PHYSICS
Physics is the study of the proper-        tor quantity and its unit is       The branch of science which
ties of matter and energy.                 m/s2.                              deals with the study of relative
                                           A decrease in the velocity with    movement of interacting
           MOTION                          time is called deceleration or     surfaces is called tribology.
       The length of the path be-          retardation. It is otherwise       In order to increase stability,
       tween two points is the dis-        known as negative accelera-        a person climbing a hill bends
       tance between them.                 tion.                              forward.
       Physical quantities that have       • If the acceleration remains      The flying of birds is a con-
       only magnitude and no               constant, i.e., it does not        sequence of Newtons third
       direction are called scalar         change with time it is said to     law of motion.
       quantities.                         be uniform acceleration.        Equations of Motion
       Eg: Distance, speed, time,          • The earth attracts every-        Three exists some relation be-
       work, mass, density, tempera-       body towards its centre. The       tween velocity acceleration
       ture etc.                           acceleration with which freely     and the time intervals during
                                           falling bodies are attracted       which we study the motion of
       Physical quantities that have
                                           towards the earth is called the    a body. These relations are
       both magnitude and direction
                                           acceleration due to gravity. It    called equations of motion.
       are called vector quantities.
                                           is same for all bodies and its     They are:
       Eg: Displacement, weight,           value is 9.81 m/s.                      V = u + at
       velocity, acceleration etc.
                                           Inertia is the tendency of a            S = ut + 1/2 at2
       Speed is the distance travelled     body to continue in its state
       by a body in unit time. It is a                                             2as = v2 – u2
                                           of rest or the state of uniform
       scalar quantity. Its unit is m/s.                                      where v - final velocity
                                           motion along a straight line.
                                                                              u - initial velocity
                     Distance              Galileo discovered law of in-
           Speed                                                             t - time interval
                       Time                ertia.
                                           An athlete run some distance       a - uniform acceleration
      Velocity is the displacement
                                           before taking a long jump, by      s - displacement
      per unit time. It is a vector
      quantity and its unit is m/s.        running the athlete gives him-     The force required to stop a
                                           self larger inertia of motion.     moving body depends on its
                   Displaceme nt                                              mass and also on its velocity.
      Velocity                            As the train starts moving, a
                       Time                man sitting inside leans back-     Momentum (P) is defined as
       Acceleration is the rate of         wards because of inertia of        the product of mass and ve-
       change of velocity. It is a vec-    rest.                              locity of a body i.e, P = mv
                      DeputyCollectorRankFile
   Momentum is a vector quan-         called adhesion.                       etal force.
   tity                               Weight can be defined as the           Friction can be reduced by
   Unit of momentum is Kg m/s.        force with which earth attracts        changing over from sliding
         FORCE                        a body.                                to rolling
                                          Weight, w = m × g                  When a man circles round the
   Force is any influence that
                                                                             earth in a spacecraft, his mass
   tends to change the state of       Mass remains constant while
   rest or the uniform motion in a                                           remains constant but weight
                                      weight varies from place to            becomes zero
   straight line of a body.           place.
   Unit of force is Newton                                                   Two object lossing the same
                                      Friction is a force that resists       weight when immersed in wa-
   The force of attraction bet-
   ween like molecules is called      the movement of one surface            ter must have the same den-
   cohesion.                          over another.                          sity
   The force of attraction be-        The force required by a re-            Centrifugal force helps to
   tween unlike molecules is          volving body is called centrip-        separate cream from milk.
  GRAVITATION
  The attractive force of earth,
  or other celestial body, on an
  object is called gravity.
  The earth attracts everybody
  towards its centre. The
  acceleration with which the
  freely falling bodies are
  attracted towards the earth is
  called the acceleration due to
  gravity (g).
       Value of g = 9.8 m/s2
  The value of g at the centre of
  earth is zero.
  The value of g is very high at          Gravitation keeps the planets in orbit around the Sun.
  polar region.                                                             of the earth. Therefore, the ac-
                                     region and low in the equatorial
  The value of g is very small at                                           celeration due to gravity expe-
                                     region.
  equitorial region.                                                        rienced on the moon will be less
                                     The weight of a body on the
  The weight of a substance is                                              than the acceleration due to
                                     moon will be less than its
  zero at the centre of earth. As                                           gravity experienced on the
                                     weight on the earth. This is so
  the mass of the substances         because the mass of the moon                                       1
  increases the gravitational                                               earth. This will be about     g.
                                          1                                                             6
  force between them also            is      of the mass of the earth
                                         81                              On the moon an astronaut can-
  increases.                                                                not drink lemonade with the
  The weight of a body in                            1                      help of a straw because - There
  earth is very high in the polar    its radius is      of the radius
                                                   3.66                     is no atmosphere on the moon.
                    DeputyCollectorRankFile
  The mass of a body which               The line on earth’s surface           smallest surface area.
  determines the gravitational           passing through the places         The spherical shape of rain
                                         having zero dip is called the         drops and mist drops are due
  force of attraction due to earth
                                         magnetic equator. It passes           to surface tension. The
  is called gravitational mass.          through Thumba.                       spherical shape is attained to
  Escape velocity is the minimum
                                        VISCOSITY AND                          maintain equilibrium.
  speed which a spacecraft must                                             Soap bubbles also tend to form
  have to escape from the earth's      SURFACE TENSION                         themselves into shapes with
  gravitational force. It is             Capillary action is responsible       minimal surface area.
  7 miles/s. (or 11.2 km/s)              for the absorbance of water by     Soap is added to water to
  The escape velocity of a body          the plants and oils by the wick       reduce the surface tension, so
  is different and different             of lamps.                             clothes (or whatever else) get
                                         Fluids flow with zero viscosity       much cleaner.
  celestial bodies.
                                         is called superfluids (anti-       Water has a fairly low viscosity;
  In the absence of an effective
                                         gravity property).                    things like shampoo or syrup
  force of gravity, bodies become        The force within the liquid           have higher viscosities.
  weightless in artificial satellites.   which opposes the relative         Viscosity also depends on
  Gravitational field is the space       motion of one layer over the          temperature : engine oil, for
  around a massive body in               other is called viscosity.            instance, is much less viscous
  which gravitational force of           Venturimeter is used for mea-         at high temperatures than it is
  attraction is felt.                    suring the rate of flow of liq-       in a cold engine in the middle
  Planets move slower along              uids.                                 of winter.
                                         Viscosity is the internal fluid
  their orbits when they are                                                     ELASTICITY
                                         friction.
  farthest from the sun (at              Surface tension is the property
  apogee) and they move faster                                                  Elasticity is the ability of a
                                         possessed by a liquid surface          body to return to its original
  along their orbits when they           whereby they appear to be              shape and size on the removal
  are nearest to the sun (at             covered by a thin elastic              of the deforming force.
  perigee)                               memberane.                         Glass is more elastic than
  Gravitation is responsible for         Surface tensions is caused by          steel and steel is more elastic
  keeping the Earth and the other        unbalanced molecular cohe-             than rubber.
  planets in their orbits around         sive force.                        If a body does not regain its
                                         Unit of surface tension is N/m.       original size and shape after
  the Sun; for keeping the Moon
                                         When the temperature of fluids        the removal of deforming force,
  in its orbit around the Earth;
                                         increases viscosity decreases.        it is called a plastic body and
  for the formation of tides; for        The surface tension decreases         this property is called plasticity.
  natural convection, by which           with rise of temperature.             Eg: Clay, Plasticine etc.
  fluid flow occurs under the            Surface tension is a property
  influence of a density gradient        of a liquid by which the free             DENSITY &
  and gravity; for heating the           surface of a liquid behaves like          PRESSURE
  interiors of forming stars and         a stretched elastic membrane,
  planets to very high tempera-          having contractive tendency.
                                                                                                  Mass
                                         The larger the surface, the                 Density 
  tures; and for various other                                                                   Volume
                                         more energy there is. To
  phenomena observed on                  minimize energy, most fluids                         Density of a body
  Earth.                                                                  Re lative density 
                                         assume the shape with the                            Density of water
                    DeputyCollectorRankFile
                                 Eye Opener
                                                                        ut havi ng any
                                       hi  gh  vo lt age cable witho
                        ts on a very                                       out due to
     When a bird si                    fe  at he rs   tends to spread
                       r on it , it s                                       of the bird
 in sula ti on cove                       ie;  feat he  rs on ei ther side
  electrostati c re
                     pulsive force.                                    sitively charged
                                        . (e ith er both become po
                     d of like natu  re                                   takespla ce.
  become charge                  ly   ch  ar ge  d) .H ence repulsion
                      e negative
   or both becom
                                                                 Thrust
      The amount of water vapour                  Pr essure            N / m 2 or Pascal
                                                                  Area
      in the air is termed as humidity.
                                                          The total normal force exerted
      When a piece of ice floating                        by a fluid on a surface is called
      on the surface of water in a                                                            to accomplish work - it is like
                                                          thrust. Its unit is Newton (N).     the "currency" for performing
      bucket melts completely, the
                                                          Pressure increases with depth       work. To do 100 joules of work,
      water level will remain the
                                                          The pressure inside a baro-         you must expend 100 joules of
      same.
                                                          meter remains high under a          energy.
      An iron nail floats on mercury                      calm climate.
      but sinks in water because the                                                          Power is the rate of doing work
                                                          Mercury is used as the liquid
      specific density of iron is                                                             or the rate of using energy,
                                                          in thermometers as it does not
      lower than that of mercury and                                                          which are numerically the
                                                          wet glass.
      higher than that of water.                                                              same. If you do 100 joules of
                                                          Pascal’s law states that pre-
      A petrol fire cannot be                             ssure in a fluid in equilibrium
                                                                                              work in one second (using 100
      extinguished by throwing                                                                joules of energy), the power is
                                                          is the same everywhere.
      water on it since the density                                                           100 watts.
                                                          Water distribution in cities,
      of water is more than the                                                               Unit of energy is joule.
                                                          flush tank, hydraulic brake,
      density of petrol, water sinks                                                          The energy possessed by a
      below the petrol when it is                         hydraulic lift, hydraulic press
                                                          etc are working based on            body due to its position in a
      poured over a petrol fire.                                                              field of force or configuration
      The density of sea water is                         Pascal’s law.
                                                          The lactometer used to test         is called potential energy.
      higher than the density of                                                                   P.E = mgh
      river water, therefore it is                        the purity of milk is based on
                                                          the principle that the greater      m = mass       g = gravity
      easier to swim in the sea than
                                                          density of a liquid, the lesser     h=height (distance between
      in river. This is why a ship
                                                          will be the immension of an         the body and the surface)
      entering from river mouth to
      sea rises up a little.                              object.                             Energy of a body due to its
      Ice floats on water because its                                                         motion is called kinetic energy.
                                                      WORK, ENERGY
      weight is less than the weight                                                               Kinetic energy = 12 mv 2
      of an equal volume of water.                         AND POWER                               (m = mass, v = velocity)
      Ice floats on water but sinks                 Work refers to an activity                The change in the kinetic
      in alcohol because the density                     involving a force and                energy of an object is equal to
      of alcohol is lower than that                      movement in the directon of the      the net work done on the
      of water.
                                                         force. A force of 20 newtons         object.
      The density of water is maxi-
      mum at 40C                                         pushing an object 5 meters in        Mechanical energy can be
      The pressure at a point on a                       the direction of the force does      either kinetic energy (energy of
      surface is the thrust acting                       100 joules of work.                  motion) or potential energy
      normally per unit area around                 Energyis the capacity for doing           (stored energy of position).
      that point.                                        work. You must have energy           Objects have mechanical
                         DeputyCollectorRankFile
  energy if they are in motion        speed in a circle in a horizon-      Machanical advantage of a
  and/or if they are at some          tal plane over his head, does
                                                                                           load
  position relative to a zero         no work.                                machine = effort
  potential energy position           Unit of work is Newton metre
  Rate of doing work is called        (Nm).                                         WAVES
  power. Its unit is watt          LEVERS                                     Electromagnetic waves are
              work                                                            coupled periodic electrical
   Power                            A lever is a simple machine
              time                                                            and magnetic disturbances
  Escape velocity is the velocity    consisting of a rigid rod pivoted
                                                                              created by oscillating electric
                                     at a fixed point called the
  with which a projectile must be                                             charges.
                                     fulcrum. It is used for shifting
  projected in order that it may                                              All waves of the electro mag-
                                     or raising a heavy load or
  escape the earth’s gravitational                                            netic spectrum travel at the
                                     applying force in a similar way.
  pull.                                                                       same velocity, a quantity
                                     A body in which a force is felt          known as the speed of light.
  The escape velocity from the       is called resistance (R) and the         The speed of light is approxi-
  surface of the earth is 11.2 kms   force applied here is called             mately 3×10 8 m/s (about
  The escape velocity from the       effort (E).                              186,000 miles per second).
  planet, Jupiter is 61 km/second.   If the fulcrum comes in                  Electromagnetic waves can
  For Mercury it is 42 km/second.    between resistance and effort            travel through vacuum.
  According to law of                such levers are called Ist order         Transverse wave is a type of
  conservation of energy of          levers.                                  energy wave in which motion
  Albert Einstein, energy can        Eg: balance, nail puller see-saw,        of the particles is perpendicu-
  neither be created nor be                                                   lar to the motion of the wave.
                                     a pair of scissors etc.
  destroyed but it may be                                                     Wave on a rope and waves on
                                     If resistance comes in between           the surface of water are trans-
  transformed from one form to
                                     effort and fulcrum then such             verse.
  another.                           levers are called II nd order            If the motion of the particles
   The energy possessed by the
                                     levers.                                  is along the direction of mo-
   water collected in the reser-
                                     Eg: Wheel barrow, nut cracker            tion of waves, it is called a lon-
   voir of a dam is potential en-
                                     etc.                                     gitudinal wave.
   ergy                                                                       Sound waves in a medium
   When a force acts upon an         If effort is between resistance
                                     and fulcrum such levers are              (solid, liquid or gas) are longi-
   object causes a displacement                                               tudinal.
                                     called III rd order levers.
   then, it is said that work was                                             Transverse waves travel in
   done upon that object.                                                     the form of crests and troughs
   There are three key ingredi-      Eg: Pincers, Icetongs etc.               while longitudinal wave trav-
   ents to work - force, displace-   Efficiency of a machine                  els in the form of compres-
   ment, and cause.                      Power output                         sions and rarefactions.
   The work done by a force on       = Power input                            Earthquake waves are infra-
   a body is defined as the prod-                                             sonic waves.
   uct of the magnitude of the
   force and the distance moved                         Levers can be used to exert a large force over
                                                        a small distance at one end by exerting only a
   in the diection of force.
                                                        small force over a greater distance at the other.
   Work done = force × distance
   A boy, swinging a stone, tied
   to a string, with a uniform
                    DeputyCollectorRankFile
  The property which distin-         the sound waves get reflected         Hz) are called infrasonic
  guishes transverse waves           and they can change their             waves.
  from longitudinal waves is         direction. They use this              Sounds of frequency higher
  polarization.                      method to catch insects also.         than 20,000 Hz are known as
  Diffraction is the property in     Since sound waves need a              ultrasonic and are inaudiable.
  waves of turning round the         medium to travel they cannot          SONAR stands for Sound
  edges of an obstacle.              be transmitted through                Navigation And Ranging. It
  Sound can be heard around a        vacuum.                               uses ultrasonic waves.
  corner due to diffraction.         The audible frequency of
                                                                           Sound travels faster throu-
  When a wave strikes a surface      human ear is between 20 hertz
                                                                           gh solids, expecially, throu-
  of separation of two different     and 20,000 hertz (20 KHz).
