiles.                                        at rest.                                       erties of matter in the solid
Cosmology                                           Fluidics                                             state.
The science of the nature, ori-                     The study and use of fluid            Statistical Mechanics
gin and history of the uni-                         flow through pipes in an analo-
The study of the mechanical
verse.                                              gous way to the flow of elec-
Crystallography                                                                                          properties of large assemblies
tric current through circuits.
The study of structure of                     Holography                                           of particles or components in
crystals.                                           Science of recording three di-                 terms of statistics.
Dynamics                                                  mensional image of an object.         Tribogy
The study of the behaviour of                 Kinematics                                           The study of friction and lu-
bodies under the action of                          The branch of mechanics                        brication.
Famous scientists and invention
Galileo Galilei ........ Discovered the phases of Venus,                Alessandro Volta .......................... Battery (Electric)
the four satellites of Jupiter Io, Europa,           Kirkpatrick Macmillan .................................. Bicycle
Callisto, and Ganymede        Tennant ...................................... Bleaching Powder
Christiaan Huygens ............................ Wave theory             Edwin T. Holmes ................................ Burglar Alarm
Sir Isaac Newton ............. Newton's Laws of Motion,                 John Harrison ..................................... Chronometer
Universal gravitation, Calculus          Nicolas & Jean Lumiere ................................ Cinema
Benjamin Franklin ......... Discovered the two electric                 Wilmut ...................................... Cloning, (Mammal)
charges, 'positive' and 'negative'.          Rudolf Diesel .................................... Diesel Engine
James Watt ........... Modern condenser steam engine                    Thomas Alva Edison ........................... Electric Lamp
Michael Faraday ............ Electro magnetic induction                 Henry W. Seely ................................... Electric Iron
Sir Chandrasekhara Raman ..... Scattering of light and                   J.J.Thomson. ............................................ Electron
found the Raman effect        Lewis E. Waterman ............................. Fountain Pen
Nikola Tesla ............................... Alternating current        Thomas Alva Edison ........................... Gramophone
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit .................. Determined the             Denis Gason .......................................... Holograph
temperature scale called Fahrenheit scale               Edward Teller ................................. Hydrogen Bomb
Christian Doppler ............................. Doppler effect          Sir Frank Whittle .................................... Jet Engine
James Chadwick ......................................... neutron        Theodore Maiman ......................................... Laser
J. Robert Oppenheimer ......................... Atom Bomb               Elisha G. Otis ................................ Lift (Mechanical)
Dalton ............................................. Atomic Theory      Benjamin Franklin ..................... Lighting Conductor
Carrier .......................................... Air Conditioning     John Logie Baird .................. Mechanical Television
Evangelista Torricelli ............................... Barometer        Rutherford .................................................. Proton-
DeputyCollectorRankFile

BIOLOGY
Father of Biology : Aristotle.                      Father of Important Branches
Biology is a natural science
concerned with the study of
Aristotle ............................................. Father of Natures History/
life and living organisms,
including their structure,                                                                             Father of Biology
function, growth, origin,            Alexander Fleming ....................................... Father of Antibiotics
evolution, distribution, and         Carolus Linnaeus .......................................... Father of Taxonomy
taxonomy.
The term ‘ Biology’ is coined        Edward Jenner ........................................... Father of Immunology
by a French naturalist Jean          Louis Pasteur .......................................... Father of Microbiology
Lamarck.                             Rudolph Virchow .......................................... Father of Pathology
Fundamental axioms of modern
Robert Hook ................................................ Father of Sightology
biology:
1. Cells are the basic unit of       Robert Koch ............................................. Father of Bacteriology
life                              William Harvey .................................. Father of Blood Circulation
2. New species and inherited         W.M.Stanley ................................................... Father of Virology
traits are the product of
Ivan Pavlov ..................................... Father of Conditioned Reflex
evolution
3. Genes are the basic unit of       Ernst Von Baer .............................. Father of Modern Embryology
heredity
4. An organism will regulate            Human cells have 23 pairs                           definite membrane bound
its internal environment to          (46number) of chromosomes.                          nucleus Eg : Bacteria, Blue -
maintain a stable and                The cell with longest life span                     green algae. In eukaryotes,
constant condition                   in our body is Nerve Cells                          there is a nucleus with definite
5. Living organisms consume            The average size of the cell is                      double membrane.
and transform energy.                                                                    Plasma membranes are
3-30 microns (1 micron = 1/1000
composed of phospholipids
The CELL                        mm).
and protein.
1.   Cell wall - found only in plant
Cell is the smallest and               cells. It consists of non-living                     Cytosol - it is the soluble
fundamental unit of life.              substances.                                          material in embryonic cell in
The smallest cell size is of a         eg: lignin, pectin, cellulose etc.                   which various organelles are
bacteria.                         2.   Cell membranes (plasmale-                            embedded.
The largest cell is of an ostrich      mma)                                          3.     Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
egg.                                   It is the outer membrane of the                      A network of tubes or channels
The largest human cell is the         cytoplasm found both in                              of membrane in the cytoplasm
ovum. (.2mm)                          animals and plants. It is made                       which helps in protein
Nerve cell(neuron) is the             of protein.                                          synthesis and conduction of
longest cell.                         In prokaryotes, there is no                          materials.
DNA & RNA                                          11. Nucleus: The nucleus controls
all cell activities and enclose
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid )and RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) are                    the nucleoplasm. Nucleus is
two different nucleic acids found in the cells of every living organ-
responsible for transfer of
ism. Both have significant roles to play in cell biology.
heredity characteristics.
DNA is found mainly in the nucleus of the cell, while RNA is found
12. Centrosome: A rather dense
mainly in the cytoplasm of the cell.
DNA contains the genetic codes to make RNA and the RNA in turn                area of protoplasm, lies close
then contains the codes for the primary sequence of amino acids               to nucleus.
to make proteins.                                                             Plant cell is different from
Within the cell structure, DNA is organized into structures called            animal cell as it contains cell
chromosomes, which are duplicated during cell division. These                 wall surrounding plasma
chromosomes would then release the genetic codes that will be                 membrane and chloroplasts
transcribed and carried by the RNA to the ribosome. The ribosome              and devoid of centrioles which
will then synthesize new proteins that will help the body grow.               is seen only in animal cells.
(ATP) provides energy for all
double- membrane bound                 kinds of activities of a cell.
4.  Ribosomes: Externally small,            organelle. The inner membrane
ATP is called the ‘universal
dense, granular, spherical              is thrown into folds called
cristae to increase the surface        biological energy currency'.
bodies found in free state in                                                  ATP synthesis takes place in
the cytoplasm, composed of              area.
8. Peroxisomes and glyoxysomes               mitochondrion.
RNA and proteins. They help
are known as microbodies.              Energy is stored in the mito-
in synthesis of proteins.
They are enzyme bags.                  chondria as ATP molecules.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
9. Lysosomes are known as                    The physical basis of life is
is the normal ‘ER’ with
“suicide bags”, as they                'protoplasm'.
ribosomes attached to it.
contain hydrolysing enzymes.           Chromosome is made up of
Nucleus contains nucleoli and
Occasionally they digest the           DNA & Proteins.
nucleoli are the centres of the         whole cell or part of it.              Chromosomes, other than the
synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
10. Plastids: Small bodies found             sex chromosomes, are called
5.  Golgi bodies: Bag like                  in the cells of higher plants.         autosomes.
structures       formed        of       They are of many types.
membranes. Their functions                                                     The ribosomes are chiefly
Chloroplasts : are the centres         concerned with the synthesis
include secretion of various            of photosynthetic activity. It is
substances.                                                                    of protein.
found only in photosynthetic
6.  Vacuole: A fluid filled sac             plant cell. Chloroplast is a               Types of cells
within a cell. The watery fluid         green plastid.
enclosed in the vacuole is                                                    Prokaryotes: Prokaryotes lack
Chloroplasts have double              a nucleus (though they do
called ‘Cell Sap’. It is slightly       membrane, lamellae or
acidic or neutral. Osmo-                                                      have circular DNA) and other
thylakoids which absorb solar
regulation is the main function                                               membrane-bound organelles
energy and pigments like
7.  Mitochondria: Rod like or               chlorophylls and carotenoids.         (though they do contain
spherical, semi solid structures                                              ribosomes). Bacteria and
i) Leucoplasts: Colourless
containing DNA. They                          starch storing particles        Archaea are two domains of
synthesise A.T.P (Adenosine             ii) Chromoplasts: Are                 prokaryotes.
Tri phosphate)                                coloured particles which        Eukaryotes: Eukaryotes, on
Mitochondria is the power                     give colour to fruits and       the other hand, have distinct
house of the cell. It is also a               flowers.                        nuclei bound by a nuclear
membrane and membrane-
bound organelles (mitochon                  Diseases caused by Bacteria
dria, chloroplasts, lysosomes,
Leprosy, Tetanus, Whooping Cough, Typhoid Fever, Paratyphoid
rough and smooth endoplas
Fever, Cholera, Plague, Tuberculosis, Meningitis, Bacterial
mic reticulum, vacuoles). In
Pneumonia, Diarrhoea, Diphtheria, Bacterial dysentry, Anthrax,
Syphilis and Gonorrhoea.
organized chromosomes
which store genetic material.
Fungal Diseases
Cell Division                 Microorganisms live in all parts
of the biosphere where there             in Human
Cell division is the process by
is liquid water, including soil,   Ringworm
which a parent cell divides into
two or more daughter cells. Cell   hot springs, on the ocean floor,   Tinea
division is usually a small        high in the atmosphere and         Athelete’s foot
segment of a larger cell cycle.    deep inside rocks within the       Madura foot
Cell cycle is composed of three    Earth's crust.                     Dhobie itch
phases- interphase, mitosis,       Bacteria were first observed by
cytokinesis.                       Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in
Mitosis means the division of      1676.                              A virus is a small infectious
nucleus and cytokinesis            The name bacterium was             agent that can replicate only
means the cytoplasmic              introduced much later, by          inside the living cells of
division.                          Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg      organisms.
Two kinds of Cell Division :       in 1838.                           All viruses are nucleoprotein
Mitosis and Meiosis.               Bacteria are microscopic           particles and contain either
Mitosis occur in body cells,       unicellular       prokaryotic      DNA or RNA. The genetic
results in formation of two        organism and lack of membrane      material inside the viruses is
daughter cells with equal          bound nucleus and organelles.      protected by a protein coat
number of chromosomes.             Bacteria are eventually placed     called ‘capsid’.
Meiosis Occurs in repro            in a Kingdom Monera.               Viruses lack the cellular
ductive cells. It causes a         Reproduction in bacteria is        organisation of the living
reduction in number of             largely asexual by binary          organism, but make use of the
chromosomes in the cell.           fission.                           cellular machinery of the host
Respiration of bacteria are        cell to multiply themselves.
Micro Organisms
aerobic and anaerobic.             A complete viral particle
The study of microorganisms        Bacteria display a wide            capable of infection is called a
is called microbiology.            diversity of shapes and sizes,     ‘virion’.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek's            called morphologies.               ‘Viroids’ are newly found
discovered microorganisms in       Bacteriophages are viruses         group of pathogenic agents,
1675, using a microscope of his    eating (destroying) bacteria       much smaller than the viruses.
own design.                        and were invented by               The study of viruses is known
Microorganisms are very            d’Herelle.                         as virology, a sub-speciality of
diverse; they include bacteria,    Bacteriology is the study of       microbiology.
fungi, archaea, and protists;      bacteria.                          The study of viruses is known
microscopic plants (green          ‘Virus’ the term is coined by      as virology, a sub-speciality of
algae); and animals such as        M.W. Beigerinck, a Dutch           microbiology.
plankton and the planarian.        microbiologist.                     L.S.D. (Lysergic acid diethy-
vital for
lamide) is obtained from a        Photosynthesis is              Pho-
Smallest seeds Orchid seeds
fungi, called Ergot.              all ae  robic life on Earth.                Largest leaf      Victoria regia
ocess that
Smallest Cell - Pleuro Pneumo-     tosynthesis is a pr                        India's national flower Lotus
oxide into
nia Like Organism (PPLO). It       converts carbon di                         Largest flower Rafflesia
ds, espe-
is a mycoplasma.                    or ga ni c compoun                        Smallest flower Wolffia
the energy
cially sugars, using                      Oldest living plant of the world
HIV is an RNA virus.                                       osynthesis
from sunlight. Phot
algae, and          Pinus
Smallest living thing - Virus       occurs in plan ts,
ria. Pho-
many species of bacte                    Study of trees- dentrology
Kingdom                         tosynthesis uses ca
rbon diox-        Largest trees in plant world -
Classification                                            asing oxy-
ide and water, rele                      Conifers
uct.
Five kingdom classification was        gen as a waste prod
developed by R.H.Whittaker.                                                       Nitrogen Fixation means
The five kingdoms are Monera,            phyta (slime molds) and
Eumycophyta (True fungi)                 conversion of atmospheric
Protista, Fungi, Plants and
The true fungi is characterised          nitrogen        into      useful
Animals.
by a definite cellular body              compounds like nitrates with
Kingdom Monera                              composed of filaments called             the help of bacteria and fungi.
Monera includes prokaryotic              mycelium. The individual                 The biological nitrogen
cells. Eg : True bacteria, Fun-          mycelium filaments is called             fixation is done by nitrogen
gus-like bacteria i.e. ‘Autono-          hyphae.                                  fixing bacteria such as
my cetales’, Blue - green algae          Water moulds, bread moulds,              Rhizobium Nostoc and
(cyanobacteriae).                        club fungi are examples.                 Azetobactor.
Antibiotic drugs like strepto-           Ascospores or basidiospores              Plants absorb the element
mycin, erythromycin etc. are             are the products of sexual               nitrogen in the form of nitrates.
obtained from actinomycetes is           reproduction in Fungi.                   Cyanobacteria is a blue green
Kingdom Monera.                                                                   algae.
The Plant Kingdom                               The profuse amount of pollen
Kingdom Protista
Plants are the primary                   grains liberated by pine forests
They are unicellular or colonial         producers in nature.                     at the time of pollination during
eukaryotes. Reproduction is              Flora is the plants of a particular
the months of March-April is
both sexual and asexual.                 region and Fauna is the animals          referred to as ‘Sulphur
Motility is by Flagella, have
of a particular region. Flora and        Showers.’’
diverse nutritional habits. Eg :
Fauna together constitute the            Araucaria embricate, a
Euglena, Dinoflagellates,
plants and animals of a region.          gymnosperm plant is commonly
diatoms etc.
The part of the earth and its            known as ‘Monkey’s Puzzle’
Kingdom Fungi                               atmosphere that is capable of            Litmus is obtained from a
Multi       nucleate,      non-          supporting living things is the          lichen.
photosynthetic, non- motile              biosphere.                               Lichen is an association of
organisms. Reproduction is by            Biosphere is divided into                fungus and algae.
both asexual and sexual means.           Lithosphere, Hydrosphere,                Turmeric is obtained from the
Two divisions - myxomyco                 Atmosphere etc.                          stem of plant.
Cloves are dried flower buds
of plant syzygium aromaticum.
King of fruits - Mango
Potato is a tuber crop.