                                                                           gh metals.
  media, some of it is thrown        A speed greater than the
  back into the original medium.     speed of sound is referred to         The intensity of sound is
  This property of bouncing of       as supersonic.                        measured in decibel.
  the waves is called reflection.    Velocity of sound in the air is       The intensity of polite con-
  The property of sound reflec-      340 m/s.                              versation is 40 db-30 db.
  tion is used by bats (which        Sound consists of waves of            During night the allowed in-
  cannot see in the dark) for fly-   alternate compression and             tensity of sound in a hospital
  ing during night .                 rarefaction that transmit ki-         area is 40 db.
  Visible light is electromagnetic   netic energy through a me-            The reverberation of sound in
  wave in the range of frequen-      dium.                                 a hall results due to continued
  cies 4.3×1014 to 7×1014 Hz.        Frequency of a sound wave             reflection
  Electromagnetic waves do not       is th e number of wa ve-              Sound travels faster in steel
  require any material medium        lengths (vibrations) that are         Sound can travel only
  for their propagation, they        completed in a given period           through a medium. It cannot
  can travel in vacuum.              of time.                              travel through vacuum. It trav-
  RADAR is the abbreviation of       Doppler effect is the change          els through solids, liquids and
  Radio detection and ranging.       in a sound wave’s frequency           gases.
                                     (and wavelength) that is              Equipment for generating or
        SOUND                        caused when the hearer and            using sound includes musical
  Sound is a travelling wave.        sound source move relative            instruments, hearing aids,
  Sound requires medium to           to each other.
                                                                           sonar systems and sound
  travel.                            Sounds are distinguished
                                                                           reproduction and broad
  Sound cannot travel through        from each other by pitch (fre-
                                                                           casting equipment. Many of
  vacuum.                            quency), loudness (inten-
                                                                           these use electro-acoustic
  Study of sound is known as         sity) and quality.
                                     We ca n recogn i se our               transducers         such     as
  Acoustics.
                                     friends from their voices due         microphones and loud
  Echo and reverberation are
                                     to the quality of sound.              speakers.
  due to the reflection of sound.
  For the production of echo         Phonogram is a machine to
                                     reproduce sound.
                                                                          How do bats fly at
  there should be a minimum
  distance of 17m between us         Th e speed of soun d de-                      night?
  and the reflecting surface.        pends on the medium the               Bats can fly in the dark
  Bats can fly in the dark           waves pass through.             because ultrasonic            waves
  because they can generate          Sounds with frequencies         produced by them during flying are
                                     lower than the lowest limit     reflected back to them from the
  ultrasonic sound and if there
                                                                     obstacles in their way and hence
  is any hindrance in their way      of human hearing (about 20
                                                                     they can fly with out difficulty.
                    DeputyCollectorRankFile
             LIGHT                       LASER is a source of intense         James Clark Maxwell
                                         monochromatic light in the ul-       founded that lights are
  ‘The corpuscular theory’               traviolet, visible or infrared re-   electromagnetic waves.
     related to light was proposed       gion of the spectrum.                Wave theory of light was dis-
     by Issac Newton in 1675.            LASER beams are used in the          covered by Christian
  Study of light is known as op-         medical field to perform minute      Huygens.
     tics.                               operations.                          Microwave Amplification by
  Light an electromagnetic radia-        LASER was discovered by              Stimulated Emission of Radia-
     tion.                               Theodore Maiman in 1960.             tion was discovered by Charles
  Through vacuum electro                 Visible spectrum is the band         H. Towns.
     magnetic waves travels with a       of colours obtained when a ray
     speed of 2.9979×108 m/s.            of light passes through a
                                         prism.                               change of direction of light
  Paper, cardboard and stone are
                                         Spectrum consists of seven           when passing from one
     examples for opaque substa-                                              transparent substance to
     nces (substance which do not        colours viz Violet, Indigo, Blue,
                                                                              another. When we put a stick
     passess light).                     Green, Yellow, Orange and Red
                                                                              in water it seems to be bended.
  Substances which allow the             (VIBGYOR).
                                                                              It is due to refraction.
     light to pass through are called    Violet light is scattered most,
                                                                              Diffraction is the spreading out
     transparent substances.             blue somewhat less, and green,
                                                                              of waves of light as it passes
     Eg: glass                           yellow and orange still less, in
                                                                              through a narrow aperture.
                                         that order.
  The particle which is sup-                                                  The spreading of light rays
                                         Red light is scattered least.
     posed to travel faster than light                                        towards the screen from a
     is tachyon                          The beautiful colour of the
                                                                              projector in film theatre is due
  Tachyons were discovered by            soap foam and oilspread water        to diffraction.
     E.C.G. Sudarshan.                   is due to interference of light.     Dispersion is the splitting up
  On a rainy afternoon a rainbow         Red, green and blue are the          of light ray into different
     is seen in the east                 primary colours.                     colours. Rainbow is formed
  A rainbow is always seen in the        Green objects placed in red          due to dispersion. The seven
     opposite direction of the sun.      light will appear black.             colours of light has different
  Rainbow is caused by reflec-           In the spectrum violet light has     wavelength. Hence when light
     tion, refraction and dispersion     short wave length and high fre-      passes through a prism each
     of light by the water particles     quency. While red light has          colour gets refracted at
     present in the atmosphere.          the highest wave length and          different angles.
  LASER is Light Amplification           the least frequency.                 A bubble of water shines be-
     by Stimulated Emission of Ra-       A diamond sparkles due to to-        cause of total internal reflec-
     diation.                            tal internal reflection because      tion.
  Laser is the surface intense ra-       it has a high refractive index.      Refraction of light through air
     diation.                            Scattering of light is respon-       having very large temperature
                                         sible for sky being seen as          gradients causes a mirage.
         Eye Openes:                     blue. This is because blue and       A periscope is a device which
 If two bulbs of power 40w and           violet colour have short wave        works by the principle of re-
                                         length and hence scatter more.       flection and refraction.
 100w are joined in series and
                                         MASER is Microwave Ampli-            When there is thunder we see
 connected to the domestic
                                         fication by Stimulated Emis-         the lightning first and hear the
 electric supply terminals, the          sion of Radiation. It was dis-       thunder later because the ve-
 40w bulb glows much more                covered by Charles H. Towns.         locity of light is greater than
 brighter than the 100w bulb.            Refraction is the sudden             the velocity of sound.
                      DeputyCollectorRankFile
  The term light year is a unit       cal lens, instead of a spherical    quence of the phenomenon of
  employed in measuring Dis-          lens.                               multiple refraction and inter-
  tance.                              As the age advances, the            ference
  The rays which appears to           elasticity of eye becomes very      An astronaut on an earth sat-
  originate outside the earth -       much reduced. As a result the       ellite will observe the sky as
  The cosmic rays                     near point of eye recedes           Black.
  In a Doctor’s stethescope the       gradually resulting in pres-        The shortest height of a plane
  sound is intensified because of     byopia. It can be corrected by      mirror required to show the full
  reflection of sound                 convex glasses.                     size image of a person of height
  Light from the sun reaches the      When we observe distant                        L
  earth in 8 minutes.                                                     ‘L’ cm is 2 cm .
                                      objects, the focal length of the
  Light travels fastest through       eye lens increases and if we        Dioptre is the unit of power of
  vacuum. Through vacuum              observe the objects near by,        lenses.
  light travels with a speed of       the focal length of eye lens        Concave mirror is used as a
  3×108m/s.                           decreases.                          burning glass.
  The shortest distance for clear     Twenty - Twenty means per-          For the rear view, motorists use
  vision is 25 cm.                                                        convex mirror.
                                      fect vision.
  Myopia or short sightedness                                             To concentrate light on the
                                      The image formed on the retina of
                                                                          teeth, the dentists use concave
  is such a type of defect in         the human eye is real and in-       mirrors.
  which one can see nearby ob-        verted.                             Film is a part of the camera
  jects clearly but is difficult to   The lens in the human eye in        which is analogous to the
  see objects at long distances.      convex.                             retina in the human eye.
  Here image of the substance         Pigments are substances used
  falls in front of the retina.       to colour paints, filters, plas-   HEAT AND THER-
  Myopia can be corrected by          tics and other materials.
  using a concave lens.
                                                                          MODYNAMICS
                                      The sky generally looks blue
  Hypermetropia or long                                                    Absolute zero is the lowest
                                      because the blue colour of
  sightedness is such a type of                                            possible temperature which is
                                      short wave length is scattered
  defect in which one can see                                              equal to 0K or -273.16°C or -
                                      more than the longer waves of
  distant objects clearly whereas                                          459.69°F.
                                      red light.
  nearby objects look blurred.                                             Temperature is the degree of
  Here the image of the sub-          It is true that the violet waves
                                                                           hotness and heat is a form of
  stance falls behind the retina.     are dispersed, even more than
                                                                           energy which increases the
  Hypermetropia can be cor-           the blue. However, the sky           temperature of a body.
  rected       by      using      a   does not appear violet be-
                                                                           Specific heat capacity of a
  convex lens of appropriate fo-      cause the sunlight is relatively
                                                                           substance is the amount of
  cal length.                         weak in violet light.                heat required to raise the tem-
  Persons suffering from both         Red colour has the longest           perature of the substance
  myopia and hypermetropia            wavelength and shortest              through 1°C
  use bifocal lenses to with-         frequency whereas violet             As we go up in the atmo-
  stand the condition.                colour has the highest               sphere, the temperature de-
  Astigmatism: This defect is         frequency and shortest wave          creases.
  due to the cornea not being         length.                              Plasma is the fourth state of
  spherical. This defect can be       The formation of brilliant           matter. Solid, liquid and gas are
  corrected by using a cylindri-      colours in soap film is a conse-     other three states of matter.
                    DeputyCollectorRankFile
  A black surface absorbs heat                                            The law of magnetic poles
  more than other colours.                       Eclipse                  states that like poles repel, un-
  Cryogenics is concerned with      Lunar eclipse occurs when the         like poles attract.
  the production, control and       earth comes between the sun           A freely suspended magnet
                                    and the moon. While solar             stands vertical at magnetic
  application of extremely low
                                    eclipe occurs when the moon           south pole
  temperatures.
                                    comes between the sun and the         “Ferromagnetic’’ sub-
  At ultra high temperature mat-    earth.                                stances are those which can
  ter exist in plasma form 99%                                            be magnetised to a great ex-
  of matter in the Universe is in      Water has maximum density at       tent.
  plasma form.                         4o C. Water expands when it        Iron steel, nickel ,cobalt,alloys
  One calorie is the amount of         freezes.Water occupies maxi-       of these substances, and ga-
  heat needed to raise the tem-        mum volume at 0oC.                 dolinium are ferromagnetic
  perature of 1gm of water by          The Clinical Thermometer is        substances.
  1oC.                                 specially designed to measure      Paramagnetic materials have
  Steam causes more severe             human body temperature.            feeble magnetic properties.
  burns than water of the same         Normal human body tempera-         Platinum , solutions of salts
  temperature because steam            ture is 36.90 C (or 98.4°F)        of iron, oxygen, manganese,
  possess more heat energy due         Melting point of mercury is -      palladium, osmium etc are ex-
  to latent heat than water.           39°C and that of alcohol is -      amples of paramagnetic sub-
                                                                          stances.
  Transmission of heat from            115°C.
                                                                          Inside a magnet, direction of
  one point to another without         The main source of energy in
                                                                          magnetic lines of force is from
  heating the medium is called         the biosphere is solar energy
                                                                          south to north.
  radiation.                           which reach earth by means of
                                                                          Tesla is the unit of strength
  Cotton dresses are safe for          radiation.                         of magnetic field.
  wearing while cooking.               Water expands on freezing.         The instruments which are
                                       Due to this reason when wa-
  Conduction is the process of                                            dependent of magnetic power
                                       ter is filled in a bottle and is   of electricity are fan, tele-
  net energy transfer through a
                                       allowed to freeze the bottle       phone receiver, Dynamo etc.
  substance without the move-
                                       breaks, and during winter wa-
  ment of the substance itself,        ter pipes break in cold re-
  but by molecular collisions.                                            ELECTRICITY
                                       gions.
  Very poor conductor, such as
                                                                          Laws of electrolysis were for-
  glass are called Insulators. Air      MAGNETISM                         mulated by Michael Faraday
  is a good insulator.
                                                                          (Father of electricity).
  Mica is a good conductor of          ‘Lodestones’, are natural mag-     Electric fittings are earthed
  heat, but a bad conductor of         nets.                              because in case of a short cir-
  electricity.                         Magnetic lines of force cannot
                                                                          cuit, the current passes to the
  Perspiration is maximum, when        penetrate certain materials as
                                       easily as they can penetrate air   earth to overcome the dam-
  temperature is high and air is                                          ages.
                                       or vacuum. Such materials are
  humid.                               called “diamagnetic.’’             Filtered water at normal tem-
  Evaporation takes place at all       Diamagnetic materials have         perature is better conductor of
  temperatures and is accompa-         negative susceptibility.           electricity than filtered hot
  nied by cooling.                     Bismuth, antimony, zinc, silver,   water and distilled water.
  Melting point of ice can be          copper, gold, lead, water, al-     Conductors are substances
  raised by the decrease of pres-      cohol, hydrogen and the in-        that allow electric charges to
  sure.                                ert gases are diamagnetic.         flow through it .
                   DeputyCollectorRankFile
  Metals and graphite are good        force or voltage across oppo-
  conductors of electricity.          site forces when subjected to
                                                                          Conductors Insulators
  Silver is the metal having          a mechanical strain and con-        silver              glass
  lowest resistance.                  versely, to expand or contract      copper              rubber
  The best conductor of elec-         in size when subjected to an        gold                oil
  tricity is silver.                  electromotive force.                aluminum            asphalt
  Free electrons constitute cur-      220-230 volt is the voltage at      iron                fibre glass
  rent in a conductor.                which the alternate current         steel               porcelain
  Insulators do not allow current     (a.c) is supplied for house         brass               ceramic
  to flow through it .                hold use in India.                  bronze              quartz
  Current through a conductor         The frequency of household          mercury             (dry) cotton
  is the flow of electrons            a.c in India is 50 hertz.           graphite            (dry) paper
  through it.                         An inductor is a device which       dirty water         (dry) wood
  Rubber, plastic, paper, glass,                                          concrete            plastic, air,
                                      passes dc but blocks ac.
  mica etc are insulators.                                                                    diamond,
                                      Alternating current is used
  Elements such as silicon and                                                                pure water
  germanium allow feeble cur-         more widely than Direct Cur-
  rents to pass through them          rent.
                                                                              resistance to the electric current
  and they are known as semi-         ac (alternating current) is more
                                                                              and melts at a fairly low tem-
  conductors.                         dangerous than dc (direct cur-
                                                                              perature. The fuse wire must
  Air without moisture (dry air)      rent).
                                                                              have a low melting point.
  is an insulator.                    Usually the air inside an elec-
                                                                              A fuse wire is used to prevent
                                      tric bulb is removed because
  The unit of electric charge is                                              an unduly high electric cur-
                                      when the filament (tungsten) is
  Coloumb. It is equal to the                                                 rent to pass through a circuit.
                                      heated in the presence of air, it
  charge of 6.25×1018 electrons.                                              Capacitor is a device used to
                                      forms oxide by combining with
                Ch arg e                                                      store electrical energy but it
   Current                           oxygen present in the air and
                                                                              is not a device to store elec-
                 Time                 readily gets fused.
                                                                              tric charge.
  A high current is produced in       Nichrome is used as a heating
                                                                              The emf or potential difference
  a low resistance circuit when       element in many appliance be-
                                                                              measured in volt is called volt-
  two wires of main comes in          cause it has high resistivity and
                                                                              age.
  contact with each other. This       it resists oxidation in air when
                                      red hot.                                A convenient unit to measure
  is called short circuiting.
                                      An electric bulb makes a bang           electric power is the kilowatt
  Electric bulbs are filled with
                                      when it is broken because there         hour (kwh). This is often sim-
  gases like argon, neon,
                                      is a vacuum inside the electric         ply called a unit.
  nitrogen etc.