Poorman’s orange - Tomato
The native place of potato is
Poorman's wood - bamboo
America
in their environment are called
Subdisciplines of botanyp production
saprophytes
Classification of Plant Kingdom
of plant science to cro
Agronomy: Application                                                          1. Rhodophyta (Red algae): Are
orts, and hornworts
Bryology: Mosses, liverw                                     or value              mostly multicellular marine
of plants of economic use
Economic botany: Study                                       nts                   plants. Their reddish colour is
p between humans and pla
Ethnobotany: Relationshi                          stu dies                         due to a pigment, phycoery
ent and related
Forestry: Forest managem                                                           thrin.
plants
Horticulture: Cultivated                                                       2. Phaeophyta (Brown Algae):
of lichens
Lichenology: The study                                                            Are multicellular marine plants
Paleobotany: Fossi   l pla nts                                                    growing on rocks or attached
res                                               to sea shores. Their brownish
Palynology: Pollen and spo
colour is due to xanthophyll
Phycology: Algae                                           d ch em ical
secondary ch emistry an                             pigment called fucoxanthin.
Phytochemistry: Plant
3. Chlorophyta (Green Algae):
proce sse s
eases                                              Are a group of bright green
Phytopathology: Plant dis
d tissue structure                                    aquatic, unicellular plants.
Plant anatomy: Cell an
nts in the environment                        4. Bryophyta: Simple, non
Plant ecology: Role of pla                                                       vascular small plants grow in
inheritance in plants
Plant genetics: Genetic                                                          moist places. Thallus like plant
ucture and life cycles
Plant morphology: Str                                                           body is attached to the soil by
functions of plants
Plant physiology: Life                                       nts                rhizoids.
ification and naming of pla
Plant systematics: Class                                                        eg: Liver worts, horn worts,
mosses, etc.
one is Wolffia (duck weed).
Vanilla, a flavouring material, is                                            5. Lycopodophyta              (club
The largest sperms among
extracted from the fruit of an                                                    mosses):        Multicellular
plants are found in gymno-
orchid ‘Vanilla Planlifolia.’               sperms.                               terrestrial plants with vascular
Rubber is obtained from the                 In plants gaseous exchange            tissues.
latex of Hevea brasiliensis.                occur through stomata.            6. Arthrophyta (Horsetails): Are
The milky juice that oozes from             The roots which do not grow           multicellular plants with
some trees like rubber is known             from a main root (radicle) but        vascular tissues. Arthrophyta
as latex.                                   directly from the stem are called     are largely an extinct group
Cotton, jute, silk, wool, etc are           adventitious roots.                   represented by a single living
natural fibres and nylon is                 DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid)          genus, the Equisetum.
and RNA (Ribo Nucleic Acid)       7. Pterophyta (Ferns): Are
artificial fibre.
are the two kinds of nucleic
Sugarcane is a type of grass.                                                     multicellular plants with
acids.
The fruit sugar is fructose.                                                      vascular tissues; Here seeds
In a plant cell, DNA is found in
Tissue culture is the method of             chloroplast, mitochondria and         are not produced.
producing plants from minute                nucleus.                          Gymnosperm
plant fragments.                            Nepenthes, sundew, drosera,       8. Cycadophyta: Are multicellular
The wall of the plant cell is               etc. are some of the                  terrestrial plants with vascular
made of cellulose.The cellu-               insectivorous plants.                 tissues. The stem is large and
lose cannot be digested by                  Insectivorous plants obtain           woody, leaves are large and
human alimentary canal.                     nitrogen from animal bodies.          fern like.
The largest flower in the world             Organisms which obtain their          eg: cycas, zamia (sago tree),
is Rafflesia and the smallest               food from non living material         etc.
9.  Conifers: Are multicellular               Cultivations                      sine triphosphate (ATP).
plants with well developed                                                  Phosphorous is important in
Sericulture is rearing of silk
tissues. Leaves are simple,                                                 plant bioenergetics.
worms.
smaller and needle like.                                                    Potassium regulates the
Horticulture is the cultivation of
eg: Cedrus (deodar), Taxus                                                  opening and closing of the
(Yew), Pine                      flowers, fruits and ornamental
stomata by a potassium ion
pump.
flowering plants with well       Pisciculture is the art of rearing
Nitrogen is an essential
developed vascular tissues.      fishes.
component of all proteins.
They make up more than half      Silviculture is forest planting.
Apiculture means honey making.             Sulphur is a structural
of all known species of plants.
component of some amino
Flowering plants are divided     Viticulture is grape cultivation.
acids and vitamins, and is
into two classes – Dicotyle      Vermiculture is breeding of
dons (Dicots), Monocotyle                                                   essential in the manufacturing
worms useful to farmers.
dons (monocots).                                                            of chloroplasts.
Floriculture is cultivation of
Calcium regulates transport of
Other Classifications            flowering plants.
other nutrients into the plant
Terrestrial: Plants which          Arboriculture means cultivation
and is also involved in the
grow in soil.                    of tree and vegetables.
activation of certain plant
Hydrophytes: grow in water.                                                   enzymes. Calcium deficiency
Epiphytes: which perch on                                                     results in stunting.
other plants but do not take         necessary for growth.                  Magnesium is an important
nourishment from them.               There are 17 essential plant
part of chlorophyll, a critical
Xerophytes: Are adapted to             nutrients. Carbon and oxygen           plant pigment important in
grow in a dry habitat like           are absorbed from the air, while       photosynthesis.
deserts and can survive              other nutrients including water
without moisture.                                                       Micro nutrients
are obtained from the soil.            Iron is necessary for
eg: cacti
Macro Nutrients                             photosynthesis and is present
Mesophytes: thrive under
condition intermediate bet           Carbon: Carbon forms the               as an enzyme cofactor in
ween very wet and very dry.          backbone of many plants                plants. Iron deficiency can
The great variety of crops           biomolecules, including                result in interveinal chlorosis
such as beans, tomatoes, pear,       starches and cellulose. Carbon         and necrosis.
etc. belong to this category.        is fixed through photo-                Molybdenum is a cofactor to
Parasitic: which depend on             synthesis from the carbon              enzymes important in building
other     plants for their           dioxide in the air and is a part       amino acids.
nourishment. They lack               of the carbohydrates that store
Copper is important for
chlorophyll and thus cannot          energy in the plant.
photosynthesis.
make their own food.                 Hydrogen: Hydrogen also is
eg: bacteria, fungi.                 necessary for building sugars          Manganese is necessary for
Carnivorous plants: plants             and building the plant. It is          building the chloroplasts.
which trap insects and other         obtained almost entirely from          Zinc is required in a large
small creatures on their sticky      water.                                 number of enzymes and plays
leaves.                              Oxygen: Oxygen is necessary            an essential role in DNA
Plant Nutrition                  for cellular respiration. Cellular     transcription.
Plant nutrition is the study of      respiration is the process of          In higher plants, Nickel is
the chemical elements that are       generating energy-rich adeno-          essential for activation of
urease, an enzyme involved         from the base of the stem forming          in response to a touch or
with nitrogen metabolism that      the fibrous root system.                   shock stimulus.
is required to process urea.       Stem: Stem and leaves constitute      Living medium of plants
Chlorine is necessary for          the shoot system.
Habitat: The normal locality
osmosis and ionic balance; it             Plant Movements                    inhabited by a plant or animal,
also plays a role in photo-
Two types of movements are           particularly in relation to the
synthesis.
noted in plants.                     effect of its environmental
Tissues                        1.Growth           movements         factors.
1.   Parenchyma : thin - walled,             (irreversible) (2) Turgor            World habitat day - Ist
polyhedral cells with living            movements (reversible).              Monday of October.
protoplasm, metabolically most       Plants exhibits movements in            The vegetation of deserts is
active.                                 response to external stimulus        called xerophytes. eg: Opuntia.
2.   Collenchyma : Cell wall is made         like touchings,           light,     A hydrophyte is an aquatic
up of thin and thick portions           gravitation, water etc.              plant.
with thickening in the corners.          Chemical stimulus induced           Plants which grow in saline
Found below the epidermis                growth is called chemotro-          water are called Halophytes.
(stem skin).                             pism.                               Plants growing well in full
3.   Sclerenchyma:            highly      Bending of stem towards light           sunlight are called Helio-
thickened cell walls. So it is the       is due to phototropism.             phytes.
primary strengthening tissue                                                 Plants which grow luxuriantly
Phototropism means move-
found in mature plants. No                                                   in rainy season and shed all
ments of P plan ts towards
living protoplasm, some of                                                   leaves in summer are called
light.
these are highly elongated                                                   Tropophytes.
The movement of plant or-
called fibres.                                                               Oxylophytes : plants growing
gans in response to the force
on acidic soil.
Complex Tissues                        of gravity is called as geotro-
Lithophytes: plants growing
Xylem - primarily a conducting              pism.
on rocks.
tissue meant for transport of            The movement of an organ
Plants growing in marsh are
water and mineral elements.              induced by contact with a for-
called Helophytes.
Highly thickened walls.                  eign body is called
Hydroponics: is a method of
Phloem - meant for the                      haptotropism.
cultivating plants without
transport of food material from          Water stimulus induced              using soil but by using nutrient
the leaves where it is                   growth movements are called         solution.
synthesized to the storage or            hydrotropism.
consumption organs.                      The curvature movements         Growth Regulators of
Epidermis - outermost layer of              of plant parts in response to   Plants
the plant body and is primarily          the stimulus of contact are
Certain chemical substances
protective in nature.                    termed as thigmotropism.
regulate the growth and dif-
Secretory Tissues : Examples                Growth movements in re-              ferentiation of plants. These
of secretions are resin,                 sponse to the stimulus of heat       substances are called plant
mucilage, essential oils, gums,          or cold is called thermotro-         growth regulators or phyto
pism.                                hormones.
nectar, etc.
Alternation of day and night         The auxins induce cell elon-
Morphology of the Plant                    causes movements of plants           gation and root initiation.
Root: Root develops from the                  called nyctinastic movements.        Indol - 3 Acetic Acid (IAA) is
‘radicle; forming tap root system or          Seismonastic movements are           an important Auxin.
Stem elongation and dor-              of light, only blue, red and        Pollination between two flow-
mancy breaking are induced            some violet light are absorbed.     ers of one plant gytanogamy
by gibberillins.                      During day time plants take         Pollination by insects is called
Dormancy is the period in             in carbondioxide and give out       Entomophily.
which seeds remains inactive.         oxygen.                             Pollination by birds is called
The hormone which helps in            GUTTATION: In some plants,          Ornithophily.
flowering of plants - florigen.       water oozes through certain
Pollination by animals is called
Cytokinins help to induce cell        pores in the form of liquid, that
Zoophily.
division and cell elongation.         pores remain permanently open
(Cytokinins are largely               and this phenomenon is called       Pollination by wind is called
Anemophily.
present in coconut water.)            guttation.
The plant hormone that con-           OSMOSIS :The process by             The pollen grains in the
trols fruit ripening is ethylene.     which water diffuses through        plants are produced in anther.
Unripe fruits can be made to          a semi-permeable membrane           The chief pollinators of our
ripe before proper time if they       from a region of higher concen-     agrihorticulture crops are
are kept in ethylene atmo-            tration of a solution to a region   bees.
sphere.                               of lower concentration of a so-     Wind borne pollen grains
Abscisic acid cures ageing            lution.                             cause pollen allergy.
TRANSPIRATION: The                  In plants like castor and
and abscission of leaves.
leaves excretes water through       moringa seed dispersal takes
It inhibits germination of
stomata by transpiration pro-       place through wind.
seeds.
In Vallisnaria pollination
Seed dormancy is due to ab-           cess.
occurs by water.
scisic acid.                          The required ingredient for
Seed dispersal in coconut
photosynthesis in plant is All
occurs through water.
Plant Processes                          the above
For the process of respiration      The Kingdom of
PHOTOSYNTHESIS is the                 in plants oxygen is necessary
process by which green                Xylem is responsible for the
Animals
plants manufacture food in            conduction of water in plants
the form of carbohydrates by                                              The animal with the longest
Plants get water through the        life span on the land is el-
using water, CO2 and sunlight.        roots because of capillarity
During Photosynthesis plants                                              ephant, while the animal hav-
Phloem carries prepared food
use carbon dioxide and give                                               ing the longest life span, in
from leaves to all parts of
out oxygen.                           plant.                              general, is turtles and tor-
Oxygen balance in the atmo-                                               toises.
sphere is maintained through        Seed Dispersal and                    Blue Whale is the biggest and
the process of Photosynthe-               Pollination                     the heaviest mammal.
sis.                                                                      The smallest ape is Gibbon.
The percentage of light en-           Pollination means transfer of
pollen grains from the anther       Chimpanzee is the most intel-
ergy fixed in photosynthesis
to the stigma of the same plant     ligent ape.
is generally around 1%
or a different plant.               Elephant tusks are enlarged
Photosynthesis takes place
faster in red light                   Pollination by water -              incisors.
Plant pigments do not absorb          Hydrophily                          Fishes respire through gills.
all the wavelengths of visible        Pollination by Bat -                The vertebrate which has a two
light. Out of the seven colours       Chiropterophily                     chambered heart is fish.
Coprophytes are the animals
which derives their food from       Largest ape ............................................................. Gorilla
faecal matters.                     Tallest animal .......................................................... Giraffe
The organism which has the          Largest reptile .................................................... Crocodile
maximum number of ribs is the       Lowest recorded temperature for a human
snake. The largest snake is         being to survive ..................................................... 20.30 C
the anaconda found in the           Fastest Animal ......................... Cheetah (speed 60-63 km/hr)
Amazon region in South              Smallest bird ................................................ Humming bird
America.                            Largest bird ...................................... North African Ostrich
Longest poisonous snake ................................ King Cobra
Kangaroo is a nocturnal her-
Largest mammal (animal) ............. Blue Whale (wt. 209 tones)
bivore.
Largest land animal ................. African Elephant (wt. 7 tones)
Zebras are jockingly called
Largest teeth ........................ Elephant tusks (upper incisors)
''the ponies in pygamas.''
The main chemical content of
egg shell is calcium carbo-                                                               is called metamorphosis
nate.                                feeding on blood. Frugivores                         Cobra venom affects the ner-
Hibernation is the period of                                                              vous system and viper venom
are the animals feeding on
long sleep for animals in cold                                                            the blood circulatory system.
fruits.
weather when there is no food                                                             A baby cockroach is called
The Kangaroo rat never drinks
available. During this period                                                             nymph.
water in its entire life.-
animals go underground and
Ostrich, Rhea, Kiwi and Pen-                         Organism is called the ‘slip-
their metabolic activity be-
guin-all are flightless birds.                       per animal cule’ paramecium
comes very low and hence
they do not need to eat or           Dodo (a flightless pigeon)                           The organism which performs
drink during this period.            which appeared in Mauritius
The animal found in the              is now extinct.
The animal classes that are
vertebrates include
department with the heading          kiwi, while the smallest flying
Jawless fish
“I have no medicinal value” is       bird is the Bee humming bird                       Armored fish
black ape.                           of Cuba.                                           Cartilaginous fish
Sanguivores are the animals          Growth of tadpole into a frog                      Bony fish
Amphibians
Reptiles
Birds
The Classification of animals                                                  Mammals
Animal Kingdom can be split up into main groups, vertebrates                           Invertebrates include
(with a backbone) and invertebrates (without a backbone). around                     Sponges
800,000 species have been identified in the Animal Kingdom —                         Jellyfish, hydras,
most of them in the Arthropod phylum.                                                     sea anemones, corals
Scientists classify each organism according to its: Kingdom,                       Comb jellies
Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species.                                     Flatworms
Molluscs
The science of classifying organisms is called taxonomy.                           Arthropods
Biologists classify living things into two kingdoms, the Plant                       Segmented worms
Kingdom and the Animal Kingdom.                                                      Echinoderms
the sex transformation in       Physiology and Health                      sources are - butter, ghee, oils,
crabs - Sacculina.                                                         ground nuts, almonds, etc.
The population of reptiles is    I. Carbohydrates                           One gram of fat yields 9.3
maximum on earth.                     Organic compounds contai-             calories of energy.
Saurology is the study of             ning carbon, hydrogen and         IV. Vitamins
lizards.                              oxygen which constitute               Vitamin A, D, E, K are fat
Ants go in a line by the              sugars (Starch, cellulose,            soluble whereas vitamin B
secretion of trail pheromones.        glucose etc) and supply               complex and C are water
calories for body activity.
The tallest living bird is                                                  soluble.
The general formula of
Ostrich.                                                                    Rich sources of vitamin A are
carbohydrate molecule is
Silver fish is not a fish but a                                             leafy vegetables, animal fat,
Cn (H2O)n.
wingless insect.                      The sources of carbohydrates          carrot, spinach, milk etc.
are rice, wheat, honey, sugar,        Severe deficiency of Vitamin A
Six Basic Animal                      potato, carrot. Deficiency of         results in Xerophthalmia and
carbohydrates causes weight           Nightblindness.
Groups                        loss and weakness.                    Rich sources of vitamin B are
Amphibians (Class Amphibia)           Polyhydroxy aldehyde or               cereals, eggs, fruits, liver,
are one of the six basic groups       ketones are carbohydrates.            pulses.
Based on the number of sugar          Vitamin C is found in oranges,
of animals.
units they can be classified          lemon, vegetables and milk.
Amphibians include frogs,                                                   Milk, egg, liver etc are rich
into, Monosaccharides, Oligo-
toads, caecilians, newts and          saccharides and Polysaccha-           sources of vitamin E.
salamanders.                          rides.                                Vitamin E is considered both
Birds (Class Aves). Birds, best                                             as a vitamin and hormone.
II. Proteins
known for their ability to fly,                                             The source of vitamin K is
are unmatched in their com-           Proteins are highly complex
green leafy vegetables and
nitrogenous compound found
mand of the skies.                                                          fishes, pea etc.
in all living organisms. Proteins
Invertebrates are one of the six                                            Vitamin K is essential for blood
are hydrolysed in the body to
basic groups of animals. Katy-                                              coagulation.
produce amino acids and are
dids, spiders, sea squirts, oc-                                             If milk is exposed to sunlight
essential for growth and repair
topuses, earthworms, starfish,                                              for a long time, vitamin B2 will
of the body tissues. They also
beetles, hydras, dragonflies,                                               be lost.
provide energy when calories
sponges, corals, snails, and                                                Excessive intake of polished
are deficient.
jellyfish are a handful of the                                              rice causes deficiency of B1
Sources: Milk, fish, meat, eggs,
invertebrates alive today.                                                  (Thiamine).
nuts, dal.
Cow milk is a rich source of
Fish are cold-blooded, aquatic        Soyabean seeds possess
vitamin A.
animals that have scales, gills       highest percentage of proteins
Vitamin D, can also be
and fins.                             (30-35%).
synthesised in our body with
Mammals (Class Mammalia)              Prolonged protein deficiency
the help of sun light.
are one of the six basic groups       cause         severe      under
Shark liver oil and cod liver oil
of animals.                           nourishment - a serious
are rich sources of vitamin D.
condition Kwashiorker is
Reptiles (Class Reptilia) are                                               Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamine)
resulted mostly in children.
cold-blooded vertebrates that                                               is a cobalt containing vitamin.
diverged from ancestral am-      III. Fats                                  Even though the amounts of
phibians about 340 million            Fats are insolube in water but        vitamins required are small
years ago.                            soluble in fat solvents. Major        compared to other nutrients, it
Source and Role of Principal Vitamins
Vi ta mi n                      Best Food Source                  Functio n                           Deficiency disease
Retinal :                       Carrots, yellow and green veg- Synthesis of the visual purple of      Xerophthalmia: drying of
(Vitamin A) (Fat soluble)       etables. Other sources include the retinal rods.                      cornea and ulceration. Night
butter, milk, fish-liver oil.     Maintains general health anc        blindness: Inability to see in
vigour of epithelial cells. Hence   the dark. Keratinization of
essential for good skin and hair.   epithelium: Dry skin and hair.
Thiamine                        Whole grains, yeast, liver, egg, Carbohydrate metabolism. En- Beri-beri: Partial paralysis of
(Vitamin B) (Water soluble) pork, nuts.                           sures normal functioning of the skeletal muscles and digestive
central nervous system.             disturbances.
Ribofla win                     Cereals, legumes, milk, egg, Essential carbohydrate and pro- Characterised by corneal ulcer-
(Vitamin B) (Water soluble) liver, kidney, yeast.                 tein metabolism especially in the ation and cracking of skin (es-
cells of the eye, skin, intestines, pecially around the lips).
and blood.
Niac in                         Lean meat, liver, milk, eggs, Inhibits production of choles-          Pellagra: Characterised by
(Water soluble)                 nuts, whole grains.               terol and helps in the breakdown    dermatitis (skin inflammation),
of fats, proteins and carbohy-      diarrhoea and dementia (loss of
drates.                             intellectual function).
Pyrido xine                     Salmon, yeast, yogurt, corn, Essential for amino-acid metabo-         Epileptiform seizures observed
(Vitamin B 6) (Water soluble) spinach, cheese, cereals & le- lism. Assists production of anti-        in children. Symptoms include
gumes. Also synthesised by in- bodies.                                dermatitis of eyes, nose and
testinal bacteria.                                                    mouth; retarded growth.
Folic Acid (Water soluble)      Yeast, liver, green leafy veg- Helps normal production of Macrocytic anaemia: Produc-
etables. Synthesized by intesti- blood cells. Identified in chro- tion of abnormally large red
nal bacterial also.               mosomes an important repro- blood cells.
ductive factor.
Cyano c o b alamine             Liver, kidney, meat, eggs, milk Necessary for red blood cells for-    1. Pernicious anaemia.
(Vitamin B 12 ) (Water soluble) and cheese. (Note:                mation and normal functioning       2. Neuro-psychiatric abnor-
Absent in vegetables, only vi- of nervous system.                     malities: Memory loss, mood
tamin containing cobalt.)                                             and personality changes.
Ascorbic acid                   Citrus fruits, tomatoes, cabbage. Influences permeability of cap- Scurvy: Swollen gums, teeth
(Vitamin C) (Water soluble)                                       illary walls. Develops immunity loss, bleeding gums.
against diseases. Forms collagen.
Fish liver oils, egg yolk, milk, Controls calcium and phospho-
Calc ife r o l                  butter. Also synthesized in the rus metabolism which contribute Rickets (in infants) Bones be-
(Vitamin D) (Fat soluble)       human body by the skin under to formation of teeth and bones. come soft (deformed).
the influence of sunlight.                                            Oesteomalacia (demineral-
ization of bones)
Tocopherol                      Wheat germ, fresh nuts, seed As anti-oxidant which protects Deficiency not reported in hu-
(Vitamin E) (Fat soluble)       oils, green leafy vegetables.     lipids of cells membranes against mans Causes sterility in rats.
oxygen damage.
Phyl lo quin o ne s             Liver, spinach, cauliflower, Assists in the production of pro- Haemorrhage: Subcutaneous
(Vitamin K) (Fat soluble)       green tomatoes.                   thrombin and other factors that and intramuscular bleedings due
ensure normal clotting of blood. to delayed clotting time.
Food Source                               Heterotrophic : Organism is
Vitamin A (Retinol)               Cod liver oil, carrots                    unable to prepare its own food.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)             Rice bran                                 Holozoic : Mode of nutrition
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)         Citrus, most fresh foods                  characteristic of animals
Vitamin D (Calciferol)            Cod liver oil                             whereby simple substances
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)           Meat, eggs                                are obtained from complex food
Vitamin E (Tocopherol)            Wheat germ oil, unrefined veg.oils        substances.
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins)          Liver, eggs, animal products              Saprophytic : Absorbs
Vitamin K (Phylloquinone/                                                   nourishment from dead or
phytol naphthoquinone)            Leafy green vegetables                    decaying organic matter.
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)     Meats, whole grains, in many foods        Parasitic : Derives nutrition
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)               Meats, dairy products, eggs               from living host without
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)           Meat, dairy products.                     helping it in any way.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)               Meat, eggs, grains
Homodont dendition :
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)           Leafy green vegetables
Consists of only one type of
teeth. They are used only for
is very necessary. Otherwise          Overdose of water soluble           catching prey, as homodont
several deficiency diseases are       vitamin does not cause any          does not chew their food. Eg :
caused in the body.                   harm but accumulation of fat        Snakes.
The name ‘vitamin’ is coined          soluble vitamin can be toxic. It    Heterodont dendition : More
by J.Funk (1912)                      can lead to hypervitaminosis.       than one type of teeth,
Milk is a rich source of all          Vitamin A accumulate in liver       differing in function, shape
vitamins except vitaminC.             while vitamin D promotes high       and function. Eg : Human
Vitamin D(in skin) and vitamin        Ca+ absorption which damage
K (in liver) can be synthesized       the kidney where it is
Human Body
by our body.                          deposited.
Deficiency of protein ,                                                Digestive System
Vitamin A Deficiency causes
carbohydrates and fats results        Night       Blindness     and       The process of converting
in protein - energy -                 Keratomalacia.                      food into energy giving sub-
malnutrition.                                                             stances is carried out by the
Protein deficiency causes             Deficiency of Vitamin B 1
(Thiamine) causes Beri Beri.        digestive system.
Kwashiorkor- skin cracks and
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) deficiency      The digestive system consists
become scaly, abdomen swells,
hair become reddish .                 causes Pellagra.                    of the alimentary canal (buccal
Vitamin B6 Deficiency- Anemia.      cavity, oesophagus, stomach,
Marasmus child show all
small intestine, large intestine
above symptoms besides                Vitamin B5 deficiency -
Paresthesia                         ending in the rectum and anus)
wasting of muscles.
and the associated glands.
Diseases restricted to given          Vitamin C deficiency - Scurvy
Alimentary canal is a long tube
region and arising from its           Vitamin D deficiency - Rickets
specific environment condition                                            which is 6-9 metres long and
are called endemic diseases. Eg
Modes of Nutrition                       starts from mouth and ends at
: Goiter in sub - Himalayan           Autotrophic : Ability of            anus.
region.                               organism to prepare its own         The parts of the alimentary
Pellagra is common amongst            food.                               canal are Mouth , Pharynx,
people living on a maize diet,        Holophytic : Characteristic of      Oesophagus, Stomach, Small
because maize interferes with         plants where by they prepare        intestine, Large intestine.
the absorption of niacin in           complex food substances             The mouth leads into a funnel
body.                                 using simple raw materials.         shaped pharynx, which is the
common passage for food and                  and secrete bile later when               The exchange of O2 and CO2
air.                                         food is present in intestine.             takes place in lungs at alveoli.
Pharynx lead into oesophagus                 The large intestine secretes no          The amount of air moving in
which is about 25cm long.                    enzyme and play only a minor             and out of lungs during each
The three divisions of large                 role in the absorption of                breath is called tidal volume.
intestine are Caecum, Colon                  nutrients.                               The maximum volume of air
and Rectum.                                                                           that can be moved in or out of
Lungs                            the lungs is referred to as the
Small intestine. It is the largest
and narrow tubular part of                                                            vital capacity of the lungs.
alimentary canal. It measures                                                         Eupnea –– Normal breathing
about 6 meters in length.                                                             Dyspnea –painful breathing
Anexia – No O2 in inspired air
Small intestine, the highly
Pneumonia, pleurosis, bron-
coiled portion has 3 divisions
chitis, silicosis and emphy-
such as duodenum, jejunum
sema are diseases affecting
and ileum.
respiratory tract.
Digestion is of two types
SARS (Severe Acute Respi-
Intra cellular digestion : The                                                         ratory Syndrome) a lung dis-
digested products pass to the                                                          ease, is caused by Corona Vi-
cytoplasm       across        the                                                      rus.
endocytotic inside membrane.
Eg : Amoeba                                                                      High altitude problems
Extra Cellular Digestion : Cell                                                  1.   Asphyxia - Oxygen starvation
The lung is the essential
synthesizes one or more                                                               due to low atmospheric oxygen
respiration organ in all air-
enzymes for digesting specific                                                        is called asphyxia.
breathing animals.
type of nutrient.                                                                2.   Hypoxia - refers to a general
Lungs are the respiratory
The liver is the largest gland               organ in higher vertebrates              low level of oxygen
of the body. It secretes bile,               (man).                                   availability. Physiologically it
containing bile pigments and                 The main function of the lungs           refers to a deficiency of oxygen
bile organic salt. If intestine              is the oxygenation of blood              at the tissue level.
contains no food, the bile flows             and to supply oxygen to it.              Tobacco smoke and exhaust
to gall bladder, instead of                  The right lung is larger than the        fumes result in carbon
duodenum ; which contract                    left lung.                               monoxide poisoning.
Right weight about - 620 g               The binding capacity of
Left weight about - 570 g                carbon monoxide is 200 times
Alveoli are small air sacs of           than that of carbondioxide with
the lungs through the walls of          haemoglobin.
Liver                                                 which gaseous exchange                  A leaf like cartilagenous flap,
Stomach
takes place between blood               the epiglottis guards the
Gall
Bladder                                               and air.                                opening of glottis.
The organ without muscle is             Sleeping in a closed room with
Large                                                 lungs                                   a burning kerosene lamp may
Intestine
Small            Pleura protects lungs from              lead to death due to lack of O2.
Intestine           harm.                                   In mammals, the body cavity
The CO content in the air that          is partitioned into thoracic and
2
we exhale is about 8%.                  abdominal parts by diaphragm.
Heart                                                                                     s
World’s fir
st heart transplant wa
by  Ch ristian
d December 1967
performed on 3r
Bernard.                                                              Science
of  A ll  In di  a In sti tute of Medical
Dr. Venugopa       l                                                  t 1994.

s fir st he ar t tra nsplant on 3rd Augus
performed Indi     a’                                                     a
the history of Keral
Th e  fir st he ar t transplantation in                    sp ita l
ust Ho
Cochin Medical Tr

was conducted at                     ce  of    D r. Jose
un de r th e guid en
.
Chacko Periyapuram
The cardiovascular system            The deoxygenated blood (im-                         Arteries carry pure blood from
comprises the heart, veins,          pure blood) from the body                           the heart to the tissues.
arteries and capillaries.            coined by two large veins                           Pulmonary artery is the only
Heart is the pumping organ of        called Superier Venacava and                        artery carrying impure blood.
blood vascular system.               Inferior Venacava is in the                         Veins collect impure blood
Heart length - 12 cm                right auricle.                                      from the tissues and carry it
Heart width - 9 cm                  The oxygenated blood from                           to the heart.
The normal heart beat is 70-        the lungs is received by the                        Pulmonary vein is the only
72 per minute in males and          heart in left auricle.                              vein carrying pure blood.
78-82 per minute in females.        Aorta is the largest artery                         The largest vein in human
The heart beat of a child is        which carries oxygenated                            body is called inferior
more than that of an adult. ie      blood.                                              venacava.