                                      bulb. When the bulb is bro-             1 kwh = 1000 watt x 3600 sec-
  When an isolated conducting
  sphere is given a positive          ken air rushes in at a great            onds
  charge, its mass decreases.         speed from all sides to fill the        In our houses, electric wiring
  This is because, ‘giving            vacuum and this produces the            is done in parallel connection
  positive change’means               sound.                                  so that all instruments in the
  ‘taking electrons out of it’.       To avoid overloading, a de-             house could get equal supply
  The principle on which quartz       vice called a ‘fuse’ is inserted        of electricity.
  crystal in watch works is peizo     in series with the circuit.             when two cells of e.m.f
  electricity. Peizo electricity is   The fuse is a piece of wire             ‘V’volts each are connected
  the property of some crystals       made of financial Lead.                 in series the effective emf is
  to develop an electromotive         The fuse offers a great deal of         V+V=2Vvolts
                    DeputyCollectorRankFile
  When one cell is reversed ,the     is connected in the live wire      Germanium, silicon, carbon
  effective emf is V-V=0 volts,      Along with fluorescent tubes       etc are semi conductors.
  ie, zero volts.                    are fitted with a choke. Here      A transistor transfers a sig-
  In parallel connection of          the choke coil steps up the        nal from a low resistance to
  equal emf cells,whatever be        line voltage.                      high resistance .
  the number of cells used the       An electrical appliance is         The word transistor came
  effective emf will be equal to     earthed to prevent shock           from the process of transfer
  the emf of a single cell.          One should not connect a           and the resistor.
  When we want a stronger cur-       number of electrical appli-        ELINT is electronic intelli-
  rent for a longer time parallel    ances to the same power            gence.
  connection is used.                socket because this can dam-       Triode was invented by Lee
  A source of emf containing         age the domestic wiring due        De Forest.
  two or more cells is called a      to over heating                    IC chip is a circuit which
  battery.                           A capacitor (condenser) is         performs the functions of
  In a dry cell the negative         used to store electric charge      transistors, diodes, resistors,
  electrode(cathode) is zinc and     "Hydro Power" is the term          condensers etc altogether.
  positive electrode(anode) is       used for electricity produced      The largest IC chip manu-
  carbon rod.                        through water                      facturing company in the
  The emf of a voltaic cell is       Electricity for domestic pur-      world is INTEL.
  1volt.                             pose is measured in kWh            Electrons are carriers of
  The emf of a dry cell is 1.5       The power of ordinary torch        current in a npn transistor.
  volts.                             cell is 1.5 volt.                  Holes are the carriers of
  Colour of the light of sodium      In the rechargable batteries       current in a pnp transistor.
  vapour lamp is yellow.             used in touch light, electric-     The frequencies transmitted
  Colour of the light of chlorine    shavers etc. nickel and cad-       by a TV station is called
  vapour lamp is green.              mium are used as electrodes.       channel.
  Light of nitrogen vapour lamp                                         Soft X-rays are X-rays having
  is red.                           ELECTRONICS                         high wavelength and low
  Light of mercury vapour lamp                                          energy. As these are absorbed
                                     Electronics is the study of
  is white.                                                             by body tissues they are not
                                     nature, control and applica-
  Light of neon vapour lamp is                                          used in taking photographs of
                                     tion of electrons.
  orange red.                                                           internal organs.
  Light of hydrogen vapour           Modem is Modulator De-             X-rays       having       short
  lamp is blue.                      modulator.                         wavelength but high energy
  In our houses we get 220V          Rectifiers are used to convert     are called hard X-rays. These
  ac.The value 220 represents        Alternating Current (AC) to        are used in the photography
  effective voltage                  Direct Current (DC).               of internal organs.
  The advantage of ac over dc        An electronic oscillator is a      In order to study internal
  is that it can be transmitted      device which converts DC           atomic structure of crystals,
  over long distances with mini-     energy into AC energy.             we use X-rays
  mum power loss                     Silicon is used in solar cells.    “IC” chips for computers are
  Resistance of carbon decrea        Materials whose resistivity        usually made of Silicon
  ses with increase of tempera-      lies in between conductors        The process which makes the
  ture.                              and insulators are called semi    current to pass in the same
  In an electrical circuit a fuse    conductors.                       direction is called rectification
                  DeputyCollectorRankFile
   TELECOMMUNI-                         Alexander Graham Bell in-
            CATION                      vented the telephone.
      A revolution in wireless tele-    The first commercial tele-
      communications began in the       phone services were set up in
      first decade of the 20th cen-     1878 and 1879 on both sides
      tury, with Guglielmo Marconi      of the Atlantic.
      winning the Nobel Prize in        Telex means Teleprinter Ex-
      Physics in 1909 for his pio-      change.
      neering developments in wire-     INTELSAT (International
      less radio communications.        Telecommunication Satellite
      The first commercial electrical   Organisation), with its head-
      telegraph was constructed by      quarters in Washington DC,
      Sir Charles Wheatstone and        was established on February
      Sir William Fothergill Cooke,     12, 1973. It operates space
      and its use began on 1839.        equipment and earth stations
                                                                         Optical fibre provides cheaper
                                        owned by telecommunication
                                                                          bandwidth for long distance
                                        entities in each country.                  communication
                                        INTELSAT’S 13 satellite sys-
                                        tem provides about two-
                                        thirds of the world’s interna-
                                                                                 Samuel Morse
                                        tional telecommunication ser-
                                                                               Samuel Finley Breese
                                        vices to more than 140 coun-         Morse was an American
                                        tries including India.            contributor to the invention
In 1901, Guglielmo Marconi              Father of cybernetics -              of a single-wire telegraph
established wireless communi-           Norbert Weiner                     system based on European
cation between St. John's,              RADAR is Radio Detection            telegraphs, co-inventor of
Newfoundland and Poldhu,                and Ranging.                              the Morse code.
Cornwall (England), earning             RADAR is a device that uses
him the Nobel Prize in Phys-
                                        radio waves to detect the po-
ics for 1909                                                            NUCLEAR PHYSICS
                                        sition of objects such as
                                        aeroplanes, missiles etc.             A Geiger Counter or Geiger -
      The Nobel Prize in                Radar was invented byAlbert H.        Muller Counter is used for de-
           Physics 2010                 Taylor and Leo C. Young.              tecting and measuring radia-
  The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010       The first telecommunications          tion.
  was awarded jointly to Russian
                                        device was the telegraph.             Radio-Carbon Dating or Car-
  born scientists, Andre Geim and
                                                                              bon dating, widely employed to
  Konstantin Novoselov “for ground      A television camera takes 25 or
                                        30 electronic photographs             determine the age of fossils of
  breaking experiments regarding
                                        (called frames) of a scene ev-        animals or plants. The radio-iso-
  the two dimensional material
                                                                              tope carbon-14 is used in Car-
  graphene”, a super-thin and           ery second.
                                                                              bon dating process.
  strong form of carbon with high       Hybrid computers are a com-
  conductivity that can be used for                                           Chain reaction is a self sus-
                                        bination of the analog and            taining series of nuclear fis-
  touch screens and light panels.
                                        digital computers.                    sions, each one started by
                     DeputyCollectorRankFile
                                                            n
                                  Nuclear Fuosino                                                 232 which becomes lead-208;
                                      and Fissi                                                   rubidium-87 which changes
                                                               avily wei gh ed                    into strontium-87; and potas-
                           ess   of fo  rmation of a he                             ed
               The   pr oc                                     or e low wei gh                    sium-40 which changes into
                      s by  th e  fu si on of two or m                  th  e m os t likely
              nucl eu                        fu si on  . O  n earth,                              argon-40.
                               nucl    ea  r                                       rium and
         nucleus is ca lled                   –T  ri ti um   reaction . Deute                     Nuclear fusion is also known
                          is Deute     ri um                                     of nucl eus of
      fusion reaction                        hy dr og  en  . The splitting                        as thermo-nuclear reaction
                       th isotopes      of                                       ed nucl ear
    Tritium are bo                           vi ng  eq   ua l weigh t is ca ll                    because it demands extremely
                           o pieces     ha                                             Nuclear
       an atom into tw                        di sc ov   er ed nuclear fission.                   high temperatures.
                          ahn in 19       39                                         ons in the
       fission. Otto H                     a m  as si ve   nu cl eus into phot                    A breeder reactor is that which
                           litt in g of                                                   ic
       fi ssion is the sp                                             other subatom               produces more fissionable
                            m a   ra ys , fr ee  neutrons, an d                ese  tw o
            form of gam                                       between th                          material than it burns.
                                     m ai n differen ce
                pa rt icles. The                ssion is the sp
                                                                     li tt ing of an              The enormous energy re-
                            se s  is  th at  fi
                   pr oces                          more smaller on
                                                                              es                  leased in an atomic explosion
                          atom in to two or                    th e                               is due to the conversion of
                                        while fusi on is
                                                                                                  mass into energy.
                                                                                                  Neutron is used to trigger-off
     neutrons emitted in a previ-                                                                 the nuclear fission reaction.
                                                           Alpha particles () are posi-          Atom bomb is an example of
     ous fission.
                                                           tively charged. Basically           nuclear fission reaction, while
     Proton was discovered by                              rays are Helium nuclei.
     Rutherford.                                                                                  Hydrogen bomb is that of
                                                           Gamma rays are electromag-             nuclear fusion reaction.
     Electron was discovered by                            netic radiation emitted by the         More energy is produced in a
     J.J.Thomson.                                          nuclei of radioactive ele-             fusion reaction than fission
     James Chadwick discovers the                          ments.                                 reaction.
     neutron.                                              A tracer is minute amount of           The monozite found abunda-
     Out of the three radiations -                         a radioisotope, added to a             ntly in coastal areas of Kerala
     alpha, beta, and gamma,                               large amount of non-radioac-           contains thorium.
     gamma radiation is most pen-                          tive isotopes of elements.             The temperature required for
     etrating.                                             Half-life is the time taken for        the maintenance of fusion is
     Enriched uranium is uranium                           half of any amount of a radio-         about 350000000°C.
     with more of the isotope of                           active isotope to decay.
     Uranium - 235.                                        Radiocarbon 'carbon - 14'                   ATOMIC
     The age of rocks may be cal-                          has a half-life of 5,730 years.          REACTORS
     culated through radioactive                           Isotopes used in dating rocks
     dating using uranium iso-                             include Uranium-235 which              Nuclear power is the fourth-
     topes.                                                                                       largest source of electricity in
                                                           becomes lead-207; thorium-
                                                                                                  India after thermal, hydro and
  Power Plant                                        Location                    State            renewable sources of elec-
  Narora Atomic Power Station                        Narora                      Uttar Pradesh    tricity.
  Rajasthan Atomic Power Station                     Rawatbhata                  Rajasthan        In 2010, India has 19 nuclear
  Tarapur Atomic Power Station                       Tarapur                     Maharashtra      power plants in operation
                                                                                                  generating 4,560 MW while 4
  Kakrapar Atomic Power Station                      Kakrapar                    Gujarat
                                                                                                  other are under construction.
  Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant                     Kudankulam                  Tamilnadu
                                                                                                  The first atomic reactor in In-
  Madras Atomic Power Station                        Kalpakkam                   Tamilnadu
                                                                                                  dia is 'Apsara' in Trombay
  Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant                          Kaiga                       Karnataka        (Maharashtra)
                       DeputyCollectorRankFile
              NPCIL                      The original fuel in the fast     travelled by light in one year
  Nuclear Power Corporation              breeder reactor is plutonium      through space.
  of India Limited is a Public           and uranium oxides or car-        1 light year = 9.46×10 12
  Sector Enterprise under the                                              Kilometres
                                         bides.
  administrative control of the                                            1 Parsec = 3.26 light years
  Department of Atomic Energy            Cadmium rod is used in a re-      A galaxy is a vast collection of
  (DAE), Government of India.            actor to absorb neutrons.         billions of stars, dust and
  The main objective of NPCI             Willers Frank Liby discov-        hydrogen gas isolated in space
  is operating the atomic power          ered carbon dating.               from similar systems.
  stations and implementing              Coal is the most important raw    Galaxies are the building
  the atomic power projects for                                            blocks of the universe.
                                         material for thermal power
  generation of electricity
                                         plant.                            The sun and the eight planets
                                         Flyash is a waste product of      belong to the milky way galaxy,
                                                                           whose Indian name is Akash-
    India's first breeder reactor is     thermal power plants.
                                                                           Ganga.
    set up at the place known as         Cobalt-60 is commonly used
    Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu.                                               Milky way is a spiral shaped
                                         in radio therapy because it       galaxy. There are nearly 1011
    The early reactors were              emits beta rays which has         stars in the galaxy.
    known as Atomic Piles.
                                         more energy than the X-rays.      Among numerous dim stars in
    Heavy water , graphite and                                             the sky, there are some groups
    neutrons are used as modera-       SPACE PHYSICS                       of bright stars. These groups
    tor in nuclear reactors.                                               of stars stars. These groups
    Coolant is a fluid used in         Space exploration began with        of stars forms certain shapes
    nuclear reactors to remove the      the launching of Russia’s          or patterns and are called
    heat produced in the core.          Sputnik-1 into space on            constellations. The conste-
    The coolant used in fast            October 4, 1957.                   llations were given the name
    breeder reactors is generally      Sputnik-2 carried a dog             of the figures they resembled.
    liquid sodium.                      ‘Laika’to space.                   There are 89 constellations.
    Heavy water is used as a cool-     The U.S.A. entered the space        The largest of these is Hydra,
    ant as well as a moderator          arena on January 31, 1958 with     which contains at least 68 stars
    for nuclear reactors.               the launching of the Explorer-1.   visible to the naked eye.
    The moderator in a nuclear          This satellite is credited with    A satellite is a heavenly body
                                        making the important               that rotates around a planet.
    reactor slows down the fast
                                        discovery of the Van Allen         Venus is the brightest object
    moving neutrons.
                                        radiation belts around the         in the night sky, leaving out the
    The commonly used modera-           earth, where electrons and         moon. It is visible either in the
    tors are graphite, heavy water      protons from the sun are           early morning in the eastern
    and berilium.                       trapped by earth’s magnetic        sky or in the early evening in
    The main source of solar en-        field.                             the western sky and is called
    ergy is nuclear fusion.            The extremely large distances       “morning star” and “evening
                                        between the various heavenly       star”.
    The fast breeder reactor gets       bodies like the stars and          Sun is our nearest star. It is a
    its name from the fact that it      planets can be expressed in        hot sphere of gas - 74%
    utilizes excess free neutrons       terms of two units namely light    hydrogen, 25% helium and 1%
    to breed new fissionable ma-        year and parsec.                   other elements.
    terial.                            One light year is the distance      The sun is at a distance of 8
                     DeputyCollectorRankFile
  light minutes from the earth. ie,     Communication Technology is             light travels in one year at the
  it takes about 8 minutes for          located at Ahmedabad.                   speed of 3,00,000 km/sec.
  light to travel from the sun to       The credit for starting space           Astronomical Unit is another
  the earth.                            science research in India goes          unit of distance in space. It is
  An asteroid is an irregular,          to Vikram Sarabhai.                     the mean distance between
  rocky hunk, small both in size        Moon has no atmosphere                  earth and Sun. One light year
  and in mass compared to a             because its gravity is not              contains nearly 63282 Astro-
  plannet.                              sufficient for any atmosphere           nomical Units.
  In the belt which lies between        to held on to it.                       Par sec (Parallactic second) is
  Mars and Jupiter there are            All stars have idential chemi-          yet another unit of distance in
  thousands of minor planets or         cal composition but they differ
  asteroids.                                                                    space. One par second is equal
                                        in surface temperatures. This           to 3.08x1016m.
  Ceres is the largest known            is the reason for the difference
  asteroid.                                                                     Lambert is the unit of inten-
                                        in spectra of stars.
  Meteor is the streak of light                                                 sity of light.
                                        The outward stream of protons
  observed in the sky. They are                                                 Pascal is the unit of pressure.