140/min                             The largest blood vessel in the                    The lengt h of our bl ood
The circulation of blood in the     body is Aorta.                                     capillaries is about 1,00,000
body is regulated by the heart.     As blood passes through                            cm.
The human heart is on the left      lungs, gases are exchanged                          Jarvik Heart is the artifical
side beneath the left nipple.       through blood vessels called                        pump to replace the human
The pericardium protects            capillaries of alveoli. Heart                       heart developed by Robert K.
heart from harm.                    beat rate in embryo (Foetus) 1                      Jarvik.
The average weight of the           minute = 200. Heart beat rate                       John H. Gibbon (USA) built
heart is about 340 gm in men        in new born baby 1 minute =                         the first successful heart-lung
and 225 gm in women.                140 times.                                          machine.
The human heart has four            Normal pulse rate of healthy                        A pacemaker is used to stimu-
chambers, a pair of auricles        adult human is 72 per minute.                       late the heart muscles.
and a pair of ventricles.           Normal BP is 120/80 mmHg.                           Except heart all other organs
The human heart consists of         The science dealing with the                        of our body are found in pairs.
four chambers and in fish the       study of the heart and its dis-                     The organ which is not af-
heart consists of two cham-         eases is known as cardiology.                       fected by tumour is heart.
bers. In those of amphibians        ECG (Electro Cardio Gram)                           Pain in heart musles -- Angina
there are 3 chambers. Heart of      It is the photographic record                       pectoris.
reptiles is incompletely di-        of electric variations that oc-                    The circulation of blood in the
vided into 4 chambers (Croco-       cur during contraction of                          body is regulated by the heart.
dile has 4 chambered heart).        muscles of heart.                                  The credit of discovering the
Mammals and birds also have         ECG was invented by Wilhelm                        circulatory system goes to
four chambered hearts.              Einthoven.                                         William Harvey.
The total length of our blood           Constituents of the                 Albumin, globulin and fi-
vessels is about one lakh                     human body                    brinogen are the plasma pro-
kilometre.                        In a normal man weighing 60 kg            teins.
Heart disease                 Constituent Weight Percent                Fibrinogen is concerned with
of atoms     Coagulation of blood.
Coronary heart disease refers                                                The blood cells are of three
Oxygen             38.8 kg 25.5 %
to the failure of the coronary                                               types - Red blood cells (Eryth-
Carbon             10.9 kg 9.5 %
circulation to supply adequate                                               rocytes), White blood cells
Hydrogen           6.0 kg 63 %
circulation to cardiac muscle
Nitrogen           1.9 kg 1.4 %           (leucocytes) and the Platelets
and surrounding tissue.
Calcium            1.2 kg 0.3 %           (Thrombocytes).
Coronary artery disease is a
Phosphorus 0.6 kg .2 %                    Red Blood Corpuscles (RBC )
disease of the artery caused by
Potassium          0.2 kg 0.06 %          contain haemoglobin which
the      accumulation           of
gives blood its red colour.
atheromatous plaques within
Camel is the only mammal hav-
the walls of the arteries that
ing nucleus in the RBC.
supply the myocardium.                  blood pressure, especially           The abnormal rise in total
Angina pectoris (chest pain)            localised high blood pressure.       count of RBC is called poly-
and myocardial infarction               Inflammatory heart disease           cythemia.
(heart attack) are symptoms of          involves inflammation of the        Erythrocytes participate in
and conditions caused by                heart muscle and/or the tissue      transporting oxygen from
coronary heart disease.                 surrounding it.                     lungs to tissues.
Cardiomyopathy is the                   Valvular heart disease is           CO2 is carried in both plasma
deterioration of the function of        disease process that affects        and RBC as bicarbonates.
the myocardium (i.e., the actual        one or more valves of the heart.
heart muscle) for any reason.                                                RBCs are produced in the bone
People with cardiomyopathy                                                   marrow.
Blood                      Spleen & liver destroy the
are often at risk of arrhythmia
The blood serves to transport      dead RBCs in human body.
and/or sudden cardiac death.
Cardiovascular disease is any             and distribute materials within    Spleen is known as graveyard
of a number of specific                   the body.                          of RBC.
diseases that affect the heart            Distribution of enzymes is not     Spleen serves as a Blood
itself and/or the blood vessel            a function of blood.               Bank (Reservoir of blood) in
system, especially the veins              Blood circulation was discov-      the body.
and arteries leading to and               ered by William Harvey.            The life span of RBC is about
from the heart.                           Since blood is found outside       120 days.
Heart failure also called                 the cells it is called as extra
Haemoglobin consists of iron
congestive heart failure (or              cellular fluid (ECF).
containing pigment haem and
CHF), and congestive cardiac              The pH value of human blood
a protein globin.
failure (CCF), is a condition that        is nearly 7.5.
Haemoglobin, the respiratory
can result from any structural            The blood cholesterol level in
pigment gives red colour to
or functional cardiac disorder            100ml of blood in a normal
RBC.
that impairs the ability of the           person varies between 150-
heart to fill with or pump a              250 mg                             Haemoglobin helps in trans-
sufficient amount of blood                The liquid part of the blood       portation of oxygen.
throughout the body.                      viz. the plasma constitutes        Normal adult human male has
Hypertensive heart disease is             55% of the total blood vol-        14 grams of haemoglobin in
heart disease caused by high              ume.                               100 millilitre of blood.
Functions of Blood
Blood pressure                   • Supply of oxygen to tissues (bound to hemoglobin, which is
Blood pressure (BP) is the pres-         carried in red cells)
sure exerted by circulating          • Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty
blood upon the walls of blood            acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins
vessels, and is one of the prin-         (e.g., blood lipids))
cipal vital signs. During each       •   Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide, urea, and lactic acid
heartbeat, BP varies between a
maximum (systolic) and a mini-
•   Immunological functions, including circulation of white blood
mum (diastolic) pressure.                cells, and detection of foreign material by antibodies
•   Coagulation, which is one part of the body's self-repair mecha-
nism (the act of blood clotting when one gets cut to stop the
The condition when haemo-             bleeding)
globin content of the blood       •   Messenger functions, including the transport of hormones
falls below normal is termed
and the signaling of tissue damage
anaemia.
•   Regulation of body pH
The disease resistant con-
stituent of blood is W.B.C.       •   Regulation of core body temperature
which produces antibodies.        •   Hydraulic functions
Antigens are capable of
stimulating the formation of        Clotting of blood in blood ves-         High blood pressure (Hyper-
antibodies.                         sels is called thrombosis.              tension) is known as the si-
WBC-White Blood Cor-                The coagulation of blood in             lent killer.
puscles (Leucocytes) defend         vessels is prevented during            Normal blood sugar level : 80-
our body from disease caus-         normal condition by heparin.           100mg/100ml of blood
ing microorganisms.                 Haemophilia is a hereditary            Normal cholesterol 50-180 mg
The number of luekocytes per         bleeding disease due to inad-
/100ml of plasma.
micro litre of blood is called       equate clotting of the blood.
the total count of WBC. It is        Haemophilia sometimes re-              The largest leucocyte -
normally 5000 in humans.             ferred to as bleeder’s disease         Monocytes.
Leukaemia, also called blood        or 'christmas disease.'                The smallest leucocyte -
cancer, is caused by the over       A healthy person has 5-6 litres        lymphocytes.
production of WBCs.                 of blood in his body.                  The leucocytes capable of
Leucopenia is the disease           At a time of blood donation            producing antibodies are -
caused due to decrease in the       only 300 ml of blood is used.          lymphocytes.
white blood cells count.            The normal blood pressure of           The leucocytes which are
The proportion of R.B.C.            a healthy adult is 120/80 mm           modified as scavenger cells are
and W.B.C. in human body            Hg.
- Monocytes.
120 mm Hg is known as sys-
is 600 : 1.                                                                The leucocytes that are able to
tolic pressure and 80 mm Hg
The life span of WBC is about       is known as diastolic pres-            produce the anticoagulant
5 to 21 days.                       sure.                                  heparin are Basophils.
Platelets or thrombocytes are
other blood cells. They per-            Presence of blood in urine - Haematuria.
form an important role in blood         Presence of haemoglobin in the urine - Haemoglobinuria.
clotting. They live only for a          Presence of excess urea in the blood - Uremia
few hours.                              Presence of excess proteins in urine - Proteinuria.
Plasma                           Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man displays the proportions of a man.
About 55% of whole blood is                                    The Vitruvian Man is a world-renowned
blood plasma, a fluid that is                                       drawing created by Leonardo da Vinci
the blood's liquid medium,                                            in the year 1487.
which by itself is straw-yellow                                         The drawing and text are some-
times called the Canon of
in color.
Proportions .
Plasma functions in transport,                                              It is stored in the Gallerie
body immunity, prevention of                                                dell'Accademia in Venice, Italy.
blood loss, retention of fluid                                             The drawing is based on the
in blood, maintenance of pH,                                              correlations of ideal human
uniform distribution of heat.                                            proportions with geometry
Hematological disorders                                                   described by the ancient Roman
Anemia: Insufficient red cell                                         architect Vitruvius
mass (anemia) can be the re-
sult of bleeding, blood disor-         Bacterial infection of the               shrink and form a hard clot to
ders like thalassemia, or nutri-      blood is bacteremia or sepsis.            plug the opening of the blood
tional deficiencies.                  Viral Infection is viremia. Ma-           vessel to stop bleeding. After
Abnormal increase in WBC               laria and trypanosomiasis are             clotting occurs, a straw
count is known as leukemia or          blood-borne parasitic infec-              coloured fluid called ‘serum’ is
blood cancer.                          tions.                                    left. This portion of blood
Leukemia is a group of can-      Blood clotting                                 retains its liquid form
cers of the blood-forming tis-                                                  indefinitely.
Blood platelets breakdown in
sues.                                the vicinity of an injury and              Haemophilia is a hereditary
Abnormal decrease in total            release an enzyme that causes              bleeding disease due to
count of WBC is known as              formation of fibrin from                   inadequate clotting of the
leucopenia                            fibrinogen. Fibrin forms a                 blood.
Non-cancerous overproduc-            tangled mass of fibres which
tion of red cells (polycythemia
vera) or platelets (essential         Recipient                                  Donor
thrombocytosis) may be pre-
malignant.
Hemophilia is a genetic illness
that causes dysfunction in
one of the blood's clotting
mechanisms.
Blood is an important vector
of infection. HIV, the virus,
which causes AIDS, is trans-
mitted through contact with
blood, semen or other body
secretions of an infected per-
son.
Hepatitis B and C are trans-
mitted primarily through blood
contact.
Blood Groups                                 Erythroblastosis foetalis ––           body which carries pure blood
caused by the Rh blood                 is pulmonary vein
A person having blood type              group.                                 Antigen is a substance which
B could safely donate blood             Land Steiner and Weiner first          stimulates formation of anti-
to persons with blood type B            found the Rh factor in Rhesus          body
and AB                                  monkey.                                When the right ventricle in the
Blood groups A, B, AB and O             Normal count level RBC in              human heart contracts, the
were discovered by Karl                 Blood - 5 million/ccg Blood.           blood moves to pulmonary
Landsteiner.                            Normal count level WBC in              artery
O blood group can be given             Blood - 5,000 to 9,000 ccg
to persons of any other group.          Blood.                            Liver : The largest gland
Therefore O group is called             Normal count level platelets in        The liver is the largest gland
universal donor.                        Blood - 2,50,000 to 3 lakhs.           in the body.
A person with group AB can              Life span of RBC - 120 days
receive any other group. So             Life span of WBC - 5 to 21
AB is called universal                  days
recepient.                              Life span of platelets - 7 days
‘A’ blood group is most com-            The instrument used to mea-                                      Liver
mon among the Europeans,                sure the blood pressure in
while ‘B’ and ‘O’ are common
Human body - Sphygmoma-
among the Asians and the
nometer
American Indians, respec-
The only one vein in human
tively.
Bile Duct
Largest blood cell in human body - Monocytes
Smallest blood cell in human body - Lympho cytes
Major organ systems
Cardiovascular system: pumping and channeling               of lymph between tissues and the blood stream, the
blood to and from the body and lungs with heart, blood,     lymph and the nodes and vessels that transport it.
and blood vessels.                                          Musculoskeletal system: muscles provide movement
Digestive System: digestion and processing food with        and a skeleton provides structural support and pro-
salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallblad-       tection with bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons.
der, pancreas, intestines, rectum, and anus.                Nervous system: collecting, transferring and process-
Endocannabinoid system: neuromodulatory lipids and          ing information with brain, spinal cord, peripheral
receptors involved in a variety of physiological pro-       nerves, and nerves
cesses including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, mo-        Reproductive system: the sex organs; in the female;
tor learning, synaptic plasticity, and memory.              ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary
Endocrine system: communication within the body             glands, and in the male; testes, vas deferens, seminal
using hormones made by endocrine glands such as             vesicles, prostate, and penis.
the hypothalamus, pituitary or pituitary gland, pineal      Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing,
body or pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids, and            the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and dia-
Integumentary system: skin, hair and nails                  Urinary system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and ure-
Immune system: the system that fights off disease;          thra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and
composed of leukocytes, tonsils, adenoids, thymus,          excretion of urine.
and spleen.                                                 Vestibular system: contributes to our balance and
Lymphatic system: structures involved in the transfer       our sense of spatial orientation.
role in
Liver plays a major                        Bilirubin and biliverdin are        pigments (bilirubin and
s a mber
nu
metabolism and ha                          bile pigments.                      biliverdin) and inactivated
body, in-
of functions in the                        The disease which affects the       products of steroid hormones,
st or ag e,
cl udin g gl ycog en                       liver is jaundice.                  some vitamins and many drugs.
re d blood
decomposition of                           Bleeding in liver is known as    6) Destruction of dead cells and
n  synthe-
cells, plasma protei                      liver cirrhosis.                    bacteria by phagocytosis.
tio  n, and
sis, hormone produc                       Hepatatis is the viral disease   7) Synthesises heparin - an
lie below
s                                                  anticoagulant, prothrombin,
detoxification. It                        of liver which influence func-
e abdomi-                                            fibrinogen and some factors
the diaphragm in th                      tioning of liver.
the abdo-                                           necessary         for     blood
nal-pelvic region of                   Excessive alcoholic consump-
le, an al-                                          coagulation.
men. It produces bi                     tion causes cirrhosis
ich aids
kaline compound wh                    Exessive stimulus for alcohol
e ulsifi-
em                                              Kidneys and Dialysis
in digestion, via th                  consumption is called dypso-
cation of lipids.                     mania.
Manufacturing of urea takes
place in liver.
It is the largest metabolic or-       Excessive use of tobacco affe-
gan in human body.                     cts the nerves while the same
The liver is on the right side         of alcohol affects the liver.
of the stomach.                       Stone in gall bladder called
Liver is dark brown in colour.         Cholecystostatis
Sleeping on left side is useful        Urea is produced in the liver.        The kidneys are the chief ex-
because it gives maximum re-           Hepatitis is the viral disease of     cretory organs of vertebrates.
laxation to the muscles of the         liver which influence                 The main purpose of the kid-
right side and keeps the liver         functioning of liver.                 ney is to separate urea, min-
warm and relaxed and im-               The weight of liver in man is         eral salts, toxins, and other
proves bile secretion.                 about 1.5 kg.                         waste products from the blood.