                                        and electrons on the surface
  formed when a particle of             the sun during solar flares and         Angstrom is the unit of the
  matter enters the earth’s             sun-spot activity constitute            wave length of light.
  atmosphere and become                 the solar wind.                         Poise is the unit of viscosity
  incandescent as a result of                                                   of fluid.
  friction with atmospheric                 UNITS AND                           Curie and Rutherford are unit
  atoms and molecules. Meteor        MEASUREMENTS                               of radio activity.
  are also called shooting stars.
                                                                                 Unit of Plane angle is radian
  Stars twinkle because of            The purest form of gold is 24              Unit of solid angle is steradian
  refraction of light.                  carats. Ornaments are usually            Newton is the unit of force
  The tail of a comet points away       made of 22 carat gold. One               Joule is the unit of energy and
  from the sun. This is due to          metric carat is equal to 200
                                                                                 work
  radiation pressure.                   milligram.
                                                                                 Unit of power is watt
  The colour of a star is an          The weight of precious
  indication of its temperature.                                                 Hertz is the unit of frequency
                                        gems are also measured                   Coulomb is the unit of electric
  The plannet that has got a well
  developed set of rings is             in carat.                                charge
  saturn.                             One gallon is equal to 4.546               Unit of electric capacitance is
  India’s satellite launching           litres.                                  farad
  station is situated at Srihari-     One horse power is equal to 746            Ohm is the unit of electric re-
  kota.                                 watts.                                   sistance
  When a person is orbiting in a      Light year is a unit of distance           Becquerel is the unit of radio
                                        used in astronomy.                       activity
  satellite, his weight becomes
  zero.                               Light year is the distance that            Henry is the unit of inductance
  The ink of the pen leaks out in
  an aeroplane because pressure        Several systems of unit have been in use for describing measurement.
  of ink inside is more than the      The common systems are the C.G.S. system (centimeter, gram, second);
  ambient pressure.                   the F.P.S. system (foot, pound, second) which is the British system, the
  The Space Application Centre            MKS system (meter, kilogram & second) and now internationally
  for training in Satellite             accepted is the System International Units, abbreviated as S.I. units.
                   DeputyCollectorRankFile
Quantity                                                                                 Unit          Weber is the unit of magnetic
Length .......................................................................... Metre (m)            flux
Mass ...................................................................... Kilogram (kg)              Lumen is the unit of luminous
Time ........................................................................... Second (s)            flux
Electric Charge .......................................................... Ampere (A)                  Lux is the unit of illuminance
Temperature ................................................................. Kelvin (K)               Unit of electric conductance
Frequency.................................................................... Hertz (Hz)               is Siemens
Force, Weight ............................................................. Newton (N)                Joule is the unit of work.
Work, Heat .......................................................................... Joule           Dyne is the unit of force.
Power, Radiant flux ........................................................ Watt (W)                 Newton is yet another unit of
Pressure, Stress ........................................................... Pascal (Pa)              force.
                                                                                                                          5
Electric charge or flux ..................................................... Coulomb (C)             One newton = 10 dynes
Electrical potential difference, Electromotive force (emf) ..... Volt (V)                             Centigrade, Fahrenheit are
Electric resistance, ................................................................ Ohm             the units of temperature.
Electric capacitance ........................................................ Farad (F)               Degree is the unit of angle.
Magnetic flux ............................................................ Weber (Wb)                 Mho is the unit of conduc-
Magnetic flux density, magnetic induction ....................... Tesla (T)                           tance.
Inductance ................................................................... Henry (H)               Fathom is the unit of depth of
Electrical conductance ..................................................... Siemens                   the sea. One fathom is equal
Radioactivity......................................................... Becquerel (Bq)                  to 6 feet.
Catalytic activity ................................................................. Katal             In India, National Physical
Thermodynamic temperature .................................. Degree Celsius                            Laboratory of NewDelhi is re-
Derived Units                                                                                          sponsible for the maintenance
Area ................................................................. square metre (m2)               and improvement of physical
Volume ....................................................................... cubic metre             standards of length and time.
Speed, velocity........................................ metre per second (m·s-1)                       Solar day is the period be-
Acceleration ................................. metre per second squared(m/s2)                          tween noons of two consecu-
Jerk ............................................... metre per second cubed (m·s-3)                    tive days.
Angular velocity .............................................. radian per second
Momentum .................................................. Newton second (N·s)                      BRANCHES OF
Torque, moment of force ......................................... Newton metre
Wavenumber ...................................................... Reciprocal metre                          SCIENCE
density, mass density ................. kilogram per cubic metre (kg·m-3)
                                                                                                 Actinology
specific volume ....................................... cubic metre per kilogram
entropy ...................................................... joule per kelvin (J·K-1)                A branch of science which
electric field strength ............................................... volt per metre                 deals with the chemical effects
magnetic field strength ....................................... ampere per metre                       of electromagnetic radiation.
molar energy .......................................................... joule per mole           Aerodynamics
specific energy .................................................. joule per kilogram                  The study of the motion and
energy density ............................................. joule per cubic metre                     control of solid bodies (eg. air
surface tension .................................................. newton per metre                    craft, rockets, missiles etc) in
thermal conductivity..................................... watt per metre kelvin                        air.
dynamic viscosity .................................................. pascal second               Aeronautics
electric charge density ............................ coulomb per cubic metre                           A branch of science which
electric current density ............................ ampere per square metre                          deals with flight through air.
radian ..................................................................................... rad Austro physics
steridan ................................................................................. rad2        The branch of physics con-
                         DeputyCollectorRankFile
      cerned with the physical prop-                      forces which change their                      which deals with effect of
      erties of celestial bodies and                      motion.                                        motion without reference to
      the interaction between mat-                  Electronics                                          mass or force.
      ter and energy with them.                           A branch of science dealing           Optics
Astronautics                                              with the study and develop-                    It is the branch of physics
      The scientific study of travel                      ment of circuit involving ther-
                                                                                                         dealing with the study of light.
      outside the Earth’s atmo-                           mionic values, semi conduc-
                                                          tors and other electrical com-        Rheology
      sphere.                                                                                            The study of the deformation
                                                          ponents like resistance, ca-
Audiology                                                                                                and flow of matter.
                                                          pacitors, inductances etc.
      The science of hearing                                                                    Solid state Physics
                                                    Electrostatics
Ballistics                                                The study of the effects as-                   The branch of physics which
      The study of path (motion) of                       sociated with electric charge                  deals with the nature and prop-
      projectiles.                                        at rest.                                       erties of matter in the solid
Cosmology                                           Fluidics                                             state.
      The science of the nature, ori-                     The study and use of fluid            Statistical Mechanics
      gin and history of the uni-                         flow through pipes in an analo-
                                                                                                         The study of the mechanical
      verse.                                              gous way to the flow of elec-
Crystallography                                                                                          properties of large assemblies
                                                          tric current through circuits.
      The study of structure of                     Holography                                           of particles or components in
      crystals.                                           Science of recording three di-                 terms of statistics.
Dynamics                                                  mensional image of an object.         Tribogy
      The study of the behaviour of                 Kinematics                                           The study of friction and lu-
      bodies under the action of                          The branch of mechanics                        brication.
                                             Famous scientists and invention
 Galileo Galilei ........ Discovered the phases of Venus,                Alessandro Volta .......................... Battery (Electric)
                    the four satellites of Jupiter Io, Europa,           Kirkpatrick Macmillan .................................. Bicycle
                                           Callisto, and Ganymede        Tennant ...................................... Bleaching Powder
 Christiaan Huygens ............................ Wave theory             Edwin T. Holmes ................................ Burglar Alarm
 Sir Isaac Newton ............. Newton's Laws of Motion,                 John Harrison ..................................... Chronometer
                                Universal gravitation, Calculus          Nicolas & Jean Lumiere ................................ Cinema
 Benjamin Franklin ......... Discovered the two electric                 Wilmut ...................................... Cloning, (Mammal)
                            charges, 'positive' and 'negative'.          Rudolf Diesel .................................... Diesel Engine
 James Watt ........... Modern condenser steam engine                    Thomas Alva Edison ........................... Electric Lamp
 Michael Faraday ............ Electro magnetic induction                 Henry W. Seely ................................... Electric Iron
 Sir Chandrasekhara Raman ..... Scattering of light and                   J.J.Thomson. ............................................ Electron
                                           found the Raman effect        Lewis E. Waterman ............................. Fountain Pen
 Nikola Tesla ............................... Alternating current        Thomas Alva Edison ........................... Gramophone
 Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit .................. Determined the             Denis Gason .......................................... Holograph
                 temperature scale called Fahrenheit scale               Edward Teller ................................. Hydrogen Bomb
 Christian Doppler ............................. Doppler effect          Sir Frank Whittle .................................... Jet Engine
 James Chadwick ......................................... neutron        Theodore Maiman ......................................... Laser
 J. Robert Oppenheimer ......................... Atom Bomb               Elisha G. Otis ................................ Lift (Mechanical)
 Dalton ............................................. Atomic Theory      Benjamin Franklin ..................... Lighting Conductor
 Carrier .......................................... Air Conditioning     John Logie Baird .................. Mechanical Television
 Evangelista Torricelli ............................... Barometer        Rutherford .................................................. Proton-
                          DeputyCollectorRankFile











                                         BIOLOGY
  Father of Biology : Aristotle.                      Father of Important Branches
  Biology is a natural science
  concerned with the study of
                                       Aristotle ............................................. Father of Natures History/
  life and living organisms,
  including their structure,                                                                             Father of Biology
  function, growth, origin,            Alexander Fleming ....................................... Father of Antibiotics
  evolution, distribution, and         Carolus Linnaeus .......................................... Father of Taxonomy
  taxonomy.
  The term ‘ Biology’ is coined        Edward Jenner ........................................... Father of Immunology
  by a French naturalist Jean          Louis Pasteur .......................................... Father of Microbiology
  Lamarck.                             Rudolph Virchow .......................................... Father of Pathology
  Fundamental axioms of modern
                                       Robert Hook ................................................ Father of Sightology
  biology:
  1. Cells are the basic unit of       Robert Koch ............................................. Father of Bacteriology
     life                              William Harvey .................................. Father of Blood Circulation
  2. New species and inherited         W.M.Stanley ................................................... Father of Virology
     traits are the product of
                                       Ivan Pavlov ..................................... Father of Conditioned Reflex
     evolution
  3. Genes are the basic unit of       Ernst Von Baer .............................. Father of Modern Embryology
     heredity
  4. An organism will regulate            Human cells have 23 pairs                           definite membrane bound
     its internal environment to          (46number) of chromosomes.                          nucleus Eg : Bacteria, Blue -
     maintain a stable and                The cell with longest life span                     green algae. In eukaryotes,
     constant condition                   in our body is Nerve Cells                          there is a nucleus with definite
  5. Living organisms consume            The average size of the cell is                      double membrane.
     and transform energy.                                                                    Plasma membranes are
                                         3-30 microns (1 micron = 1/1000
                                                                                              composed of phospholipids
         The CELL                        mm).
                                                                                              and protein.
                                    1.   Cell wall - found only in plant
  Cell is the smallest and               cells. It consists of non-living                     Cytosol - it is the soluble
  fundamental unit of life.              substances.                                          material in embryonic cell in
  The smallest cell size is of a         eg: lignin, pectin, cellulose etc.                   which various organelles are
  bacteria.                         2.   Cell membranes (plasmale-                            embedded.
  The largest cell is of an ostrich      mma)                                          3.     Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  egg.                                   It is the outer membrane of the                      A network of tubes or channels
   The largest human cell is the         cytoplasm found both in                              of membrane in the cytoplasm
   ovum. (.2mm)                          animals and plants. It is made                       which helps in protein
   Nerve cell(neuron) is the             of protein.                                          synthesis and conduction of
   longest cell.                         In prokaryotes, there is no                          materials.
                           DNA & RNA                                          11. Nucleus: The nucleus controls
                                                                                  all cell activities and enclose
    DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid )and RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) are                    the nucleoplasm. Nucleus is
    two different nucleic acids found in the cells of every living organ-
                                                                                  responsible for transfer of
    ism. Both have significant roles to play in cell biology.
                                                                                  heredity characteristics.
    DNA is found mainly in the nucleus of the cell, while RNA is found
                                                                              12. Centrosome: A rather dense
    mainly in the cytoplasm of the cell.
    DNA contains the genetic codes to make RNA and the RNA in turn                area of protoplasm, lies close
    then contains the codes for the primary sequence of amino acids               to nucleus.
    to make proteins.                                                             Plant cell is different from
    Within the cell structure, DNA is organized into structures called            animal cell as it contains cell
    chromosomes, which are duplicated during cell division. These                 wall surrounding plasma
    chromosomes would then release the genetic codes that will be                 membrane and chloroplasts
    transcribed and carried by the RNA to the ribosome. The ribosome              and devoid of centrioles which
    will then synthesize new proteins that will help the body grow.               is seen only in animal cells.
                                                                                   Adenosine Triphosphate
                                                                                   (ATP) provides energy for all
                                            double- membrane bound                 kinds of activities of a cell.
4.  Ribosomes: Externally small,            organelle. The inner membrane
                                                                                   ATP is called the ‘universal
    dense, granular, spherical              is thrown into folds called
                                            cristae to increase the surface        biological energy currency'.
    bodies found in free state in                                                  ATP synthesis takes place in
    the cytoplasm, composed of              area.
                                      8. Peroxisomes and glyoxysomes               mitochondrion.
    RNA and proteins. They help
                                            are known as microbodies.              Energy is stored in the mito-
    in synthesis of proteins.
                                            They are enzyme bags.                  chondria as ATP molecules.
    Rough endoplasmic reticulum
                                      9. Lysosomes are known as                    The physical basis of life is
    is the normal ‘ER’ with
                                            “suicide bags”, as they                'protoplasm'.
    ribosomes attached to it.
                                            contain hydrolysing enzymes.           Chromosome is made up of
    Nucleus contains nucleoli and
                                            Occasionally they digest the           DNA & Proteins.
    nucleoli are the centres of the         whole cell or part of it.              Chromosomes, other than the
    synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
                                      10. Plastids: Small bodies found             sex chromosomes, are called
5.  Golgi bodies: Bag like                  in the cells of higher plants.         autosomes.
    structures       formed        of       They are of many types.
    membranes. Their functions                                                     The ribosomes are chiefly
                                            Chloroplasts : are the centres         concerned with the synthesis
    include secretion of various            of photosynthetic activity. It is
    substances.                                                                    of protein.
                                            found only in photosynthetic
6.  Vacuole: A fluid filled sac             plant cell. Chloroplast is a               Types of cells
    within a cell. The watery fluid         green plastid.
    enclosed in the vacuole is                                                    Prokaryotes: Prokaryotes lack
                                            Chloroplasts have double              a nucleus (though they do
    called ‘Cell Sap’. It is slightly       membrane, lamellae or
    acidic or neutral. Osmo-                                                      have circular DNA) and other
                                            thylakoids which absorb solar
    regulation is the main function                                               membrane-bound organelles
                                            energy and pigments like
7.  Mitochondria: Rod like or               chlorophylls and carotenoids.         (though they do contain
    spherical, semi solid structures                                              ribosomes). Bacteria and
                                            i) Leucoplasts: Colourless
    containing DNA. They                          starch storing particles        Archaea are two domains of
    synthesise A.T.P (Adenosine             ii) Chromoplasts: Are                 prokaryotes.
    Tri phosphate)                                coloured particles which        Eukaryotes: Eukaryotes, on
    Mitochondria is the power                     give colour to fruits and       the other hand, have distinct
    house of the cell. It is also a               flowers.                        nuclei bound by a nuclear
  membrane and membrane-
  bound organelles (mitochon                  Diseases caused by Bacteria
  dria, chloroplasts, lysosomes,
                                     Leprosy, Tetanus, Whooping Cough, Typhoid Fever, Paratyphoid
  rough and smooth endoplas
                                     Fever, Cholera, Plague, Tuberculosis, Meningitis, Bacterial
  mic reticulum, vacuoles). In
                                     Pneumonia, Diarrhoea, Diphtheria, Bacterial dysentry, Anthrax,
  addition, they possess
                                     Syphilis and Gonorrhoea.
  organized chromosomes
  which store genetic material.
                                                                        Fungal Diseases
       Cell Division                 Microorganisms live in all parts
                                     of the biosphere where there             in Human
  Cell division is the process by
                                     is liquid water, including soil,   Ringworm
  which a parent cell divides into
  two or more daughter cells. Cell   hot springs, on the ocean floor,   Tinea
  division is usually a small        high in the atmosphere and         Athelete’s foot
  segment of a larger cell cycle.    deep inside rocks within the       Madura foot
  Cell cycle is composed of three    Earth's crust.                     Dhobie itch
  phases- interphase, mitosis,       Bacteria were first observed by
  cytokinesis.                       Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in
  Mitosis means the division of      1676.                              A virus is a small infectious
  nucleus and cytokinesis            The name bacterium was             agent that can replicate only
  means the cytoplasmic              introduced much later, by          inside the living cells of
  division.                          Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg      organisms.
  Two kinds of Cell Division :       in 1838.                           All viruses are nucleoprotein
  Mitosis and Meiosis.               Bacteria are microscopic           particles and contain either
  Mitosis occur in body cells,       unicellular       prokaryotic      DNA or RNA. The genetic
  results in formation of two        organism and lack of membrane      material inside the viruses is
  daughter cells with equal          bound nucleus and organelles.      protected by a protein coat
  number of chromosomes.             Bacteria are eventually placed     called ‘capsid’.
  Meiosis Occurs in repro            in a Kingdom Monera.               Viruses lack the cellular
  ductive cells. It causes a         Reproduction in bacteria is        organisation of the living
  reduction in number of             largely asexual by binary          organism, but make use of the
  chromosomes in the cell.           fission.                           cellular machinery of the host
                                     Respiration of bacteria are        cell to multiply themselves.
    Micro Organisms                 
                                     aerobic and anaerobic.             A complete viral particle
  The study of microorganisms        Bacteria display a wide            capable of infection is called a
  is called microbiology.            diversity of shapes and sizes,     ‘virion’.
  Anton van Leeuwenhoek's            called morphologies.               ‘Viroids’ are newly found
  discovered microorganisms in       Bacteriophages are viruses         group of pathogenic agents,
  1675, using a microscope of his    eating (destroying) bacteria       much smaller than the viruses.
  own design.                        and were invented by               The study of viruses is known
  Microorganisms are very            d’Herelle.                         as virology, a sub-speciality of
  diverse; they include bacteria,    Bacteriology is the study of       microbiology.
  fungi, archaea, and protists;      bacteria.                          The study of viruses is known
  microscopic plants (green          ‘Virus’ the term is coined by      as virology, a sub-speciality of
  algae); and animals such as        M.W. Beigerinck, a Dutch           microbiology.
  plankton and the planarian.        microbiologist.                     L.S.D. (Lysergic acid diethy-
                                                                vital for
    lamide) is obtained from a        Photosynthesis is              Pho-
                                                                                  Smallest seeds Orchid seeds
    fungi, called Ergot.              all ae  robic life on Earth.                Largest leaf      Victoria regia
                                                              ocess that
    Smallest Cell - Pleuro Pneumo-     tosynthesis is a pr                        India's national flower Lotus
                                                              oxide into
    nia Like Organism (PPLO). It       converts carbon di                         Largest flower Rafflesia
                                                               ds, espe-
    is a mycoplasma.                    or ga ni c compoun                        Smallest flower Wolffia
                                                               the energy
                                        cially sugars, using                      Oldest living plant of the world
    HIV is an RNA virus.                                       osynthesis
                                        from sunlight. Phot
                                                              algae, and          Pinus
    Smallest living thing - Virus       occurs in plan ts,
                                                                  ria. Pho-
                                         many species of bacte                    Study of trees- dentrology
         Kingdom                         tosynthesis uses ca
                                                                rbon diox-        Largest trees in plant world -
      Classification                                            asing oxy-
                                         ide and water, rele                      Conifers
                                                                  uct.
   Five kingdom classification was        gen as a waste prod
   developed by R.H.Whittaker.                                                       Nitrogen Fixation means
   The five kingdoms are Monera,            phyta (slime molds) and
                                            Eumycophyta (True fungi)                 conversion of atmospheric
   Protista, Fungi, Plants and
                                            The true fungi is characterised          nitrogen        into      useful
   Animals.
                                            by a definite cellular body              compounds like nitrates with
Kingdom Monera                              composed of filaments called             the help of bacteria and fungi.
   Monera includes prokaryotic              mycelium. The individual                 The biological nitrogen
   cells. Eg : True bacteria, Fun-          mycelium filaments is called             fixation is done by nitrogen
   gus-like bacteria i.e. ‘Autono-          hyphae.                                  fixing bacteria such as
   my cetales’, Blue - green algae          Water moulds, bread moulds,              Rhizobium Nostoc and
   (cyanobacteriae).                        club fungi are examples.                 Azetobactor.
   Antibiotic drugs like strepto-           Ascospores or basidiospores              Plants absorb the element
   mycin, erythromycin etc. are             are the products of sexual               nitrogen in the form of nitrates.
   obtained from actinomycetes is           reproduction in Fungi.                   Cyanobacteria is a blue green
   Kingdom Monera.                                                                   algae.
                                     The Plant Kingdom                               The profuse amount of pollen
Kingdom Protista
                                            Plants are the primary                   grains liberated by pine forests
   They are unicellular or colonial         producers in nature.                     at the time of pollination during
   eukaryotes. Reproduction is              Flora is the plants of a particular
                                                                                     the months of March-April is
   both sexual and asexual.                 region and Fauna is the animals          referred to as ‘Sulphur
   Motility is by Flagella, have
                                            of a particular region. Flora and        Showers.’’
   diverse nutritional habits. Eg :
                                            Fauna together constitute the            Araucaria embricate, a
   Euglena, Dinoflagellates,
                                            plants and animals of a region.          gymnosperm plant is commonly
   diatoms etc.
                                            The part of the earth and its            known as ‘Monkey’s Puzzle’
Kingdom Fungi                               atmosphere that is capable of            Litmus is obtained from a
   Multi       nucleate,      non-          supporting living things is the          lichen.
   photosynthetic, non- motile              biosphere.                               Lichen is an association of
   organisms. Reproduction is by            Biosphere is divided into                fungus and algae.
   both asexual and sexual means.           Lithosphere, Hydrosphere,                Turmeric is obtained from the
   Two divisions - myxomyco                 Atmosphere etc.                          stem of plant.
                                                                                     Cloves are dried flower buds
                                                                                     of plant syzygium aromaticum.
                        King of fruits - Mango
                                                                                     Potato is a tuber crop.
                    Poorman’s orange - Tomato
                                                                                     The native place of potato is
                      Poorman's wood - bamboo
                                                                                     America
                                                                                     in their environment are called
                 Subdisciplines of botanyp production
                                                                                     saprophytes
                                                                                 Classification of Plant Kingdom
                               of plant science to cro
  Agronomy: Application                                                          1. Rhodophyta (Red algae): Are
                                orts, and hornworts
  Bryology: Mosses, liverw                                     or value              mostly multicellular marine
                                of plants of economic use
  Economic botany: Study                                       nts                   plants. Their reddish colour is
                                p between humans and pla
  Ethnobotany: Relationshi                          stu dies                         due to a pigment, phycoery
                                  ent and related
  Forestry: Forest managem                                                           thrin.
                               plants
  Horticulture: Cultivated                                                       2. Phaeophyta (Brown Algae):
                               of lichens
   Lichenology: The study                                                            Are multicellular marine plants
   Paleobotany: Fossi   l pla nts                                                    growing on rocks or attached
                                   res                                               to sea shores. Their brownish
   Palynology: Pollen and spo
                                                                                     colour is due to xanthophyll
   Phycology: Algae                                           d ch em ical
                                 secondary ch emistry an                             pigment called fucoxanthin.
   Phytochemistry: Plant
                                                                                 3. Chlorophyta (Green Algae):
    proce sse s
                                  eases                                              Are a group of bright green
    Phytopathology: Plant dis
                               d tissue structure                                    aquatic, unicellular plants.
    Plant anatomy: Cell an
                                   nts in the environment                        4. Bryophyta: Simple, non
    Plant ecology: Role of pla                                                       vascular small plants grow in
                                inheritance in plants
    Plant genetics: Genetic                                                          moist places. Thallus like plant
                               ucture and life cycles
     Plant morphology: Str                                                           body is attached to the soil by
                               functions of plants
     Plant physiology: Life                                       nts                rhizoids.
                                  ification and naming of pla
     Plant systematics: Class                                                        eg: Liver worts, horn worts,
                                                                                     mosses, etc.
                                               one is Wolffia (duck weed).
   Vanilla, a flavouring material, is                                            5. Lycopodophyta              (club
                                               The largest sperms among
   extracted from the fruit of an                                                    mosses):        Multicellular
                                               plants are found in gymno-
   orchid ‘Vanilla Planlifolia.’               sperms.                               terrestrial plants with vascular
   Rubber is obtained from the                 In plants gaseous exchange            tissues.
   latex of Hevea brasiliensis.                occur through stomata.            6. Arthrophyta (Horsetails): Are
   The milky juice that oozes from             The roots which do not grow           multicellular plants with
   some trees like rubber is known             from a main root (radicle) but        vascular tissues. Arthrophyta
   as latex.                                   directly from the stem are called     are largely an extinct group
   Cotton, jute, silk, wool, etc are           adventitious roots.                   represented by a single living
   natural fibres and nylon is                 DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid)          genus, the Equisetum.
                                               and RNA (Ribo Nucleic Acid)       7. Pterophyta (Ferns): Are
   artificial fibre.
                                               are the two kinds of nucleic
   Sugarcane is a type of grass.                                                     multicellular plants with
                                               acids.
   The fruit sugar is fructose.                                                      vascular tissues; Here seeds
                                               In a plant cell, DNA is found in
   Tissue culture is the method of             chloroplast, mitochondria and         are not produced.
   producing plants from minute                nucleus.                          Gymnosperm
   plant fragments.                            Nepenthes, sundew, drosera,       8. Cycadophyta: Are multicellular
   The wall of the plant cell is               etc. are some of the                  terrestrial plants with vascular
   made of cellulose.The cellu-               insectivorous plants.                 tissues. The stem is large and
   lose cannot be digested by                  Insectivorous plants obtain           woody, leaves are large and
   human alimentary canal.                     nitrogen from animal bodies.          fern like.
   The largest flower in the world             Organisms which obtain their          eg: cycas, zamia (sago tree),
   is Rafflesia and the smallest               food from non living material         etc.
9.  Conifers: Are multicellular               Cultivations                      sine triphosphate (ATP).
    plants with well developed                                                  Phosphorous is important in
                                     Sericulture is rearing of silk
    tissues. Leaves are simple,                                                 plant bioenergetics.
                                     worms.
    smaller and needle like.                                                    Potassium regulates the
                                     Horticulture is the cultivation of
    eg: Cedrus (deodar), Taxus                                                  opening and closing of the
    (Yew), Pine                      flowers, fruits and ornamental
                                                                                stomata by a potassium ion
10. Angiosperms: More advanced       plants.
                                                                                pump.
    flowering plants with well       Pisciculture is the art of rearing
                                                                                Nitrogen is an essential
    developed vascular tissues.      fishes.
                                                                                component of all proteins.
    They make up more than half      Silviculture is forest planting.
                                     Apiculture means honey making.             Sulphur is a structural
    of all known species of plants.
                                                                                component of some amino
    Flowering plants are divided     Viticulture is grape cultivation.
                                                                                acids and vitamins, and is
    into two classes – Dicotyle      Vermiculture is breeding of
    dons (Dicots), Monocotyle                                                   essential in the manufacturing
                                     worms useful to farmers.
    dons (monocots).                                                            of chloroplasts.
                                     Floriculture is cultivation of
                                                                                Calcium regulates transport of
    Other Classifications            flowering plants.
                                                                                other nutrients into the plant
  Terrestrial: Plants which          Arboriculture means cultivation
                                                                                and is also involved in the
    grow in soil.                    of tree and vegetables.
                                                                                activation of certain plant
  Hydrophytes: grow in water.                                                   enzymes. Calcium deficiency
  Epiphytes: which perch on                                                     results in stunting.
    other plants but do not take         necessary for growth.                  Magnesium is an important
    nourishment from them.               There are 17 essential plant
                                                                                part of chlorophyll, a critical
  Xerophytes: Are adapted to             nutrients. Carbon and oxygen           plant pigment important in
    grow in a dry habitat like           are absorbed from the air, while       photosynthesis.
    deserts and can survive              other nutrients including water
    without moisture.                                                       Micro nutrients
                                         are obtained from the soil.            Iron is necessary for
    eg: cacti
                                    Macro Nutrients                             photosynthesis and is present
  Mesophytes: thrive under
    condition intermediate bet           Carbon: Carbon forms the               as an enzyme cofactor in
    ween very wet and very dry.          backbone of many plants                plants. Iron deficiency can
    The great variety of crops           biomolecules, including                result in interveinal chlorosis
    such as beans, tomatoes, pear,       starches and cellulose. Carbon         and necrosis.
    etc. belong to this category.        is fixed through photo-                Molybdenum is a cofactor to
  Parasitic: which depend on             synthesis from the carbon              enzymes important in building
    other     plants for their           dioxide in the air and is a part       amino acids.
    nourishment. They lack               of the carbohydrates that store
                                                                                Copper is important for
    chlorophyll and thus cannot          energy in the plant.
                                                                                photosynthesis.
    make their own food.                 Hydrogen: Hydrogen also is
    eg: bacteria, fungi.                 necessary for building sugars          Manganese is necessary for
  Carnivorous plants: plants             and building the plant. It is          building the chloroplasts.
    which trap insects and other         obtained almost entirely from          Zinc is required in a large
    small creatures on their sticky      water.                                 number of enzymes and plays
    leaves.                              Oxygen: Oxygen is necessary            an essential role in DNA
        Plant Nutrition                  for cellular respiration. Cellular     transcription.
    Plant nutrition is the study of      respiration is the process of          In higher plants, Nickel is
    the chemical elements that are       generating energy-rich adeno-          essential for activation of
     urease, an enzyme involved         from the base of the stem forming          in response to a touch or
     with nitrogen metabolism that      the fibrous root system.                   shock stimulus.
     is required to process urea.       Stem: Stem and leaves constitute      Living medium of plants
     Chlorine is necessary for          the shoot system.
                                                                                  Habitat: The normal locality
     osmosis and ionic balance; it             Plant Movements                    inhabited by a plant or animal,
     also plays a role in photo-
                                             Two types of movements are           particularly in relation to the
     synthesis.
                                             noted in plants.                     effect of its environmental
              Tissues                        1.Growth           movements         factors.
1.   Parenchyma : thin - walled,             (irreversible) (2) Turgor            World habitat day - Ist
     polyhedral cells with living            movements (reversible).              Monday of October.
     protoplasm, metabolically most       Plants exhibits movements in            The vegetation of deserts is
     active.                                 response to external stimulus        called xerophytes. eg: Opuntia.
2.   Collenchyma : Cell wall is made         like touchings,           light,     A hydrophyte is an aquatic
     up of thin and thick portions           gravitation, water etc.              plant.
     with thickening in the corners.          Chemical stimulus induced           Plants which grow in saline
     Found below the epidermis                growth is called chemotro-          water are called Halophytes.
     (stem skin).                             pism.                               Plants growing well in full
3.   Sclerenchyma:            highly      Bending of stem towards light           sunlight are called Helio-
     thickened cell walls. So it is the       is due to phototropism.             phytes.
     primary strengthening tissue                                                 Plants which grow luxuriantly
                                              Phototropism means move-
     found in mature plants. No                                                   in rainy season and shed all
                                              ments of P plan ts towards
     living protoplasm, some of                                                   leaves in summer are called
                                              light.
     these are highly elongated                                                   Tropophytes.