Glucose is stored in the liver         The disease that result due to        Urea is removed from the blood
and muscles in the form of             any obstruction in the bile duct      by kidneys.
glycogen.                              is Jaundice.                          The volume of urine produced
Liver is otherwise called              Excessive alcoholic consum            in an adult human being for
HEPAR.                                 ption causes cirrhosis.               every 24 hours is 6.5 litres.
Second largest gland in hu-            The high tendency to drink            The functional unit of kidneys
man body - Pancreas                    alcohol is termed as                  is called nephron.
Exocrine and endocrine gland           dipsomania.                           Nephritis is the inflammation
- Pancreas                             Liver h as a great many               of the kidney caused by the
Heterocrine gland -Pancreas            important functions other than        infection of streptococci.
A Normal man secrete about 1           helping in digestion. They are:
Litre of Pancreatic Juice per                                                Presence of urea in the blood
1) Regulation of carbohydrate,
day.                                   protein and lipid metabolism.         is called uremia.
The main function of the liver      2) Synthesis of urea for excretion.      Kidneys are responsible for
is to produce bile which is an      3) Removal of drugs and toxic            the removal of excess water,
important agent in digestion           materials. The liver has              salts and waste products from
of fat.                                enzymes which can detoxify            the blood in the form of urine.
There is no known digestive            harmful materials.                    Increased flow of urine is
enzymes in the bile.                4) Storage of vitamins.                  called diuresis and substa-
Bile is stored in the gall blad-    5) Liver is the principal organ for      nces that increase the flow of
der.                                   the excretion of cholestrol, bile     urine is called diuretics.
Anti Diuretic hormone (ADH)         Inner pale region of each           Cerebellum is known as
or Vasopressin regulates the        kidney is known as medulla.
‘Little brain’ of the entire
amount of water excreted in         Urinary bladder and ureters are
urine.                                                                         brain portions.
lined by transitional epithelium
Deficiency of ADH results in        and hence are capable of being
the disease diabetes insipidus      considerably stretched, when         Cerebral cortex is outer layer
characterised by a large            filled with urine.                   of cerebrum. It is made of grey
amount of water being re-           Normal urine is about 95%            matter and contains many lay-
moved through urine.                water and 5% dissolved solids.       er of nerve cells.
Increased flow of urine is          Presence of glucose in urine is      Cerebral hemisphere is divid-
called diuresis and sub-            referred to as glycosuria.           ed into frontal, parietal, tempo-
stances that increase the flow      The kidneys excrete a variety        ral and occipital lobes.
of urine is called diuretics.       of waste products produced by
Dialysis is used in the case of                                           The surface of cerebral hemi-
metabolism. These include the
a patient suffering from kid-                                            sphere shows many convolu-
nitrogenous wastes urea, from
ney trouble                                                              tions called Gyri separated by
protein catabolism, and uric
A dialysis unit is an artificial                                          depressions called Sulci.
acid, from nucleic acid
kidney which performs the                                                The Gyri increases the surface
metabolism.
functions of a normal kidney                                             area of cortex to accommodate
The kidneys secrete a variety
outside the body.                                                        more nerve cells.
of hormones, including
Dysuria is called painful Uri-       erythropoietin, calcitriol, and      The general sensory or
nation.                             renin.                               somaesthetic area in parietal
The right kidney sits just be-       At least one kidney must             lobe perceive general
low the diaphragm and poste-        function properly for life to be     sensation, viz pain. touch and
rior to the liver, the left below   maintained.                          temperature.
the diaphragm and posterior         Nephropathy refers to damage         The motor area in frontal lobe
to the spleen.                                                           controls voluntary movement
to or disease of the kidney. An
Each adult kidney weighs be-                                              of muscles.
older term for this is nephrosis.
tween 125 and 170 grams in                                               The premotor area in frontal
Diabetes is the most common
males and between 115 and                                                lobe is the highest centre of
cause of kidney failure,
155 grams in females.                                                    involuntary movements of
accounting for more than 40
The kidney has a bean-                                                    muscles.
shaped structure, each kidney       percent of new cases. High
blood        pressure,         or    The visual and auditory areas
has concave and convex sur-
hypertension, is a major factor      are in occipital lobe and are
faces.
in the development of kidney         centres for visual and hearing
Outer darker region of kidney
problems in people with              sensation.
is named as cortex.
diabetes.                            Association area in the frontal
lobe is responsible for
Some of the most common                      Brain                       association between various
kidney diseases and              The brain is protected by            sensations and movements.
conditions are: polycystic          cranial bone and meninges.           Memory, intelligence, and
kidney disease, nephrosis,
The brain is marked into             judgement depends on co-
lupus nephritis, diabetic          forebrain, mid brain and hind        ordinated and integrated
nephropathy,                 brain.                               activities of different cortical
rhabdomyolysis, kidney             The forebrain consists of ce-
centres.
stones, and renal tubular          rebrum, the largest part of hu-      Hypothalamus : contain higher
acidosis.                 man brain.                           nerve centres for temperature
regulation, hunger, thirst and       Brian stem consists of pons                                           tion
Scientific classifica

emotional function. It secretes      and medulla oblongata. It
neurohormones which control          controls vegetative actions.            of Human Being
..... Animalia
secretions of anterior pituitary                                       Kingdom: ............
Spinal Cord                                              .. Chordata
hormones. It synthesises the                                           Phylum: ..................
Mammalia
posterior pituitary hormones.        The spinal cord controls reflex   Class: .....................
... Primates
The medulla oblongata                actions in human beings.          Order: .....................
Hominidae
controls the involuntary             The length of the spinal cord      Family: ..................
is about 1 metre (3.3ft)                                      . Homininae
actions.                                                                Subfamily: ............
The spinal cord is a series of                               ..... Hominini
Tribe: ..................
The central control of
31 sections called segments.                                   ........ Homo
respiratory activity in human                                            Genus: ..................
body is exercised by medulla         Each segment giving rise to a                                    mo Sapiens
Species: ............ Ho
oblongata.                           pair of spinal nerves.
Medulla oblongata has the            10 pairs originate from the           smelled, the substance must be
centres, for regulating the          brain stem. It contain sensory,       capable of entering to a gaseous
working of the heart                 mixed and motor nerves.               state to reach nostrils and it
contraction of blood vessels         We lose consciousness if              must be water soluble to
and respiratory and digestive        blood flow to the brain is cut        dissolve in the mucus to make
movements.                           off for more than five seconds.       contact with olfactory cells.
The thermoregulatory centre          There are 12 pairs of cranial
of the human body is                 nerves and 31 pairs of spinal
Taste
hypothalamus.                        nerves in man.                        Taste buds are sense crayons
E.E.G (Electro Encephalogram)                                              for taste sensation.
is used to record changes in        SENSE ORGANS                           Taste buds are oval bodies
the electric potential in various    The organs which receive the          found as some elevation in
areas of brain.                      external and internal stimuli         tongue called papillae.
Biological death of a patient        and convey the same to the            Human beings recognise four
means the death of tissues of        central nervous system are            basic modalities or tastes-
the brain.                           called sense organs.                  sweet, sour, salty and bitter.
Encephalitis is caused by                                                  They are principally perceived
virus.
Smell                                    at the tip, along lateral edges,
Receptors for smell occur in          on upper surface of front half
Disorder of brain affecting
and on the back of the tongue,
recognition of letters and           nasal mucosa and are made up
respectively.
words is Dyslexia.                   of modified pseudo stratified
Sour taste is evoked by H+
The final weight of the brain in     epithelium. This epithelium is
ions, produced by ionisation
an adult male is 1.4kg and 1.3       known as olfactory epithelium.        of acids.
kg in case of a woman.               Olfactory epithelium is more          Sweet taste is evoked by
Cerebellum is second largest         extensive in dogs with an acute       organic substances viz. sugar,
portion of brain located at the      olfactory sense.                      dextrin, glycerol, chloroform,
base, under the cerebrum.                                                  aspartame and saccharine.
This epithelium is composed of
Cerebellum contains centres          three types of cells - olfactory      Bitter taste is evoked by
for the maintenance of posture       receptor cells, supporting cells      quinine, morphine, caffeine,
and equilibrium of body and                                                nicotine, urea and cation of
and basal cells.
for the muscle tone. It also                                               many inorganic salts like
modulates and moderate               Olfactory receptor cells              Magnesium salts.
voluntary action initiated by        function as chemo receptors.          Salty taste is evoked from
the cerebral cortex.                 In order for a substance to be        cations of Na+.
Aspartame & saccharine are                          In an adult man skin covers the                          The eyeball has a diameter of
widely used as artificial                           muscles of about 1.9m2 (20                               2.5 cm.
sweetening agents.                                  sq.ft) and a woman has about                             The eyeball has 3 coatings
Loss of smell reduces the                           1.6m2 (17sq.ft).                                         Outer most layer is an opaque,
perception of taste also. That                      The outer layer of the skin is                           white, fibro elastic capsule
is why people suffering from                        termed as epidermis, which has                           called sclera. This is continu-
cold (rhinitis) often complain                      no nerves or blood vessels and                           ous with a transparent layer
that they cannot taste their                        is continuously renewed.                                 called Cornea (bulging white
food.                                               Inner layer, called dermis, is a                         part of the eye)
Taste of chillies, black pepper                     thick layer below the epidermis                          The membrane that covers
and hot sauces are not true                         which contain nerves, blood                              cornea is conjunctiva.
sensation. It is mainly a                           vessels, hair follicles,                                 In case of eye transfer only
sensation of pain receptors.                        sebaceous gland and sweat                                cornea is used.
Many insects such as honey                          glands.
Middle layer is called choroid,
bee, flies, butterflies and moth                    Colour of the skin is due to the
is a highly vascular, pigmented
posses chemoreceptors for                           presence of the pigment,
layer.
taste sensation at their feet.                      melanin, in epidermis.
The main function of human                               Ciliary body is the thickest
Some mammals like rhesus                                                                                     portion of vascular tissue,
monkey, dogs, pig and cat                           skin is excretion.
Sweat serves to regulate the                             arising from a point just behind
possess taste sensation for                                                                                  the junction of sclera and
water.                                              body temperature.
cornea. It consists of ciliary
Man doesn’t possess taste                           Sweat glands seen in dermis
layer help to eliminate excess                           process and ciliary muscles.
buds for tasting water.
heat from the body.                                      A pigmented, muscular,
Skin - Touch                                                                                                     opaque diaphragm called, Iris,
Dermatology is the branch of
Skin : Touch corpuscle in the                       science that deals with the                              extend from ciliary body in
skin responds to physical                           study of skin and its diseases.                          front of lens. It can be seen as
sensations of pressure, heat,                                                                                a black screen through the
cold, contact and pain.                     EYE - Vision                                                     cornea and has a small central
Skin is our tactile (sense of                       The eye (photoreceptor) is a                             aperture called ‘Pupil’.
touch) sense organ.                                 globular ball like organ situat-                         The iris has two sets of smooth
It is the largest organ of the                      ed in a bony cavity, the orbit,                          muscles arranged circularly.
human body.                                         of the skull.                                            The pupil is constricted and
Largest and Longest bone in a man .......................................................................... Femur (thigh bone)
Smallest muscle ..................................................................................................................... Stapedius
Smallest bone .......................................................................................................... Stapes (middle-ear)
Total amount of blood in body ................................................................. 5.6 litres (1/15 of body weight)
Life span of RBC ..................................................................................................................... 120 days
Number of RBC's ...................................................... in male 5000,000 /cu.mm /in female 45,00,000/cu.mm
Number of WBC's ...................................................................................................... 5000-10000/cu.mm
Life Span of WBC ..................................................................................................................... 2-5 days
Heart beats ...................................................................................................................... 72 per minute
Average amount of haemoglobin ..................................................................... 14-15 mg/100 ml of blood
Thinnest skin ......................................................................................................... Conjunctiva (eyelid)
Largest endocrine gland ................................................................................................. Thyroid gland
Longest cell in body .............................................................................................................. Nerve cell
Smallest cell in human body ................................................................................................... Sperm cell
Largest cell in human body .......................................................................................................... Ovum
dilated respectively by their        of ability for vision and is called   Astigmatism: Curvature of cor-
construction, to reduce and          Blind Spot.                           nea become irregular and image
increase the amount of light         Lateral to blind spot, there is a     is not clearly formed. Remedied
falling on the lens.                 depressed area of retina, called      by cylindrical lens.
In bright light the iris             Fovea, which contains only            Glaucoma: It is due to increase
automatically shuts tighter,         cones and no rods. Ability of
intra ocular pressure in aqueous
reducing the amount of light         vision is highest in fovea.
entering the pupil.                                                        chamber. Operation is needed at
The anterior compartment is
early stage.
In front of the eye there is a       filled with aqueous humour. It
convex lens. The lens is             supplies nutrients to lens and        Trachoma: It is increased in
attached to the ciliary bodies       cornea having no blood                Redness of eye and more secre-
by suspensory ligaments.             supply, maintain shape of             tion of watery fluid. It is due to
Retina is the inner most layer,      cornea and support the lens.          infection of bacteria, chlamidia
sensitive and made up of many        The posterior compartment is          trachamastis. Due to this fol-
cells and fibres.                    filled with transparent               licles may form in conjunctiva.
Retina acts like the film in         gelatinous material called
Xerophthalmia: It is due to de-
camera. In order to form an          vitreous humour, which
ficiency of vitaminA. (A2). Dur-
image on the retina, light must      supports the lens and retina.
ing this conjunctiva or cornea
pass through all the media of        Colour blindness is a heredi-
becomes Keratinized. It may
eye (cornea, aqueous humour,         tary disease.
Squint eye is another eye de-         lead to blindness.
lens, vitreous humour)and it
must be brought to focus on          fect which can be corrected by        Strabimus: In this type eyeball
the retina to form an upside         an operation.                         remain in somewhat bent posi-
down image on it.                  The parts of eye involved in            tion which is due to long ocular
The interpretation takes place       eye transplantion surgery are         muscles formed during develop-
cornea, sclera and vitreous           ment of eye. Operation is needed
in the brain.
humour.                               at early stage. Also associated
The image formed on the            The loss of vision during dim
retina of the human eye is real                                            with squint.
light is called nightblindness.
and inverted.                                                              Presbiopia: During this power
Twenty-twenty means perfect
Eye contain receptors called         vision.                               of accommodation of lens de-
photoreceptors viz ‘rods’ and                                              creases due to age factor and
SOME OF THE EYE DEFECTS
‘cone’ cells, which convert the                                            defected metabolism. Also
energy of specific wavelength      Myopia: Also known as near              known as age sightness. Can be
into action potential of nerve     sightness or short sightness.           removed by bifocal lens.
fibre.                             Near object is clear. Far object is
Photofobia: No clear image in
Nerve impulses are carried from    not clear Eyeball become longer.
bright light.
rods and cones by bipolar          Image is formed in front of
Retina. Can be remedied by con-         Emmetropia - Normal vision
nerve cells to the ganglion
cells. The axon of the ganglion    cave lens.                              Cataract - is the condition where
cells converge and leave the       Hypermetropia: Also known as            lens became opaque which is
eye ball to form ‘optic nerve.’    long sightness or far sightness.        due to defective protein metabo-
The spot at the back of eye,       Far object is clear, near object is     lism leading to blindness. It may
from where the optic nerve fibre   not clear. Eye ball become short.       be due to disease or old age. It
leaves is covered by a zone of     Image is formed behind the              is remedied by replacing lens.
retina free from rods and          Retina. Can be remedied by con-         Colour blindness: It is known
cones. So this spot is devoid      vex lens.                               as daltonism. It is the inability
to distinguish between red and         The ossicles transmit the            Types of glands - There are two
green colour. It is a sex linked (x-   vibration to the inner ear,          types of glands
linked) genetic disorder.              where they cause waves in the        i. Ducted glands - exocrine
Night Blindness: During this           fluid called perilymph.              glands, ii. Ductless glands -
Perilymph is filled in the coiled,   endocrine glands.
Rhodopsin is not resynthesized
while it is regenerated in dim         tube called cochlea, in the           Deficiency of Parathyroid
middle ear.                           hormone (PTH) secreted by
light.
Cochlea is a tube coiled, like a      parathyroid gland causes
Ear - Hearing                            small snail shell, of 21⁄2 turns.       tetany in which calcium level
The ears have two main func-         The sensory structures                in blood decreases.
tions                                respond to different frequency,       Adrenal glands are situated
i) Detection and analysis of         found on basilar membrane is          over the kidneys.
sound.                         the rods or corti.                    Adrenal gland has two parts,
of the body.                   bony        labyrinth        and      medulla.
Ear has three main regions - the     membranous labyrinth. The            Blood pressure is controlled
outer ear, the middle ear and        bony labyrinth contains a fluid       by Adrenal gland
the inner ear.                       called perilymph.                     Adrenal medulla produces
External ear consists of pinna       Endocrine Glands &                    two hormones- adrenalin
and external auditory canal.                Hormones                       and nor- adrenalin.
Pinna is a funnel shaped              Largest endocrine gland -            Adrenal gland prepares the ani-
cartilaginous flap. It collects       Thyroid.                             mal to fight or flight.
and directs sound waves into          Thyroid gland is popularly           Adrenaline hormone raises
ear canal.                            known as Adam’s Apple.               the rate of heart beat and
The external canal ends at a         Hormones are chemical                 blood pressure.
delicate membranous diaphra-         substances produced by               The hormone secreted when a
gm, called eardrum or tympanic       endocrine glands (ductless           man gets feared is adrenaline.
membrane.                            glands).                              Deficiency of insulin leads to
The middle ear is an air- filled     Endocrine hormone molecules           excess sugar in the blood and
chamber. It communicates with        are secreted (released) directly      this sugar is excreted in the
that of the pharynx through an       into the bloodstream, whereas         urine. This disease is known
air filled tube called, Eusta-       exocrine hormones (or                 as diabetes mellitus (hyper
chian tube.                                                                glycaemia)
ectohormones) are secreted
Eustachian tube helps to             directly into a duct, and, from      The main function of insulin
equalize air pressure on either      the duct, they flow either into       is to control the level of sugar
side of ear drum and thus            the bloodstream or from cell to       in the body.
allows it to vibrate freely, when    cell by diffusion in a process       Pituitary gland is an endo-
sound waves impinge on it.           known as paracrine signalling.        crine gland attached to the
Glands are the organs of the          base of the brain.
The vibrating eardrum trans-
mits the vibration to the ear        human         body        which       The pituitary gland is called
ossicles. Ear ossicles consists      manufacture some liquid               'the master gland' in the body
of the hammer (malleus), the         products which are secreted           because it controls all other
from the cells.                       endocrine glands present in
anvil (incus) and the strip
Largest gland in our body is          the human body.
(stapes). The stapes is the
smallest bone in the body.           the liver.                            Water balance in the body is
mes
Sex chromoso
mainly controlled by the se-
and
om  es  X  X is pr esent in females
Hormone) by hypothalamus                            gs sex chromos                              of female joins
In human bein                  esen t in males. When X
sex chromosom
es XY  is pr                                  e baby (XX)
Endocrine and                                                   e pr od uc  t will be a femal
mosomes    th                                         oduct
Exocrine System                    X of male chro                     ch ro m  os om e of a male, the pr
female joins Y                              ion of a baby is
The secretions which the             and when X of                 ha t is th e sex determinat
by (XY ). T
endocrine glands produce, do not          will be male ba                           man.
nd en t on sex chromosome of
leave the gland through a duct but         depe
pass directly from the cells to the                                                      Coenzymes are small organic
blood stream.                                                                            molecules that transport
Pineal gland is another
The organ in the body which           endocrine gland situated in                   chemical groups from one
accumulates iodine is thyroid         brain. Pineal gland secretes                 enzyme to another.
gland.                                the hormone melatonin and
Insufficient iodine in the diet                                                        Muscular Tissue
seratonin.Pineal gland is also
results in the deficiency of the                                                    It is a contractile tissue
known as ‘Biological clock’.
thyroid hormone, thyroxine.                                                         consisting of very large cells.
Thyroxine deficiency in body
Exocrine Glands -                            The unit of muscle tissue is
results in a disease called
Ducted Glands                             muscle fibre, which is made of
simple goitre.                        Exocrine glands secrete their                 myofilaments.
Pancreas is an endocrine gland        product through well defined                  Based on structural and
that produces both an enzyme          ducts.                                        functional differences three
and a hormone.                        Liver is an exocrine gland,                   types of muscles are reco-
The pituitary gland is called         secretes bile in stomach.                     gnised. Unstriated muscles,
‘the master gland’ in the body        Lachrymal gland secrete tears                 Striated muscle and Cardiac
because it controls all other         in the eye.                                   muscle.
endocrine glands present in           Salivary glands secrete saliva
the human body.                       in the mouth.                           Reproduction
Water balance in the body is          Sweat glands seen on skin,                     Reproduction is a process
mainly controlled by the              secrete sweat.                                 by which an organism pro-
secretion of ADH (Anti                Sweat is a mixture of sodium                   duces new individuals or off-
Diuretic Hormone) by                  chloride and Urea.                             springs of its own species.
hypothalamus.                         Spleen is the largest lymphatic                Sexual reproduction requires
The normal value of blood             gland in human body.                           one individual of each sex.
sugar is 80 to 120mg 100 ml of    Enzymes                                           Testis is the sperm producing
blood.                                Enzymes are complex chemical                  organ of man.
Insulin prepared outside the          substances consisting, wholely                 The average period of human
body is known as Huminsulin.          or in a large part, of proteins                pregnancy is 36-38 weeks -
Thymus is another endocrine           produced in the living cells.                  approximately 280 days
gland situated in front of the        Enzymes are proteins that                      Mother’s milk contain 7% of
trachea. Thymus secretes a           catalyze chemical reactions.                   lactose.
juvenile hormone, Thymosin.           Some enzymes are used                         The part of the body that
Thymus gland becames fully            commercially, for example, in                 comes out first during delivery
developed by about 7 years and        the synthesis of antibiotics.S                - head
degenerates and disappears            ome household products use                     Identical twins are formed,
after 14 years of age because of      enzymes to speed up bio-                       when the ovum after fertiliza-
the activities of the sex glands.     chemical reactions                             tion splits into two parts.
Vasectomy - Sterilization           vagina, accessory genital            There are 24 ribs in human
process in male.                    glands and the mammary               body.
Tubectomy - Sterilization           glands.                              The total number of ear bones
process in female.                  Graffian follicle produce a          are six.
Five principal methods of           hormone estrogen.                    In an adult human being, the
asexual reproduction are:           The external genital organs of       number of vertebrae is 26. Neck
binary fission, multiple fission,   females are collectively called      region of human has 7 bones.
fragmentation, budding and          vulva. Clitoris is the vestigeal     The face of a man is made up
sporulation.                        penis in female.                     of 14 bones.
Important sexual hormones of         Phosphate of lime forms 51%
Human Reproductive System              females include estrogen and         of bone.
In the human reproductive           progesterone.                        The bones contain calcium
process, two kinds of sex cells,    An important sexual hormone          phosphates upto 85%
or gametes, are involved. The       of males is androgen, and            The smallest bone in the hu-
male gamete, or sperm, and the      particularly testosterone.           man body is the stapes (stir-
female gamete, the egg or           When the male ejaculates             rup) found in the middle ear.
ovum, meet in the female's          during intercourse, semen is         Bone marrow contains the par-
reproductive system to create       deposited into the female's          ent cells that give rise to blood
a new individual. Both the male     vagina. From the vagina the          cells.
and female reproductive             sperm make their way up              'Funny Bone' is a nerve at the
systems are essential for           through the cervix and move          back of the elbow.
reproduction.                       through the uterus with help         Cranium is the Brain box that
The organs which performs           from uterine contractions. If a      encloses brain
important functions in              mature egg is in one of the          Ethmoid is the bone of Nasal
reproduction but neither            female's fallopian tubes, a          chamber
produce gametes nor secrete         single sperm may penetrate it,       The total number of bones in
sex hormones are called             and        fertilization, or         the skull is 29.
secondary sex organs.               conception, occurs.
Secondary sex organs include                                         Disorders of Bone
the prostate, seminal vesicles,   Bones                                  The bones of aged persons are
vas deferens and penis, in          Human skeleton is made of            more fragile than the bones of
males. In females, secondary        bones and cartilages.                young persons.
sex organs include fallopian        Largest and longest bone is          The breaking of a bone is
tubes, uterus, vagina and           femur (thigh bone).                  known as fracture.
mammary glands.                     The shortest bone in the
When the person feels acute
Extra-abdominal testes are the      human body is stapes or              pain at the joints, particularly
testes of human males.              stirrup bone in the middle ear.      while moving the joints, is
Testes is the male reproductive
Human bones are made up of           referred to as arthritis.
organ. The sperms are
produced by spermatogonia.          Calcium phosphate and Cal-           Osteoarthritis is commonly
The male sex hormone, testo-        cium carbonate.                      known as ‘‘wear and tear’’
sterone, is produced by Leydig      The total number of bones in         arthritis.
cells.                              human skull is 29.                   Osteoporosis is another bone
The copulatory organ in male        The total number of bones in         disorder common in woman
is the Penis.                       an adult human body is 206.          over 50 years, and is
Female reproductive system          A new born baby has 300              characterised by decreased
consists of a pair of ovaries, a    bones, but 94 bones fuse to-         bone mass and increased
pair of oviducts, the uterus, the   gether as it grows.                  susceptibility to fractures.
Teeth                                                        Important Vaccines
There are 20 milk teeth in hu-  Vaccine ......................................... Name of the Scientist
man body.                       Small pox ....................................... Edward Jenner (1786)
Cholera ......................................... Louis Pasteur (1880)
A full set of permanent teeth
Diphtheria and tetanus .................. Emil Adolf Von Belming
consists of 32 teeth.
and Shiba saburo kita sato.
The hardest material found in   TB Vaccine .................................... Leon Calmatte and
human body is enamel.                                                             Camille Guerin.
Milk teeth appear by the age    Polio Vaccine ................................. Jonas E. Salk
of 7 months, adult teeth ap-    Measles Vaccine ............................ John F. Enders
pear from 6th year onwards
and wisdom teeth appear be-
tween the ages of 17-30 years.
National Research Institutes in India
Fluorides are the compounds
that prevent tooth decay.      Central Drug Research Institute ................................. Lucknow (U.P)
One of the ingredients of      Cattle Breeding Research Institute .......................... Hissar (Haryana)
tooth paste is calcium fluo-   National Dairy Research Institute ............................ Karnal (Haryana)
ride.                          Forest Research Institute .......................................... Dehradun (U.P)
Enamel is the hardest          Centre for Cellular and Molecular biology ...................... Hyderabad
substance in the body.         Indian Cancer Research Centre .......................................... Mumbai
Skin                              Central Marine Research Institute ...................................... Chennai
Skin is the largest organ in   Central Public Health Engineering Research Institute ........... Nagpur
human body.                    National Institute of Communicable Diseases ..... Delhi
Colour of the skin is due to
the presence of melanin.
The main function of human         of the body to maintain the
skin is protection and excre-      body temperature. Sweat                             Dermatology is the branch of
tion.                              glands help to eliminate excess                     science that deals with the
Perspiration is an usual way       heat from body.                                     study of skin and its diseases.
Genetics
Father of Modern Genetics
Genetic engineering is the
Rev. Gregor Mendel was the
branch of Science.
Augustinian priest and scientist. The
Genetics is the science of
theories of heredity attributed to Gregor
genes, heredity, and variation
Mendel, based on his work with pea plants.
in living organisms.
Experiments with Plant Hybrids, in which
A gene is the fundamental bio-
Mendel described how traits were
logical unit which is transmit-
inherited, has become one of the most enduring and influential
ted from one generation to the
publications in the history of science.
next. It is the unit of heredity.
Mendel’s study showed that one in four pea plants had
It remains at a definite posi-
purebred recessive alleles, two out of four were hybrid and one
tion on a chromosome. In man
out of four were purebred dominant. His experiments brought
forth two generalizations, the Law of Segregation and the Law
known to be found in 23 pairs
of Independent Assortment, which later became known as
of chromosomes.
Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance.
Genetics deals with heredity
and the laws that govern it.                                                            The number of chromosomes
Rev. Gregor Mendel is the              The nitrogen base Thymine in                     in a human cell is 46.
'Father of Modern Genetics.'           DNA is replaced by Uracil in                     Presence of an extra chromo-
Mutation is the process of             RNA.
some in the foetus - mongol-
sudden heritable change un-            RNA has sub-species m-RNA
dergone in a gene due to                                                                ism.
and t-RNA, which carries the
change in its composition.                                                              The Bacteria which receives
stored information of the DNA
Mutation is a change that is                                                            genes from another species is
for translation into various
inherited                                                                               called Transgenic bacteria.
proteins.
DNA (Deoxyribo nucleic acid)                                                            The genes transfer from one
In protein synthesis, the ge-
is the principal genetic mate-                                                          species to another species
netic code is carried from the
rial of all living beings.                                                              through Plasmids.
DNA of the nucleus to the ri-
The structure of DNA mol-                                                               The gene with Bt.Toxin is iso-
bosomes of the cytoplasm by
ecule was discovered by                                                                 lated       from            Bacillus
m-RNA.
Watson and Crick in 1953.                                                               Thuringiensi’s Bacteria.
Recombinant DNA involves               DNA fingerprinting has
helped to solve many myster-                     Bt. Cotton is the cotton plant
transplanting a piece of DNA                                                            with Bt.Toxin gene.
of one organism to the DNA             ies and crimes.
of another, which finds appli-
cation in the production of In-                                      DNA testing                                      sis
dividuals on the ba
terferon and Insulin.
testing   is  us ed   fo r identification of in         ed  fo  r  pa  rent al
DNA has a double helical            DNA                                  profiles. It is also
us
r  re sp ec tiv e  D  N  A                                hu  m   an   D N A
of thei                                                   .9% of
structure of nucleotide chains
an d  ra pe  in ve  sti gation. Although 99           of  th   e D  N  A  is
testing                                                    ough
consisting of deoxyribose
ce s  ar e  th e sa  m  e  in every person, en             r.  Th  e  D N  A
sequen                                                  m anothe
sugar and nitrogen bases-
nt  to  di sti ng  ui sh  one individual fro            lec    Je ffr eys  in
differe                                                 by Sir A
tec hn  iq ue  wa   s fir st reported in 1984             nt  in  g  is no  w
testng                                                    ge rpri
and Cytosine. It stores and
d.  Jeffr  ey ’s te ch  ni que of D NA fin              It  is  al so us ed
Englan                                               boratories.
transfers hereditary informa-                                      inals in forensic la                                    l
used to identify crim                                     o the true biologica
tion and creates its own rep-
m  in e pa  ter ni ty  or  maternity, th is wh
at
to deter
lica.                                                             a child.
father or mother of
ECOLOGY                                                     Charles Darwin
Ecology is the scientific study                                  He discovered a hypothesis for the origin
of the relation of plants and                                    and continuation of life on Earth. His
living organisms to each other                                    theory is also called the Theory of
and their surroundings.                                            Evolution. Charles Darwin became
Ecology is closely related to                                      famous when he hypothesized that all
the disciplines of physiology,                                      life evolved from common ancestors
evolution, genetics and                                              through evolutionary processes of
behavior.                                                             natural selection. Darwin is the first of
the evolutionary biologists, the
Biodiversity describes all
originator of the concept of natural
varieties of life from genes to
selection – Theory of Natural
ecosystems and spans every
Selection.
level of biological organization.