                                          The movement of plant or-
     called fibres.                                                               Oxylophytes : plants growing
                                              gans in response to the force
                                                                                  on acidic soil.
       Complex Tissues                        of gravity is called as geotro-
                                                                                  Lithophytes: plants growing
  Xylem - primarily a conducting              pism.
                                                                                  on rocks.
     tissue meant for transport of            The movement of an organ
                                                                                  Plants growing in marsh are
     water and mineral elements.              induced by contact with a for-
                                                                                  called Helophytes.
     Highly thickened walls.                  eign body is called
                                                                                  Hydroponics: is a method of
  Phloem - meant for the                      haptotropism.
                                                                                  cultivating plants without
     transport of food material from          Water stimulus induced              using soil but by using nutrient
     the leaves where it is                   growth movements are called         solution.
     synthesized to the storage or            hydrotropism.
     consumption organs.                      The curvature movements         Growth Regulators of
  Epidermis - outermost layer of              of plant parts in response to   Plants
     the plant body and is primarily          the stimulus of contact are
                                                                                   Certain chemical substances
     protective in nature.                    termed as thigmotropism.
                                                                                   regulate the growth and dif-
  Secretory Tissues : Examples                Growth movements in re-              ferentiation of plants. These
     of secretions are resin,                 sponse to the stimulus of heat       substances are called plant
     mucilage, essential oils, gums,          or cold is called thermotro-         growth regulators or phyto
                                              pism.                                hormones.
     nectar, etc.
                                              Alternation of day and night         The auxins induce cell elon-
   Morphology of the Plant                    causes movements of plants           gation and root initiation.
Root: Root develops from the                  called nyctinastic movements.        Indol - 3 Acetic Acid (IAA) is
‘radicle; forming tap root system or          Seismonastic movements are           an important Auxin.
   Stem elongation and dor-              of light, only blue, red and        Pollination between two flow-
   mancy breaking are induced            some violet light are absorbed.     ers of one plant gytanogamy
   by gibberillins.                      During day time plants take         Pollination by insects is called
   Dormancy is the period in             in carbondioxide and give out       Entomophily.
   which seeds remains inactive.         oxygen.                             Pollination by birds is called
   The hormone which helps in            GUTTATION: In some plants,          Ornithophily.
   flowering of plants - florigen.       water oozes through certain
                                                                             Pollination by animals is called
   Cytokinins help to induce cell        pores in the form of liquid, that
                                                                             Zoophily.
   division and cell elongation.         pores remain permanently open
   (Cytokinins are largely               and this phenomenon is called       Pollination by wind is called
                                                                             Anemophily.
   present in coconut water.)            guttation.
   The plant hormone that con-           OSMOSIS :The process by             The pollen grains in the
   trols fruit ripening is ethylene.     which water diffuses through        plants are produced in anther.
   Unripe fruits can be made to          a semi-permeable membrane           The chief pollinators of our
   ripe before proper time if they       from a region of higher concen-     agrihorticulture crops are
   are kept in ethylene atmo-            tration of a solution to a region   bees.
   sphere.                               of lower concentration of a so-     Wind borne pollen grains
   Abscisic acid cures ageing            lution.                             cause pollen allergy.
                                         TRANSPIRATION: The                  In plants like castor and
   and abscission of leaves.
                                         leaves excretes water through       moringa seed dispersal takes
   It inhibits germination of
                                         stomata by transpiration pro-       place through wind.
   seeds.
                                                                             In Vallisnaria pollination
   Seed dormancy is due to ab-           cess.
                                                                             occurs by water.
   scisic acid.                          The required ingredient for
                                                                             Seed dispersal in coconut
                                         photosynthesis in plant is All
                                                                             occurs through water.
Plant Processes                          the above
                                         For the process of respiration      The Kingdom of
   PHOTOSYNTHESIS is the                 in plants oxygen is necessary
   process by which green                Xylem is responsible for the
                                                                                   Animals
   plants manufacture food in            conduction of water in plants
   the form of carbohydrates by                                              The animal with the longest
                                         Plants get water through the        life span on the land is el-
   using water, CO2 and sunlight.        roots because of capillarity
   During Photosynthesis plants                                              ephant, while the animal hav-
                                         Phloem carries prepared food
   use carbon dioxide and give                                               ing the longest life span, in
                                         from leaves to all parts of
   out oxygen.                           plant.                              general, is turtles and tor-
   Oxygen balance in the atmo-                                               toises.
   sphere is maintained through        Seed Dispersal and                    Blue Whale is the biggest and
   the process of Photosynthe-               Pollination                     the heaviest mammal.
   sis.                                                                      The smallest ape is Gibbon.
   The percentage of light en-           Pollination means transfer of
                                         pollen grains from the anther       Chimpanzee is the most intel-
   ergy fixed in photosynthesis
                                         to the stigma of the same plant     ligent ape.
   is generally around 1%
                                         or a different plant.               Elephant tusks are enlarged
   Photosynthesis takes place
   faster in red light                   Pollination by water -              incisors.
   Plant pigments do not absorb          Hydrophily                          Fishes respire through gills.
   all the wavelengths of visible        Pollination by Bat -                The vertebrate which has a two
   light. Out of the seven colours       Chiropterophily                     chambered heart is fish.
    Coprophytes are the animals
    which derives their food from       Largest ape ............................................................. Gorilla
    faecal matters.                     Tallest animal .......................................................... Giraffe
    The organism which has the          Largest reptile .................................................... Crocodile
    maximum number of ribs is the       Lowest recorded temperature for a human
    snake. The largest snake is         being to survive ..................................................... 20.30 C
    the anaconda found in the           Fastest Animal ......................... Cheetah (speed 60-63 km/hr)
    Amazon region in South              Smallest bird ................................................ Humming bird
    America.                            Largest bird ...................................... North African Ostrich
                                        Longest poisonous snake ................................ King Cobra
    Kangaroo is a nocturnal her-
                                        Largest mammal (animal) ............. Blue Whale (wt. 209 tones)
    bivore.
                                        Largest land animal ................. African Elephant (wt. 7 tones)
    Zebras are jockingly called
                                        Largest teeth ........................ Elephant tusks (upper incisors)
    ''the ponies in pygamas.''
    The main chemical content of
    egg shell is calcium carbo-                                                               is called metamorphosis
    nate.                                feeding on blood. Frugivores                         Cobra venom affects the ner-
    Hibernation is the period of                                                              vous system and viper venom
                                         are the animals feeding on
    long sleep for animals in cold                                                            the blood circulatory system.
                                         fruits.
    weather when there is no food                                                             A baby cockroach is called
                                         The Kangaroo rat never drinks
    available. During this period                                                             nymph.
                                         water in its entire life.-
    animals go underground and
                                         Ostrich, Rhea, Kiwi and Pen-                         Organism is called the ‘slip-
    their metabolic activity be-
                                         guin-all are flightless birds.                       per animal cule’ paramecium
    comes very low and hence
    they do not need to eat or           Dodo (a flightless pigeon)                           The organism which performs
    drink during this period.            which appeared in Mauritius
    The animal found in the              is now extinct.
                                                                                      The animal classes that are
    advertisement board of forest        The smallest flightless bird is
                                                                                             vertebrates include
    department with the heading          kiwi, while the smallest flying
                                                                                            Jawless fish
    “I have no medicinal value” is       bird is the Bee humming bird                       Armored fish
    black ape.                           of Cuba.                                           Cartilaginous fish
    Sanguivores are the animals          Growth of tadpole into a frog                      Bony fish
                                                                                            Amphibians
                                                                                            Reptiles
                                                                                            Birds
             The Classification of animals                                                  Mammals
    Animal Kingdom can be split up into main groups, vertebrates                           Invertebrates include
  (with a backbone) and invertebrates (without a backbone). around                     Sponges
  800,000 species have been identified in the Animal Kingdom —                         Jellyfish, hydras,
  most of them in the Arthropod phylum.                                                     sea anemones, corals
    Scientists classify each organism according to its: Kingdom,                       Comb jellies
  Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species.                                     Flatworms
                                                                                       Molluscs
    The science of classifying organisms is called taxonomy.                           Arthropods
  Biologists classify living things into two kingdoms, the Plant                       Segmented worms
  Kingdom and the Animal Kingdom.                                                      Echinoderms
   the sex transformation in       Physiology and Health                      sources are - butter, ghee, oils,
   crabs - Sacculina.                                                         ground nuts, almonds, etc.
  The population of reptiles is    I. Carbohydrates                           One gram of fat yields 9.3
  maximum on earth.                     Organic compounds contai-             calories of energy.
  Saurology is the study of             ning carbon, hydrogen and         IV. Vitamins
  lizards.                              oxygen which constitute               Vitamin A, D, E, K are fat
  Ants go in a line by the              sugars (Starch, cellulose,            soluble whereas vitamin B
  secretion of trail pheromones.        glucose etc) and supply               complex and C are water
                                        calories for body activity.
  The tallest living bird is                                                  soluble.
                                        The general formula of
  Ostrich.                                                                    Rich sources of vitamin A are
                                        carbohydrate molecule is
  Silver fish is not a fish but a                                             leafy vegetables, animal fat,
                                        Cn (H2O)n.
  wingless insect.                      The sources of carbohydrates          carrot, spinach, milk etc.
                                        are rice, wheat, honey, sugar,        Severe deficiency of Vitamin A
  Six Basic Animal                      potato, carrot. Deficiency of         results in Xerophthalmia and
                                        carbohydrates causes weight           Nightblindness.
          Groups                        loss and weakness.                    Rich sources of vitamin B are
  Amphibians (Class Amphibia)           Polyhydroxy aldehyde or               cereals, eggs, fruits, liver,
  are one of the six basic groups       ketones are carbohydrates.            pulses.
                                        Based on the number of sugar          Vitamin C is found in oranges,
  of animals.
                                        units they can be classified          lemon, vegetables and milk.
  Amphibians include frogs,                                                   Milk, egg, liver etc are rich
                                        into, Monosaccharides, Oligo-      
  toads, caecilians, newts and          saccharides and Polysaccha-           sources of vitamin E.
  salamanders.                          rides.                                Vitamin E is considered both
  Birds (Class Aves). Birds, best                                             as a vitamin and hormone.
                                   II. Proteins
  known for their ability to fly,                                             The source of vitamin K is
  are unmatched in their com-           Proteins are highly complex
                                                                              green leafy vegetables and
                                        nitrogenous compound found
  mand of the skies.                                                          fishes, pea etc.
                                        in all living organisms. Proteins
  Invertebrates are one of the six                                            Vitamin K is essential for blood
                                        are hydrolysed in the body to
  basic groups of animals. Katy-                                              coagulation.
                                        produce amino acids and are
  dids, spiders, sea squirts, oc-                                             If milk is exposed to sunlight
                                        essential for growth and repair
  topuses, earthworms, starfish,                                              for a long time, vitamin B2 will
                                        of the body tissues. They also
  beetles, hydras, dragonflies,                                               be lost.
                                        provide energy when calories
  sponges, corals, snails, and                                                Excessive intake of polished
                                        are deficient.
  jellyfish are a handful of the                                              rice causes deficiency of B1
                                        Sources: Milk, fish, meat, eggs,
  invertebrates alive today.                                                  (Thiamine).
                                        nuts, dal.
                                                                              Cow milk is a rich source of
  Fish are cold-blooded, aquatic        Soyabean seeds possess
                                                                              vitamin A.
  animals that have scales, gills       highest percentage of proteins
                                                                              Vitamin D, can also be
  and fins.                             (30-35%).
                                                                              synthesised in our body with
  Mammals (Class Mammalia)              Prolonged protein deficiency
                                                                              the help of sun light.
  are one of the six basic groups       cause         severe      under
                                                                              Shark liver oil and cod liver oil
  of animals.                           nourishment - a serious
                                                                              are rich sources of vitamin D.
                                        condition Kwashiorker is
  Reptiles (Class Reptilia) are                                               Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamine)
                                        resulted mostly in children.
  cold-blooded vertebrates that                                               is a cobalt containing vitamin.
  diverged from ancestral am-      III. Fats                                  Even though the amounts of
  phibians about 340 million            Fats are insolube in water but        vitamins required are small
  years ago.                            soluble in fat solvents. Major        compared to other nutrients, it
                                Source and Role of Principal Vitamins
Vi ta mi n                      Best Food Source                  Functio n                           Deficiency disease
Retinal :                       Carrots, yellow and green veg- Synthesis of the visual purple of      Xerophthalmia: drying of
(Vitamin A) (Fat soluble)       etables. Other sources include the retinal rods.                      cornea and ulceration. Night
                                butter, milk, fish-liver oil.     Maintains general health anc        blindness: Inability to see in
                                                                  vigour of epithelial cells. Hence   the dark. Keratinization of
                                                                  essential for good skin and hair.   epithelium: Dry skin and hair.
Thiamine                        Whole grains, yeast, liver, egg, Carbohydrate metabolism. En- Beri-beri: Partial paralysis of
(Vitamin B) (Water soluble) pork, nuts.                           sures normal functioning of the skeletal muscles and digestive
                                                                  central nervous system.             disturbances.
Ribofla win                     Cereals, legumes, milk, egg, Essential carbohydrate and pro- Characterised by corneal ulcer-
(Vitamin B) (Water soluble) liver, kidney, yeast.                 tein metabolism especially in the ation and cracking of skin (es-
                                                                  cells of the eye, skin, intestines, pecially around the lips).
                                                                  and blood.
Niac in                         Lean meat, liver, milk, eggs, Inhibits production of choles-          Pellagra: Characterised by
(Water soluble)                 nuts, whole grains.               terol and helps in the breakdown    dermatitis (skin inflammation),
                                                                  of fats, proteins and carbohy-      diarrhoea and dementia (loss of
                                                                  drates.                             intellectual function).
Pyrido xine                     Salmon, yeast, yogurt, corn, Essential for amino-acid metabo-         Epileptiform seizures observed
(Vitamin B 6) (Water soluble) spinach, cheese, cereals & le- lism. Assists production of anti-        in children. Symptoms include
                                gumes. Also synthesised by in- bodies.                                dermatitis of eyes, nose and
                                testinal bacteria.                                                    mouth; retarded growth.
Folic Acid (Water soluble)      Yeast, liver, green leafy veg- Helps normal production of Macrocytic anaemia: Produc-
                                etables. Synthesized by intesti- blood cells. Identified in chro- tion of abnormally large red
                                nal bacterial also.               mosomes an important repro- blood cells.
                                                                  ductive factor.
Cyano c o b alamine             Liver, kidney, meat, eggs, milk Necessary for red blood cells for-    1. Pernicious anaemia.
(Vitamin B 12 ) (Water soluble) and cheese. (Note:                mation and normal functioning       2. Neuro-psychiatric abnor-
                                Absent in vegetables, only vi- of nervous system.                     malities: Memory loss, mood
                                tamin containing cobalt.)                                             and personality changes.
Ascorbic acid                   Citrus fruits, tomatoes, cabbage. Influences permeability of cap- Scurvy: Swollen gums, teeth
(Vitamin C) (Water soluble)                                       illary walls. Develops immunity loss, bleeding gums.
                                                                  against diseases. Forms collagen.
                                Fish liver oils, egg yolk, milk, Controls calcium and phospho-
Calc ife r o l                  butter. Also synthesized in the rus metabolism which contribute Rickets (in infants) Bones be-
(Vitamin D) (Fat soluble)       human body by the skin under to formation of teeth and bones. come soft (deformed).
                                the influence of sunlight.                                            Oesteomalacia (demineral-
                                                                                                      ization of bones)
Tocopherol                      Wheat germ, fresh nuts, seed As anti-oxidant which protects Deficiency not reported in hu-
(Vitamin E) (Fat soluble)       oils, green leafy vegetables.     lipids of cells membranes against mans Causes sterility in rats.
                                                                  oxygen damage.
Phyl lo quin o ne s             Liver, spinach, cauliflower, Assists in the production of pro- Haemorrhage: Subcutaneous
(Vitamin K) (Fat soluble)       green tomatoes.                   thrombin and other factors that and intramuscular bleedings due
                                                                  ensure normal clotting of blood. to delayed clotting time.
                                    Food Source                               Heterotrophic : Organism is
  Vitamin A (Retinol)               Cod liver oil, carrots                    unable to prepare its own food.
  Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)             Rice bran                                 Holozoic : Mode of nutrition
  Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)         Citrus, most fresh foods                  characteristic of animals
  Vitamin D (Calciferol)            Cod liver oil                             whereby simple substances
  Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)           Meat, eggs                                are obtained from complex food
  Vitamin E (Tocopherol)            Wheat germ oil, unrefined veg.oils        substances.
  Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins)          Liver, eggs, animal products              Saprophytic : Absorbs
  Vitamin K (Phylloquinone/                                                   nourishment from dead or
  phytol naphthoquinone)            Leafy green vegetables                    decaying organic matter.
  Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)     Meats, whole grains, in many foods        Parasitic : Derives nutrition
  Vitamin B7 (Biotin)               Meats, dairy products, eggs               from living host without
  Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)           Meat, dairy products.                     helping it in any way.
  Vitamin B3 (Niacin)               Meat, eggs, grains
                                                                              Homodont dendition :
  Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)           Leafy green vegetables
                                                                              Consists of only one type of
                                                                              teeth. They are used only for
    is very necessary. Otherwise          Overdose of water soluble           catching prey, as homodont
    several deficiency diseases are       vitamin does not cause any          does not chew their food. Eg :
    caused in the body.                   harm but accumulation of fat        Snakes.
    The name ‘vitamin’ is coined          soluble vitamin can be toxic. It    Heterodont dendition : More
    by J.Funk (1912)                      can lead to hypervitaminosis.       than one type of teeth,
    Milk is a rich source of all          Vitamin A accumulate in liver       differing in function, shape
    vitamins except vitaminC.             while vitamin D promotes high       and function. Eg : Human
    Vitamin D(in skin) and vitamin        Ca+ absorption which damage
    K (in liver) can be synthesized       the kidney where it is
                                                                                Human Body
    by our body.                          deposited.
    Deficiency of protein ,                                                Digestive System
                                          Vitamin A Deficiency causes
    carbohydrates and fats results        Night       Blindness     and       The process of converting
    in protein - energy -                 Keratomalacia.                      food into energy giving sub-
    malnutrition.                                                             stances is carried out by the
    Protein deficiency causes             Deficiency of Vitamin B 1
                                          (Thiamine) causes Beri Beri.        digestive system.
    Kwashiorkor- skin cracks and
                                          Vitamin B3 (Niacin) deficiency      The digestive system consists
    become scaly, abdomen swells,
    hair become reddish .                 causes Pellagra.                    of the alimentary canal (buccal
                                          Vitamin B6 Deficiency- Anemia.      cavity, oesophagus, stomach,
    Marasmus child show all
                                                                              small intestine, large intestine
    above symptoms besides                Vitamin B5 deficiency -
                                          Paresthesia                         ending in the rectum and anus)
    wasting of muscles.
                                                                              and the associated glands.
    Diseases restricted to given          Vitamin C deficiency - Scurvy
                                                                              Alimentary canal is a long tube
    region and arising from its           Vitamin D deficiency - Rickets
    specific environment condition                                            which is 6-9 metres long and
    are called endemic diseases. Eg
                                     Modes of Nutrition                       starts from mouth and ends at
    : Goiter in sub - Himalayan           Autotrophic : Ability of            anus.
    region.                               organism to prepare its own         The parts of the alimentary
    Pellagra is common amongst            food.                               canal are Mouth , Pharynx,
    people living on a maize diet,        Holophytic : Characteristic of      Oesophagus, Stomach, Small
    because maize interferes with         plants where by they prepare        intestine, Large intestine.
    the absorption of niacin in           complex food substances             The mouth leads into a funnel
    body.                                 using simple raw materials.         shaped pharynx, which is the
        common passage for food and                  and secrete bile later when               The exchange of O2 and CO2
        air.                                         food is present in intestine.             takes place in lungs at alveoli.
        Pharynx lead into oesophagus                 The large intestine secretes no          The amount of air moving in
        which is about 25cm long.                    enzyme and play only a minor             and out of lungs during each
        The three divisions of large                 role in the absorption of                breath is called tidal volume.
        intestine are Caecum, Colon                  nutrients.                               The maximum volume of air
        and Rectum.                                                                           that can be moved in or out of
                                                             Lungs                            the lungs is referred to as the
        Small intestine. It is the largest
        and narrow tubular part of                                                            vital capacity of the lungs.
        alimentary canal. It measures                                                         Eupnea –– Normal breathing
        about 6 meters in length.                                                             Dyspnea –painful breathing
                                                                                              Anexia – No O2 in inspired air
        Small intestine, the highly
                                                                                               Pneumonia, pleurosis, bron-
        coiled portion has 3 divisions
                                                                                               chitis, silicosis and emphy-
        such as duodenum, jejunum
                                                                                               sema are diseases affecting
        and ileum.
                                                                                               respiratory tract.
        Digestion is of two types
                                                                                               SARS (Severe Acute Respi-
        Intra cellular digestion : The                                                         ratory Syndrome) a lung dis-
        digested products pass to the                                                          ease, is caused by Corona Vi-
        cytoplasm       across        the                                                      rus.
        endocytotic inside membrane.
        Eg : Amoeba                                                                      High altitude problems
        Extra Cellular Digestion : Cell                                                  1.   Asphyxia - Oxygen starvation
                                                     The lung is the essential
        synthesizes one or more                                                               due to low atmospheric oxygen
                                                     respiration organ in all air-
        enzymes for digesting specific                                                        is called asphyxia.
                                                     breathing animals.
        type of nutrient.                                                                2.   Hypoxia - refers to a general
                                                     Lungs are the respiratory
        The liver is the largest gland               organ in higher vertebrates              low level of oxygen
        of the body. It secretes bile,               (man).                                   availability. Physiologically it
        containing bile pigments and                 The main function of the lungs           refers to a deficiency of oxygen
        bile organic salt. If intestine              is the oxygenation of blood              at the tissue level.
        contains no food, the bile flows             and to supply oxygen to it.              Tobacco smoke and exhaust
        to gall bladder, instead of                  The right lung is larger than the        fumes result in carbon
        duodenum ; which contract                    left lung.                               monoxide poisoning.
                                                     Right weight about - 620 g               The binding capacity of
                                                     Left weight about - 570 g                carbon monoxide is 200 times
                                                      Alveoli are small air sacs of           than that of carbondioxide with
                                                      the lungs through the walls of          haemoglobin.
Liver                                                 which gaseous exchange                  A leaf like cartilagenous flap,
                                       Stomach
                                                      takes place between blood               the epiglottis guards the
Gall
Bladder                                               and air.                                opening of glottis.
                                                      The organ without muscle is             Sleeping in a closed room with
Large                                                 lungs                                   a burning kerosene lamp may
Intestine
                                     Small            Pleura protects lungs from              lead to death due to lack of O2.
                                  Intestine           harm.                                   In mammals, the body cavity
                                                      The CO content in the air that          is partitioned into thoracic and
                                                               2
                                                      we exhale is about 8%.                  abdominal parts by diaphragm.
           Heart                                                                                     s
                                                      World’s fir
                                                                        st heart transplant wa
                                                                                                by  Ch ristian
                                                                     d December 1967
                                            performed on 3r
                                         Bernard.                                                              Science
                                                               of  A ll  In di  a In sti tute of Medical
                                         Dr. Venugopa       l                                                  t 1994.
                                      
                                                               s fir st he ar t tra nsplant on 3rd Augus
                                          performed Indi     a’                                                     a
                                                                                              the history of Keral
                                               Th e  fir st he ar t transplantation in                    sp ita l
                                                                                                  ust Ho
                                                                       Cochin Medical Tr
                                         
                                              was conducted at                     ce  of    D r. Jose
                                                       un de r th e guid en
                                                                                           .
                                                              Chacko Periyapuram
  The cardiovascular system            The deoxygenated blood (im-                         Arteries carry pure blood from
  comprises the heart, veins,          pure blood) from the body                           the heart to the tissues.
  arteries and capillaries.            coined by two large veins                           Pulmonary artery is the only
  Heart is the pumping organ of        called Superier Venacava and                        artery carrying impure blood.
  blood vascular system.               Inferior Venacava is in the                         Veins collect impure blood
   Heart length - 12 cm                right auricle.                                      from the tissues and carry it
   Heart width - 9 cm                  The oxygenated blood from                           to the heart.
   The normal heart beat is 70-        the lungs is received by the                        Pulmonary vein is the only
   72 per minute in males and          heart in left auricle.                              vein carrying pure blood.
   78-82 per minute in females.        Aorta is the largest artery                         The largest vein in human
   The heart beat of a child is        which carries oxygenated                            body is called inferior
   more than that of an adult. ie      blood.                                              venacava.
   140/min                             The largest blood vessel in the                    The lengt h of our bl ood
   The circulation of blood in the     body is Aorta.                                     capillaries is about 1,00,000
   body is regulated by the heart.     As blood passes through                            cm.
   The human heart is on the left      lungs, gases are exchanged                          Jarvik Heart is the artifical
   side beneath the left nipple.       through blood vessels called                        pump to replace the human
   The pericardium protects            capillaries of alveoli. Heart                       heart developed by Robert K.
   heart from harm.                    beat rate in embryo (Foetus) 1                      Jarvik.
   The average weight of the           minute = 200. Heart beat rate                       John H. Gibbon (USA) built
   heart is about 340 gm in men        in new born baby 1 minute =                         the first successful heart-lung
   and 225 gm in women.                140 times.                                          machine.
   The human heart has four            Normal pulse rate of healthy                        A pacemaker is used to stimu-
   chambers, a pair of auricles        adult human is 72 per minute.                       late the heart muscles.
   and a pair of ventricles.           Normal BP is 120/80 mmHg.                           Except heart all other organs
   The human heart consists of         The science dealing with the                        of our body are found in pairs.
   four chambers and in fish the       study of the heart and its dis-                     The organ which is not af-
   heart consists of two cham-         eases is known as cardiology.                       fected by tumour is heart.
   bers. In those of amphibians        ECG (Electro Cardio Gram)                           Pain in heart musles -- Angina
   there are 3 chambers. Heart of      It is the photographic record                       pectoris.
   reptiles is incompletely di-        of electric variations that oc-                    The circulation of blood in the
   vided into 4 chambers (Croco-       cur during contraction of                          body is regulated by the heart.
   dile has 4 chambered heart).        muscles of heart.                                  The credit of discovering the
   Mammals and birds also have         ECG was invented by Wilhelm                        circulatory system goes to
   four chambered hearts.              Einthoven.                                         William Harvey.
   The total length of our blood           Constituents of the                 Albumin, globulin and fi-
   vessels is about one lakh                     human body                    brinogen are the plasma pro-
   kilometre.                        In a normal man weighing 60 kg            teins.
       Heart disease                 Constituent Weight Percent                Fibrinogen is concerned with
                                                                  of atoms     Coagulation of blood.
  Coronary heart disease refers                                                The blood cells are of three
                                     Oxygen             38.8 kg 25.5 %
  to the failure of the coronary                                               types - Red blood cells (Eryth-
                                     Carbon             10.9 kg 9.5 %
  circulation to supply adequate                                               rocytes), White blood cells
                                     Hydrogen           6.0 kg 63 %
  circulation to cardiac muscle
                                     Nitrogen           1.9 kg 1.4 %           (leucocytes) and the Platelets
  and surrounding tissue.
                                     Calcium            1.2 kg 0.3 %           (Thrombocytes).
  Coronary artery disease is a
                                     Phosphorus 0.6 kg .2 %                    Red Blood Corpuscles (RBC )
  disease of the artery caused by
                                     Potassium          0.2 kg 0.06 %          contain haemoglobin which
  the      accumulation           of
                                                                               gives blood its red colour.
  atheromatous plaques within
                                                                               Camel is the only mammal hav-
  the walls of the arteries that
                                                                               ing nucleus in the RBC.
  supply the myocardium.                  blood pressure, especially           The abnormal rise in total
  Angina pectoris (chest pain)            localised high blood pressure.       count of RBC is called poly-
  and myocardial infarction               Inflammatory heart disease           cythemia.
  (heart attack) are symptoms of          involves inflammation of the        Erythrocytes participate in
  and conditions caused by                heart muscle and/or the tissue      transporting oxygen from
  coronary heart disease.                 surrounding it.                     lungs to tissues.
  Cardiomyopathy is the                   Valvular heart disease is           CO2 is carried in both plasma
  deterioration of the function of        disease process that affects        and RBC as bicarbonates.
  the myocardium (i.e., the actual        one or more valves of the heart.
  heart muscle) for any reason.                                                RBCs are produced in the bone
  People with cardiomyopathy                                                   marrow.
                                                    Blood                      Spleen & liver destroy the
  are often at risk of arrhythmia
                                            The blood serves to transport      dead RBCs in human body.
  and/or sudden cardiac death.
  Cardiovascular disease is any             and distribute materials within    Spleen is known as graveyard
  of a number of specific                   the body.                          of RBC.
  diseases that affect the heart            Distribution of enzymes is not     Spleen serves as a Blood
  itself and/or the blood vessel            a function of blood.               Bank (Reservoir of blood) in
  system, especially the veins              Blood circulation was discov-      the body.
  and arteries leading to and               ered by William Harvey.            The life span of RBC is about
  from the heart.                           Since blood is found outside       120 days.
  Heart failure also called                 the cells it is called as extra
                                                                               Haemoglobin consists of iron
  congestive heart failure (or              cellular fluid (ECF).
                                                                               containing pigment haem and
  CHF), and congestive cardiac              The pH value of human blood
                                                                               a protein globin.
  failure (CCF), is a condition that        is nearly 7.5.
                                                                               Haemoglobin, the respiratory
  can result from any structural            The blood cholesterol level in
                                                                               pigment gives red colour to
  or functional cardiac disorder            100ml of blood in a normal
                                                                               RBC.
  that impairs the ability of the           person varies between 150-
  heart to fill with or pump a              250 mg                             Haemoglobin helps in trans-
  sufficient amount of blood                The liquid part of the blood       portation of oxygen.
  throughout the body.                      viz. the plasma constitutes        Normal adult human male has
  Hypertensive heart disease is             55% of the total blood vol-        14 grams of haemoglobin in
  heart disease caused by high              ume.                               100 millilitre of blood.
                                                           Functions of Blood
      Blood pressure                   • Supply of oxygen to tissues (bound to hemoglobin, which is
  Blood pressure (BP) is the pres-         carried in red cells)
  sure exerted by circulating          • Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty
  blood upon the walls of blood            acids (dissolved in the blood or bound to plasma proteins
  vessels, and is one of the prin-         (e.g., blood lipids))
  cipal vital signs. During each       •   Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide, urea, and lactic acid
  heartbeat, BP varies between a
  maximum (systolic) and a mini-
                                       •   Immunological functions, including circulation of white blood
  mum (diastolic) pressure.                cells, and detection of foreign material by antibodies
                                       •   Coagulation, which is one part of the body's self-repair mecha-
                                           nism (the act of blood clotting when one gets cut to stop the
     The condition when haemo-             bleeding)
     globin content of the blood       •   Messenger functions, including the transport of hormones
     falls below normal is termed
                                           and the signaling of tissue damage
     anaemia.