An ecosystem is the largest                                              Charles Darwin collected a large
number of specimens and concluded that the Species
functional unit in ecology
arose as a result of natural selection. He published his theory in his
because it includes both living
book On the Origin of Species (1859). "The Voyage of the Beagle"
(biotic) and non-living
- another important book. "In the struggle for survival, the fittest
(abiotic) environments.
win out at the expense of their rivals because they succeed in
June 5 is considered as World
adapting themselves best to their environment' - Charles Darwin.
Environment Day.
Ecomark is given to
environment friendly products
of BIS (Bureau of Indian             There are six major air                    B.O.D gives an idea of the
Standards)                           pollutants : carbon monoxide,              amount of pollution in water.
Ecological friendly tourism is       sulphur oxides, nitrogen                   B.O.D is measured as the weight
termed ecotourism.                   oxides, particulates, hydro                (in mg) of oxygen that is con-
Prof. R. Mishra is called as         carbons and photochemical                  sumed in 1 litre of water stored
‘Father of Ecology in India’.        oxidants.                                  for 5 days in darkness at a con-
The rich source of energy            The mode of transfer of energy             stant temperature of 200C.
which         never       causes     of food synthesised in plants              Water pollution is caused by
atmospheric pollution is solar       through a series of organisms              sewage, sullage and industrial
energy.                              of an ecosystem with repeated              effluents.
The conditions under which           eating and being eaten is                  The mass death of living
an organism lives constitute its     known as food chain.                       organisms including man in
environment. A few physical          The rich source of energy                  one night at Bhopal (1984),
factors that greatly influence       which never causes atmo-                   was due to the leakage of
the environment are Light,           spheric pollution is solar en-
methyl isocyanate (toxic gas)
Temperature, water and gases.        ergy.
into the air from an insecticide
A biome is a unit resulting from     The interlocking of many food
plant managed by Union
the interaction of a regional        chains is called 'food web'.
Carbide.
climate, animal and plant life       A simple sequence in which the
grass grows, a cow eats the                Environmental planning
and substrate. The types of
biome are grasslands, deserts,       grass, a human eats the cow or             organisation is NEERI. NEERI
coniferous forests, deciduous        drinks its milk, is an example of          is National Environment Engi-
forests, tropical forests, tundra,   food chain                                 neering Research Institute. It
fresh water and marine               B.O.D means Biological Oxygen              is in Nagpur.
environment.                         Demand. The estimation of                  First Earth Summit (1992) at Rio
de Janerio (Brazil) was related               Global warming
to conservation of genetic re-                Global Warming is the increase of the average
sources of plants and animals.                temperature on Earth. As the Earth is getting
Second Earth Summit (2002) at                 hotter, disasters like hurricanes, droughts and
Johannesburg (South Africa).                  floods are getting more frequent. It happens
Petroleum, coal, fossil fuel etc              when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide,
are non-renewable sources.                    water vapor, nitrous oxide, and methane)
Domestic wastes contain biode-                trap heat and light from the sun in
gradable pollutants.                          the earth’s atmosphere, which
Most hazardous metal pollut-                  increases the temperature.
ant of the automobile exhaust                 Over the last 100 years, the
of lead.                                      Earth’s surface has risen by a
Biomass is a renewable source                 little less than 1 degree Celsius or
of energy.                                    1.3 degrees Fahrenheit.
Ultra Violet rays are non-                    Increase of one degree Celsius makes                the earth warmer now
ionising radiations damaging                  than it has been for at least a thousand years.The top 11 warmest years
to DNA.                                       on record have all been in the last 13 years, said NASA in 2007, and the
Nuclear radiations may cause                  first half of 2010 has already gone down in history as the hottest ever
cataract, an eye disease.                     recorded.
Strontium-90 (Sr90) causes leu-               Projections from the UN climate change body the Intergovernmental
kaemia (blood cancer).                        Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) say that global surface temperature will
Radiation causes leukaemia.                   probably rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 degrees Celsius (2.0 to 11.5 degrees
CSE – Centre for Science and                  Fahrenheit) during the 21st century.
Environment
Origin & Evolution                                     provided proof that micro-                Greenhouse
Life was present on the earth                        organisms come only from                       Eff ect
about 3.9 billion years ago.                         other micro- organism.                                   s heat up
Theories :-                                   (iii) Cosmic origin : This notion          Green house ga se
e part of
advocates that life could have      our planet. They ar
(i) Special creation : This idea                                                                                    e and trap
originated once or several          Earth's atmospher
embodies that life on Earth is                                                                                   the sun,
times in various part of galaxy     warmth emitted by
divine creation.                                                                                               . It is this
in universe.                         thus heating Earth
(ii) Spontaneous generation :                                                                                            ouse ef-
process – the greenh
According to this theory, life                (iv) Terrestrial or Biogenic origin :                            life on the
This idea holds that life arose       fect – that makes
originates spontaneously from                                                                               .
by series of sequential               planet possible
lifeless matter ie. abiogenesis.                                                                                  se ga ses
chemical reactions. This is            Nat ur al gr eenh ou
However this idea has been put                                                                                 e, methane,
modern concept.                        like carbon dioxid
to rest when Louis Pasteur                                                                                      e  have al -
and nitrous oxid
mosphere.
Tall grass grasslands of North America ................................ Prairie                ways been in the at
e wor ld’s
Short grass grass lands ...................................................... Plains          With out th em, th
mperature
average surface te
Plants of deserts ....................................................... Xerophytes                                 8 degrees
would be a chilly -1
Coniferous forests ...................................... Boreal forests (Taiga)                                      we enjoy
Celsius. However,
ture of 14
Trees those shed their leaves ....................................... Deciduous                 an average tempera
Tropical forests ........................................ Evergreen Rain forests.               degr ees.
Tundra .......................................................................... Treeless
Koppenhagen Summit
The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, commonly known as the
Copenhagen Summit, was held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen, Denmark.
This was the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP 15) to the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 5th Meeting of the Parties
(MOP 5) to the Kyoto Protocol. The Koppenhagen Accord is a significant first
step in engaging the world's largest emitters in the global effort to slash carbon
emissions.
The Copenhagen Accord was drafted by the US, China, India, Brazil and South
Africa. Accord is not legally binding and does not commit countries to agree to
a binding successor to the Kyoto Protocol, whose present round ends in 2012.
l
Kyoto protoco                         ted Nat ions
The most important method of
pr ot oc ol to th e Uni                        conversion of pollutant is
toco l  is  a                             C or FCCC),
T he K yoto Pro                   lim  ate C hange (UNFCC                         oxidation in air.
ventio  n on   C                             international
Framework Con                   m in g. T he UNFCCC is an                        Sewage waste are always rich
glob al w ar                                opted on 11
aimed at fighting                Pr ot oc ol was initially ad                    in bacteria and organic
treaty . T he                               upon was an
environmental                      pa n. T he target agreed                      substrate.
in K yo to , Ja                            year 2012.
December 1997           5. 2%   fr om   19 90 levels by the                     In organic nitrates and
n of
average reductio                                                                phosphates           stimulate
combining with Hb.                  excessive plant growth in lake.
The effect of particulate matter    The organochlorides in
Radiation Pollution                                  depends on the size and fate        pesticides are highly persistent
Nuclear fuel cycle, combustion                 of particles on our body.           and pass through food chain.
of coal, accidents in nuclear power                  The effect of gaseous pollutant     They accumulate in fatty tissue
plants, medical therapy and                          depends on their solubility in      and affect the nervous system.
diagnosis, scientific research,                      water.                              Change in colour is a very
detonation of nuclear weapons in                     NO2 at high concentrations          common effect produced by
testing and war, television sets are                 impairs functioning of lungs by     dyes, inorganic substances
sources of radiation. Foeteses are                   accumulating water in air           like chromium and iron
more sensitive to radiation. Cancer                  spaces.                             compound.
may be increased by ionising   Polluted air cause respiratory                            Noise is physical form of
radiation.                                           disorders such as bronchitis,       pollution.
Ozone layer filters out solar                  emphysema and lung cancer           Kyoto protocol - To reduce the
ultraviolet radiation which is                 especially in children.             emissions of Green House
harmful to most animal and   Fluorides destroy leaf tissues.                       Gases (GHGs)
plant life. 90% of ozone resides   Oxides of Nitrogen and                          Montreal Protocol - To keep
in stratosphere.                               fluoride reduce crop yields.        ozone layer intact (To reduce
One chlorine atom can destroy   Hydrocarbon                         such     as    CFCs)
about 1,00,000 ozone                           ethylene causes premature           Cartegena Protocol - To
molecules.                                     falling of leaf, flower bud and     preserve bio diversity &
Tetraethyl lead and tetramethyl                curling of petals.                  Biosafty protocols
lead are used in automobiles   Smaller particles are separated                     Stockholm convention - To
as anti- knocking agent.                       from harmless gases by              reduce the use of POPs
Lead, SO 2 , NO 2 and CO                       cyclone        collector      or    (Persistent Organic Pollutants)
impedes oxygen transport by                    electrostatic precipitator.         or Dirty Dozen
Evolution of Man
Apes are represented by gibbons, orangutans,         (together called anthropoids) as well as lemurs,
chimpanzees, and gorillas.                           lorises and tarsiers, ( together called prosmians)
‘Homo sapiens’ appeared in either Africa or          Generally they have forward directed eyes,
Asia 5,00,000 years back and spread out. Today       gripping hands and feet opposable thumbs and
no other species is as widely distributed as         big toes. They tend to have nails rather than
animals.                                             claws with gripping pads on the ends of the digits,
Neanderthal specimen of man is excavated from        all adaptations to the climbing mode of life.
Neander Valley of Germany. The Neanderthals          Ramapithecus : Extreme reduction of canines,
lived 100,000 to 30,000 years ago. They were         modification of the chewing teeth, to be much
the typical cave humans, short with heavy            stronger. Development of bipedalism :- walking
brows, retreating foreheads, large jaws, a           on two feet, and than an erect posture and free
lumbering gait and stooped posture. They wore        hands. Terrestrial living and balance of head on
clothing and were good hunters.                      the spinal column. Terrestrial gathering economy.
‘Cro - magnon’ man bears the closest                 Australopithecus :- Walked erect with a curved
resemblance to modern man. He was                    back Larger size of brain barrel like trunk with
completely errect, and 6 feet tall. He belonged      robust build. Meat eaters and gathers, but still
to Stone Age. He is the most recent pre-historic     not hunters but scavenger.
man.                                                 Homo erectus : More rounded head, 5 feet in
pithecus, and Homo erectus are prehuman              started hunting ‘Domesticated’ fire.
types, ranging from 20 million years to 12 million   Homo Sapiens : More strengthened chewing
years back.                                          muscles more developed brain (all lobes
The fossil record of humans and other primates       developed). Humans, known taxonomically as
is incomplete.                                       Homo sapiens.
Modern man and apes are recent products of           Anatomically modern humans originated in Af-
evolution and both are thought to have               rica about 200,000 years ago, reaching full be-
descended from a common extinct ancestral            havioral modernity around 50,000 years ago.
form. The view that humans evolved from apes         The study of human evolution encompasses
has been invalidated.                                many scientific disciplines, including physical
Primates are members of the order of mammals         anthropology, primatology, archaeology, linguis-
that includes monkeys, apes and human                tics and genetics.
mide) is a hallucinogenic drug.     Euthanasia means mercy kill-
Medical Science                     Eldepyl is a new wonder drug        ing. It was first introduced
to treat Parkinson’s disease (a     legally in Netherlands and in
Pharmacy                              neurodegenerative disease).         Belgium second time.
Small pox was the disease          Aspirin (i.e., Acetyl Salicylic     Computer Axial Tomograph
that led to the discovery of       Acid) is commonly used as a         (CAT) scan is used for photo-
first antiviral vaccine.           pain reliever.                      graphing a selected plain of
Small pox is the only disease      The chief ingredient of the         the human body using X-rays
totally eradicated in 1980         mosquito repellant cream is         for diagnosing the cause of a
throughout the world by vac-       derived from neem plant.            disease.
cination.                          B.C.G. (Bacillus Calmette           CAT Scan is also known as
Tetracyclins (antibiotics)         Guerine) Vaccine is adminis-        CT Scan.
helps to cure trachoma, an eye     tered to prevent tuberculosis.
disease.                                                               CAT scanner was invented by
Tranquillizers are drugs to         Godfrey Hounsfield.
Antibiotics are the drugs          calm the nervous system and
which are produced by bacte-                                           MRI-Scan means Magnetic
prevent tension and worry
ria and which act against other                                        Resonance Imaging Scan.
while sedatives are drugs
strains of bacteria.                                                   PET Scan is Positron Emis-
used to induce sleep.
e.g.penicillin,streptomycin,                                           sion Tomography scan. It is
Shanvac-B is India’s first in-
chloromycin.                                                           used for studying brain.
digenous genetically engi-
Antihistamines are the sub-        neered Hepatitis - B vaccine        Otoscope is an instrument
stances that relieve the symp-     Viagra is a tablet for stimulat-    used for examining the outer
toms of asthma, hay fever and      ing sex potential.                  ear and ear drum.
other allergies.                   Morphine works as an anal-          Physiotherapy is the treat-
Antipyretics are the drugs         gesic drug and is classified as     ment of diseases or disabili-
used medically to lower body       narcotics.                          ties by massaging and exer-
temperature.                       An antibiotic is a substance        cise.
Leprosy is also known as           produced by a living organ-      Cancer
Hansen's disease.                  ism, especially a bacterium or      Uncontrolled growth of cell,
The vaccine, triple antigen is     a fungus.                           which can be caused by
given to children to immunise      Penicillin is produced from         Oncogenes are cancers.
them against Diphtheria, Per-      fungus known as Penicillium         A biopsy is done in order to
tussis (whooping cough) and        notatum.                            detect the presence of can-
Tetanus.                           CP-20-961 is a malarial vac-        cer.
Quinine is an alkaloid that        cine.                               Biopsy means examination of
cures malaria.
tissue cut from living body.
Quinine is extracted from the        Diseases and                      Lithotripter is the machine
tree ‘Cinchona officinalis.
Azidothymidine (AZT) is a
Treatments                      used to break up kidney
drug used to combat AIDS.         Avian influenza virus is             stones by ultra sound waves.
To prevent polio, two vaccines    responsible for contagious           Oral Rehydration Therapy
Sabin (oral) and Salk (inject-    disease “Avian flu” affecting        (ORT) is useful in combating
able) vaccine are offered.        birds.                               cholera, dysentery and gas-
A drug that prevents infection    Avian flu is due to the mutated      troenteritis.
and decay is called an anti-      genes of H5N1 virus.                 In medicine, radioactive iso-
septic.                           SARS is severe Acute                 topes are used as tracers for
LSD (lysergic acid diethyla-      Respiratory Syndrome.                diagnostic purposes.
Diseases and Affected Organs                                                     Contagious diseases are dis-
Osteomyelitis ................................................... Vertebral column               eases which spread from one
Polio ...................................................... Central nervous system              person to another by physi-
Malaria ............................................................................... RBC      cal contact.
Meningitis ................................................. brain and spinal cord               Infectious diseases are diseases
Typhoid .................................................... Intestine, whole body               caused by a specific organism
Diphtheria ........................................................................ throat       and spread through air, water,
Bright’s disease .............................................................. kidney           food, etc.
Eczema ................................................................................ skin    The loss of elasticity of
Hepatitis ............................................................................. liver   muscles results in a disease
Jaundice ............................................................................. liver    called Parkinson’s disease. It
Tuberculosis ..................................................................... lungs        was invented by an English
Pneumonia ........................................................................ lungs        surgeon namely James
Gingivitis,pyorrhoea .......................................................... gums            Parkinson.
Goitre ............................................................................. thyroid     Malaria is caused by Plasmo-
Trachoma ........................................................................... eyes        dium vivax.
Arthritis ............................................................................ joints    Malaria is spread by female
anopheles mosquitoes and it
Arsenic - 74 is used to detect                         Protozoans cause amoebic                 affects the RBC.
tumours.                                               dysentery, malaria, African              Plague is spread by rat fleas.
Sodium - 24 is incorporated                            sleeping sickness, Kala-azar             Dengue fever is spread by
into salt (NaCl) and used to                           etc..                                    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
detect the presence of blood                           Fungi causes athelete’s foot             Tuberculosis, Smallpox and
clots in the circulatory system.                       and ringworm.                            Influenza are diseases that
Cobalt-60 is used in treatment                         Haemophilia, sickle cell                 spreads through air.
of cancer.                                             anaemia and Huntington’s                 Tuberculosis is known as
China is famous for the mode                            disease (It is a hereditary dis-         'White Plague.'
of medical treatment called                             ease resulting in the involun-
Acupuncture.                                                                                     Tetanus can cause lock jaw.
tary movement of body parts.)
Anaemia is the shortage of                             are congenital diseases (ie,             Cholera, typhoid, dysentery
haemoglobin in blood.                                  present at birth).                       and diarrhoea are water borne
The number one killer dis-                             Diphtheria is a disease of               diseases.
eases in the world are tuber-                          throat.                                  Exophthalmic goitre is known
culosis and cardiovascular                                                                      as grave’s disease.
D.P.T. Vaccine (Triple Vac-
disease respectively.                                                                           Disease causing microorgan-
cine) is used to prevent diph-
Pneumonia, gonorrhoea, tu-                                                                      isms are called pathogens.
theria, pertusis or whooping
berculosis, tetanus (or lock-
cough and tetanus.                       The virus which attack bacteria
jaw), botulism, syphilis, ty-
Rubeola is the medical name              is called bacteriophage.
phoid, cholera, leprosy,
plague, whooping cough etc                             of the disease measles.                  Arthritis and rheumatism af-
are bacterial diseases.                                Elephantiasis is caused by the           fect the joints.
Chickenpox, rubeola (German                            nematoda              ‘Wuchereria        Hydrophobia is a disease
measles), measles, mumps, in-                          bancrofti’.                              caused by the bite of a mad
fluenza, common cold, AIDS,                            The vector of the disease fi-            dog. It is commonly known as
hepatitis, polio and rabies are                        lariasis (elephantiasis) is culex        rabies. It can be prevented by
viral diseases.                                        mosquito.                                injections discovered by Louis
Pasteur. Injections are known                               Common Drugs
as ARV ( Anti-Rabies Venom).
Anaesthetics     Drugs that block sensory nerves and make a patient
Rabies is caused by a virus,                         fully unconscious to prevent him from feeling pain.
and it affects the nerve cells
Analgesics       Drugs used to prevent or relieve pain like aspirin.
of the brain.
Antibiotics      Drugs used to prevent growth of bacteria or other
Alzheimer’s disease Amyloid                          germs.
beta (A  ) deposits are the
Antihistamines These drugs are used to relieve symptoms of asthma,
fundamental cause of this dis-                       hay fever and other allergies.
ease.                               Antipyretics     Drugs used to lower body temperature.
Trypanosomiasis is transmit-
Hormones         Drugs used to combat hormone deficiency that cause
ted from animal to man by the                        diseases.
tse-tse fly and causes the
Narcotics        Drugs that deaden the nervous system and prevent a
dreaded disease sleeping sick-                       person from feeling pain.
ness. Kala-azar (Leishmania-
Sedatives        Drugs used to induce sleep, like barbiturates and
sis) is transmitted by                               bromides.
sandflies.
Tranquillizers Drugs that calm nervous system and prevent worry,
Hypothermia is the loss of
tension etc.
body heat (below 31.70C).
People living in hilly areas        Vaccines         Drugs that are injected to help the body to develop
resistance to disease or immunization of the body.
suffer from goitre because of
the lack of iodine in diet and
drinking water.                         stimulates the formation of             tan. But an excess is harmful
Minamata disease resulting              antibodies.                             and can cause skin cancer and
from mercury poisoning                  A colour-blind person has dif-          damage to retina.
ficulty in distinguishing be-           Test tube baby refers to the
causes brain damage, birth
tween green and red colour.             phenomenon, where the fer-
defects and death.
This disease mainly affects
Virus is responsible for                                                        tilization is external and devel-
males.
commoncold, the disease                 Hookworm enters the intes-              opment is internal.
which affects largest number            tine by penetrating through             World's first test tube baby
of people in the world.                 the skin.                               Louise Brown was born on
Amnesia is related to the loss          25th July 1978.
Miscellaneous
of memory.                              World health day is observed
Antigen is a substance which            UV radiation also give us a sun         on April 7th.
Important Digestive Enzymes
Amyalse, (ptyalin)              Salivary glands in mouth                  Starch to maltose
Pepsin                          Gastric glands in stomach                 Proteins to peptones
Trypsin                         Pancreas in abdomen                       Proteins to peptones
Amylase                         Pancreas                                  Carbohydrate to maltose
Lipase                          Pancreas                                  Fats to fatty acid and glycerol.
Erepsin                         Intestinal glands in small intestine      Peptides to amino acids
Maltase                         Intestinal glands                         maltose to glucose
Lactase                         Intestinal glands                         lactose to glucose
Sucrase                         Intestinal glands                         sucrose to glucose.
Agriculture                                                                         dens in India
Famous Botanical Garre, Kolkata
of India, Alipo
Agri Horticultural Society
The chemical contained in to-                                     Shibpur, Kolkata
Indian Botanical Gardens,
bacco is nicotine in root.                                         taka
Quinine, Tannin and Cinna-                           tan ica l Garde ns, Udagamandalam, Tami
Government Bo
mon are obtained from the          Jhansi Botanical Garden,                                      desh
rden, Saharanpur, Uttar Pra
bark of the tree.                  Saharanpur Botanical Ga
Darjeeling, West Bengal
Tea leaves contain 18% tan-        Lloyd's Botanical Garden,                                 rsity, West Bengal
nts, North Bengal Unive
nin.                               Garden of Medicinal Pla                                     lode Kerala
and Research Institute Pa
T x D and D x T are high yield-     Tropical Botanic Garden
ing hybrid varieties of coco-
nut.                            Fertilizers                                       ily and rapidly degraded in
Hybrid is an animal or plant                                                      nature.
Azolla acts as biofertilizer in              Biological control of insects
that has been bred from two
association with the blue-green              means control of insect popu-
different types of animals or
algae. It is used in the cultiva-            lation in exploitation of natu-
plants.                              tion of rice.                                ral prey-predator relationship.
HYV means High Yielding Va-          N.P.K. mixtures are fertilizers              D.D.T. (an insecticide) has a
rieties.                             with the mixtures of nitrogen,               tendency to remain stable in
Foot and Mouth disease oc-           phosphorus and potassium.                    environment for long periods.
curs in cattle, sheep and pigs.      Nitrogen helps in greening of                Bordeaux mixture is a fungi-
Cocoon stage of silkworm pro-        plants and their rapid growth.               cide.
duces silk.                          Phosphorous helps in flower-                 BHC is Benzene Hexa Chlo-
Silk worms are reared on mul-        ing of plants.                               ride.
Potassium helps in the fruit                 Loss of agricultural productiv-
berry.
forming stage in plants.                     ity due to pests and diseases
The most important stimulant         Salinity of soil can be neutral-             is about 30%.
in coffee leaves is caffeine.        ized by using pyrite and gyp-                Sporeine is a bio insecticide.
Opium is extracted from the          sum.                                         Sporeine was the first bio in-
immature fruits of the plant         Iron is an essential micro-nu-               secticide to be developed on
poppy(Papaver somniferum).           trient required for the devel-               a commercial scale.
Paper is chemically cellulose.       opment of plants.                            Natural insecticide 'azadira-
Sunflower oil has the maxi-          Blue-Green algae works as a                  ctin' is obtained from Neem.
mum polyunsaturated fatty            bio-fertilizer.                              The pesticide used in founda-
acids.                                                                            tions of buildings for prevent-
Mint is propagated through
Pesticides                                        ing, termite attack is 'Aldrin.'
rhizomes.                            Pesticides include insecti-
cides, fungicides, nemati-
Forestry
For safe storage, the moisture
cides, rodenticides and herbi-
contents of foodgrains                                                            Turpentine oil is obtained from
cides.
should be less than 14%.                                                          pinus tree.
D.D.T and Parathion pesti-
The acid present in the soil          cides are banned in most of                  Sweet potato is a modification
and substances formed by the          the developed countries. Ma-                 of adventitious roots.
decomposition of decayed              jor drawback of D.D.T as a                   Plants and animals living in a
green matter is ‘humic acid.’         pesticide is that it is not eas-             given area form a community.
Numbers in Human Body
Number of bones ........................................ 206          Rate of blood pressure ........................... 120/80 mm. Hg.
Number of muscles ..................................... 639           Number of RBC's ................. in male - 5,000,000/Cu. m.m.
Number of ribs .............................................. 24                                          in female - 45,000,000/Cu. m.m.
Number of bones in skull .............................. 22            Life span of RBC ............................................. 120 days
Number of bones in neck ............................... 7             Life span of WBC ........................................... 2-15 days
Number of bones in face ............................... 14            Amount of blood ............................................. 5-6 litres
Number of cranial nerves ...................... 12 pairs              Average amount of haemoglobin .. 14-15 mg/100 ml blood
Number of spinal nerves ....................... 31 pairs              Weight of brain .................................................. 1.4 kg.
Number of heart beat ........... 70-72 times/minute
Respiratory rate ................... 16-20 times/minute                                    Test and Diseases
Byopsi ....................................................... Cancer
Lepromin Test .......................................... Leprosy
Rain forests occur in Western Ghat and East-                      Eliza Test ....................................................... Aids
ern Himalayas.                                                    Western Blot ................................................. Aids
Herbarium is a collection of 'preserved                           Shik Test ................................................. Diptheria
plants.'                                                          Tuberculin Test ................................. Tuberculosis
Papsmear ......................................... Uterus Cancer
The 'Great Banyan Tree' is in Indian Botani-
Glycocelated Haemoglobin ..................... Diabetics
cal Garden Sibpur, Kolkata.                                       E.E.G .............................................. Brain Diseases
Wild Life Protection Act was enacted in India in                  E.C.G .............................................. Heart Diseases
1972.                                                             Mamography .................................... Breast Cancer
The threat of extinction of tigers forced the India               Widal Test ................................................ Typhoid
Vasarman Test ......................................... Syphilles
government to initiate the 'Project Tiger' on April 1,
1973.                                                                    (BSI) with its head office in Kolkata came into
In India, paper is mainly manufactured from                              existence in 1890.
Bamboos.                                                                 National Botanical Garden (National Botanical
Mango, Papaya, Banana, Guava, Pineapple,                                 Research Institute, NBRI) is situated in Lucknow.
Mangosteens etc are included
in tropical fruits.
Human Genome Project (HGP)
Silent valley is a conserved                        HGP was launched in 1988, with the Nobel
forest.                                     laureate      Dr. James D. Watson as the director
Tropical rain forest is seen in             and    the   project envisaged.
Assam.                                              The Human Genome Project originally
Nicotine is a poisonous aimed to map the nucleotides contained in a
alkaloid present in Tobacco.                human haploid reference genome (more than
Brazil is the native place of three billion).
cashewnut.                                          Objective of the Human Genome Project
Rainforests occur in Western is to understand the genetic makeup of the
Ghat and Eastern Himalayas. human species, the project has also focused
‘Vanamahotsav’ started in on several other nonhuman organisms such as
1950.                                       E. coli, the fruit fly, and the laboratory mouse.
Chipko movement is                                  Project identified and map the
connected with plant approximately 20,000–25,000 genes of the
conservation.                               human genome from both a physical and
Botanical survey of India functional standpoint.
The Ramsar Convention                                                                       Cloning
The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conserva-                                  Cloning is the process of
producing many identical
tion and sustainable utilisation of wetlands. Ramsar Convention
organisms or clones (clone
(1971) was drafted at Ramsar, Iran. The headquarters is located in                                  means exact carbon copy or
Gland, Switzerland.                                                                                 copies of a single parent).
World Wetlands Day occurs
It is the production of one
on 2 February each year.
individual organism from a
nucleus, cell or asexual offshot
Tallest Animal ........................................................................... Giraffe
or another.
Largest Bird ............................................................................ Ostrich
Ian Wilmut and his colleagues
Smallest Bird................................................................. Humming Bird
at the Roslin Research Institute
Largest snake ..................................................................... Anakonda
in Scotland cloned the first
Largest Mammal ............................................................. Blue Whales
sheep Dolly.
Largest animal in land ............................................... African Elephant
Longest flying bird ............................................................... Articturn          The young one of Dolly,
Largest Reptile .................................................................... Crocodile         named Polly, was born in 1998.
Fastest animal........................................................................... Chetta       Ian Wilmut is considered as
The Scientific Names
Indian elephant ............................. Elephas maxims
Man ................................................ Homo sapiens
Cat ............................................ Felix domesticus
Hornbill ....................................... Buseros bywrnis
Peacock .......................................... Pavo cristatus
Tiger ............................................. Panthera tigris                          the father of cloning.
Carbon copy is the first cloned
Cockroch ........................... Periplaneta americana
cat, in 2001, at Texas A and M
Earthworm ............................ Pheretima Posthuma                                    university.
Crow ......................................... Corvus Splendens                              Cell cloning is based on the
Parrot ....................................... Psittacula krameri                            property of totipotency ( in
Penguin .................................. Aptenodytes forsteri                              plant) or pleuripotency ( in
animals).
Sparrow.................................... Passer domesticus
Totipotency is a potential
Whale .................................. Balaenoptera indica
ability of plant cell to grow into
Cow ..................................................... Bos indica                         complete plant. Pleuripotency
Pig ...................................................... Sus scrofa                        is the potential ability of an
Camel .................................. Camelus dromedarius                                 animal cell to develop into any
Horse ............................................ Equus caballus                            type of cell in the animal body.
Species cloned
Donkey ............................................ Equus asinus