                                       •   Regulation of body pH
     The disease resistant con-
     stituent of blood is W.B.C.       •   Regulation of core body temperature
     which produces antibodies.        •   Hydraulic functions
     Antigens are capable of
     stimulating the formation of        Clotting of blood in blood ves-         High blood pressure (Hyper-
     antibodies.                         sels is called thrombosis.              tension) is known as the si-
     WBC-White Blood Cor-                The coagulation of blood in             lent killer.
     puscles (Leucocytes) defend         vessels is prevented during            Normal blood sugar level : 80-
     our body from disease caus-         normal condition by heparin.           100mg/100ml of blood
     ing microorganisms.                 Haemophilia is a hereditary            Normal cholesterol 50-180 mg
    The number of luekocytes per         bleeding disease due to inad-
                                                                                /100ml of plasma.
    micro litre of blood is called       equate clotting of the blood.
    the total count of WBC. It is        Haemophilia sometimes re-              The largest leucocyte -
    normally 5000 in humans.             ferred to as bleeder’s disease         Monocytes.
     Leukaemia, also called blood        or 'christmas disease.'                The smallest leucocyte -
     cancer, is caused by the over       A healthy person has 5-6 litres        lymphocytes.
     production of WBCs.                 of blood in his body.                  The leucocytes capable of
     Leucopenia is the disease           At a time of blood donation            producing antibodies are -
     caused due to decrease in the       only 300 ml of blood is used.          lymphocytes.
     white blood cells count.            The normal blood pressure of           The leucocytes which are
     The proportion of R.B.C.            a healthy adult is 120/80 mm           modified as scavenger cells are
     and W.B.C. in human body            Hg.
                                                                                - Monocytes.
                                         120 mm Hg is known as sys-
     is 600 : 1.                                                                The leucocytes that are able to
                                         tolic pressure and 80 mm Hg
     The life span of WBC is about       is known as diastolic pres-            produce the anticoagulant
     5 to 21 days.                       sure.                                  heparin are Basophils.
     Platelets or thrombocytes are
     other blood cells. They per-            Presence of blood in urine - Haematuria.
     form an important role in blood         Presence of haemoglobin in the urine - Haemoglobinuria.
     clotting. They live only for a          Presence of excess urea in the blood - Uremia
     few hours.                              Presence of excess proteins in urine - Proteinuria.
    Plasma                           Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man displays the proportions of a man.
    About 55% of whole blood is                                    The Vitruvian Man is a world-renowned
    blood plasma, a fluid that is                                       drawing created by Leonardo da Vinci
    the blood's liquid medium,                                            in the year 1487.
    which by itself is straw-yellow                                         The drawing and text are some-
                                                                              times called the Canon of
    in color.
                                                                               Proportions .
   Plasma functions in transport,                                              It is stored in the Gallerie
   body immunity, prevention of                                                dell'Accademia in Venice, Italy.
   blood loss, retention of fluid                                             The drawing is based on the
   in blood, maintenance of pH,                                              correlations of ideal human
   uniform distribution of heat.                                            proportions with geometry
Hematological disorders                                                   described by the ancient Roman
    Anemia: Insufficient red cell                                         architect Vitruvius
    mass (anemia) can be the re-
    sult of bleeding, blood disor-         Bacterial infection of the               shrink and form a hard clot to
    ders like thalassemia, or nutri-      blood is bacteremia or sepsis.            plug the opening of the blood
    tional deficiencies.                  Viral Infection is viremia. Ma-           vessel to stop bleeding. After
   Abnormal increase in WBC               laria and trypanosomiasis are             clotting occurs, a straw
   count is known as leukemia or          blood-borne parasitic infec-              coloured fluid called ‘serum’ is
   blood cancer.                          tions.                                    left. This portion of blood
    Leukemia is a group of can-      Blood clotting                                 retains its liquid form
    cers of the blood-forming tis-                                                  indefinitely.
                                         Blood platelets breakdown in
    sues.                                the vicinity of an injury and              Haemophilia is a hereditary
   Abnormal decrease in total            release an enzyme that causes              bleeding disease due to
   count of WBC is known as              formation of fibrin from                   inadequate clotting of the
   leucopenia                            fibrinogen. Fibrin forms a                 blood.
    Non-cancerous overproduc-            tangled mass of fibres which
    tion of red cells (polycythemia
    vera) or platelets (essential         Recipient                                  Donor
    thrombocytosis) may be pre-
    malignant.
    Hemophilia is a genetic illness
    that causes dysfunction in
    one of the blood's clotting
    mechanisms.
    Blood is an important vector
    of infection. HIV, the virus,
    which causes AIDS, is trans-
    mitted through contact with
    blood, semen or other body
    secretions of an infected per-
    son.
     Hepatitis B and C are trans-
    mitted primarily through blood
    contact.
Blood Groups                                 Erythroblastosis foetalis ––           body which carries pure blood
                                             caused by the Rh blood                 is pulmonary vein
     A person having blood type              group.                                 Antigen is a substance which
     B could safely donate blood             Land Steiner and Weiner first          stimulates formation of anti-
     to persons with blood type B            found the Rh factor in Rhesus          body
     and AB                                  monkey.                                When the right ventricle in the
     Blood groups A, B, AB and O             Normal count level RBC in              human heart contracts, the
     were discovered by Karl                 Blood - 5 million/ccg Blood.           blood moves to pulmonary
     Landsteiner.                            Normal count level WBC in              artery
      O blood group can be given             Blood - 5,000 to 9,000 ccg
     to persons of any other group.          Blood.                            Liver : The largest gland
     Therefore O group is called             Normal count level platelets in        The liver is the largest gland
     universal donor.                        Blood - 2,50,000 to 3 lakhs.           in the body.
     A person with group AB can              Life span of RBC - 120 days
     receive any other group. So             Life span of WBC - 5 to 21
     AB is called universal                  days
     recepient.                              Life span of platelets - 7 days
     ‘A’ blood group is most com-            The instrument used to mea-                                      Liver
     mon among the Europeans,                sure the blood pressure in
                                                                                                             Gall Bladder
     while ‘B’ and ‘O’ are common
                                             Human body - Sphygmoma-
     among the Asians and the
                                             nometer
     American Indians, respec-
                                             The only one vein in human
     tively.
                                                                                                           Bile Duct
           Largest blood cell in human body - Monocytes
           Smallest blood cell in human body - Lympho cytes
                                       Major organ systems
Cardiovascular system: pumping and channeling               of lymph between tissues and the blood stream, the
blood to and from the body and lungs with heart, blood,     lymph and the nodes and vessels that transport it.
and blood vessels.                                          Musculoskeletal system: muscles provide movement
Digestive System: digestion and processing food with        and a skeleton provides structural support and pro-
salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallblad-       tection with bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons.
der, pancreas, intestines, rectum, and anus.                Nervous system: collecting, transferring and process-
Endocannabinoid system: neuromodulatory lipids and          ing information with brain, spinal cord, peripheral
receptors involved in a variety of physiological pro-       nerves, and nerves
cesses including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, mo-        Reproductive system: the sex organs; in the female;
tor learning, synaptic plasticity, and memory.              ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary
Endocrine system: communication within the body             glands, and in the male; testes, vas deferens, seminal
using hormones made by endocrine glands such as             vesicles, prostate, and penis.
the hypothalamus, pituitary or pituitary gland, pineal      Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing,
body or pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids, and            the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and dia-
adrenals or adrenal glands                                  phragm.
Integumentary system: skin, hair and nails                  Urinary system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and ure-
Immune system: the system that fights off disease;          thra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and
composed of leukocytes, tonsils, adenoids, thymus,          excretion of urine.
and spleen.                                                 Vestibular system: contributes to our balance and
Lymphatic system: structures involved in the transfer       our sense of spatial orientation.
                              role in
  Liver plays a major                        Bilirubin and biliverdin are        pigments (bilirubin and
                        s a mber
                             nu
  metabolism and ha                          bile pigments.                      biliverdin) and inactivated
                           body, in-
  of functions in the                        The disease which affects the       products of steroid hormones,
                            st or ag e,
  cl udin g gl ycog en                       liver is jaundice.                  some vitamins and many drugs.
                          re d blood
  decomposition of                           Bleeding in liver is known as    6) Destruction of dead cells and
                           n  synthe-
   cells, plasma protei                      liver cirrhosis.                    bacteria by phagocytosis.
                            tio  n, and
   sis, hormone produc                       Hepatatis is the viral disease   7) Synthesises heparin - an
                          lie below
                              s                                                  anticoagulant, prothrombin,
   detoxification. It                        of liver which influence func-
                            e abdomi-                                            fibrinogen and some factors
    the diaphragm in th                      tioning of liver.
                             the abdo-                                           necessary         for     blood
    nal-pelvic region of                   Excessive alcoholic consump-
                             le, an al-                                          coagulation.
     men. It produces bi                     tion causes cirrhosis
                                ich aids
     kaline compound wh                    Exessive stimulus for alcohol
                            e ulsifi-
                              em                                              Kidneys and Dialysis
      in digestion, via th                  consumption is called dypso-
      cation of lipids.                     mania.
                                           Manufacturing of urea takes
                                            place in liver.
     It is the largest metabolic or-       Excessive use of tobacco affe-
     gan in human body.                     cts the nerves while the same
     The liver is on the right side         of alcohol affects the liver.
     of the stomach.                       Stone in gall bladder called
     Liver is dark brown in colour.         Cholecystostatis
     Sleeping on left side is useful        Urea is produced in the liver.        The kidneys are the chief ex-
     because it gives maximum re-           Hepatitis is the viral disease of     cretory organs of vertebrates.
     laxation to the muscles of the         liver which influence                 The main purpose of the kid-
     right side and keeps the liver         functioning of liver.                 ney is to separate urea, min-
     warm and relaxed and im-               The weight of liver in man is         eral salts, toxins, and other
     proves bile secretion.                 about 1.5 kg.                         waste products from the blood.
     Glucose is stored in the liver         The disease that result due to        Urea is removed from the blood
     and muscles in the form of             any obstruction in the bile duct      by kidneys.
     glycogen.                              is Jaundice.                          The volume of urine produced
     Liver is otherwise called              Excessive alcoholic consum            in an adult human being for
     HEPAR.                                 ption causes cirrhosis.               every 24 hours is 6.5 litres.
     Second largest gland in hu-            The high tendency to drink            The functional unit of kidneys
     man body - Pancreas                    alcohol is termed as                  is called nephron.
     Exocrine and endocrine gland           dipsomania.                           Nephritis is the inflammation
     - Pancreas                             Liver h as a great many               of the kidney caused by the
     Heterocrine gland -Pancreas            important functions other than        infection of streptococci.
     A Normal man secrete about 1           helping in digestion. They are:
     Litre of Pancreatic Juice per                                                Presence of urea in the blood
                                         1) Regulation of carbohydrate,
     day.                                   protein and lipid metabolism.         is called uremia.
     The main function of the liver      2) Synthesis of urea for excretion.      Kidneys are responsible for
     is to produce bile which is an      3) Removal of drugs and toxic            the removal of excess water,
     important agent in digestion           materials. The liver has              salts and waste products from
     of fat.                                enzymes which can detoxify            the blood in the form of urine.
     There is no known digestive            harmful materials.                    Increased flow of urine is
     enzymes in the bile.                4) Storage of vitamins.                  called diuresis and substa-
     Bile is stored in the gall blad-    5) Liver is the principal organ for      nces that increase the flow of
     der.                                   the excretion of cholestrol, bile     urine is called diuretics.
   Anti Diuretic hormone (ADH)         Inner pale region of each           Cerebellum is known as
   or Vasopressin regulates the        kidney is known as medulla.
                                                                           ‘Little brain’ of the entire
   amount of water excreted in         Urinary bladder and ureters are
   urine.                                                                         brain portions.
                                       lined by transitional epithelium
   Deficiency of ADH results in        and hence are capable of being
   the disease diabetes insipidus      considerably stretched, when         Cerebral cortex is outer layer
   characterised by a large            filled with urine.                   of cerebrum. It is made of grey
   amount of water being re-           Normal urine is about 95%            matter and contains many lay-
   moved through urine.                water and 5% dissolved solids.       er of nerve cells.
   Increased flow of urine is          Presence of glucose in urine is      Cerebral hemisphere is divid-
   called diuresis and sub-            referred to as glycosuria.           ed into frontal, parietal, tempo-
   stances that increase the flow      The kidneys excrete a variety        ral and occipital lobes.
   of urine is called diuretics.       of waste products produced by
  Dialysis is used in the case of                                           The surface of cerebral hemi-
                                       metabolism. These include the
   a patient suffering from kid-                                            sphere shows many convolu-
                                       nitrogenous wastes urea, from
   ney trouble                                                              tions called Gyri separated by
                                       protein catabolism, and uric
  A dialysis unit is an artificial                                          depressions called Sulci.
                                       acid, from nucleic acid
   kidney which performs the                                                The Gyri increases the surface
                                       metabolism.
   functions of a normal kidney                                             area of cortex to accommodate
                                       The kidneys secrete a variety
   outside the body.                                                        more nerve cells.
                                       of hormones, including
  Dysuria is called painful Uri-       erythropoietin, calcitriol, and      The general sensory or
   nation.                             renin.                               somaesthetic area in parietal
  The right kidney sits just be-       At least one kidney must             lobe perceive general
   low the diaphragm and poste-        function properly for life to be     sensation, viz pain. touch and
   rior to the liver, the left below   maintained.                          temperature.
   the diaphragm and posterior         Nephropathy refers to damage         The motor area in frontal lobe
   to the spleen.                                                           controls voluntary movement
                                       to or disease of the kidney. An
  Each adult kidney weighs be-                                              of muscles.
                                       older term for this is nephrosis.
   tween 125 and 170 grams in                                               The premotor area in frontal
                                       Diabetes is the most common
   males and between 115 and                                                lobe is the highest centre of
                                       cause of kidney failure,
   155 grams in females.                                                    involuntary movements of
                                       accounting for more than 40
  The kidney has a bean-                                                    muscles.
   shaped structure, each kidney       percent of new cases. High
                                       blood        pressure,         or    The visual and auditory areas
   has concave and convex sur-
                                       hypertension, is a major factor      are in occipital lobe and are
   faces.
                                       in the development of kidney         centres for visual and hearing
  Outer darker region of kidney
                                       problems in people with              sensation.
  is named as cortex.
                                       diabetes.                            Association area in the frontal
                                                                            lobe is responsible for
   Some of the most common                      Brain                       association between various
      kidney diseases and              The brain is protected by            sensations and movements.
   conditions are: polycystic          cranial bone and meninges.           Memory, intelligence, and
   kidney disease, nephrosis,
                                       The brain is marked into             judgement depends on co-
    lupus nephritis, diabetic          forebrain, mid brain and hind        ordinated and integrated
          nephropathy,                 brain.                               activities of different cortical
    rhabdomyolysis, kidney             The forebrain consists of ce-
                                                                            centres.
    stones, and renal tubular          rebrum, the largest part of hu-      Hypothalamus : contain higher
             acidosis.                 man brain.                           nerve centres for temperature
  regulation, hunger, thirst and       Brian stem consists of pons                                           tion
                                                                           Scientific classifica
                                     
  emotional function. It secretes      and medulla oblongata. It
  neurohormones which control          controls vegetative actions.            of Human Being
                                                                                                 ..... Animalia
  secretions of anterior pituitary                                       Kingdom: ............
                                             Spinal Cord                                              .. Chordata
  hormones. It synthesises the                                           Phylum: ..................
                                                                                                        Mammalia
  posterior pituitary hormones.        The spinal cord controls reflex   Class: .....................
                                                                                                       ... Primates
  The medulla oblongata                actions in human beings.          Order: .....................
                                                                                                       Hominidae
  controls the involuntary             The length of the spinal cord      Family: ..................
                                       is about 1 metre (3.3ft)                                      . Homininae
  actions.                                                                Subfamily: ............
                                       The spinal cord is a series of                               ..... Hominini
                                                                          Tribe: ..................
  The central control of             
                                       31 sections called segments.                                   ........ Homo
  respiratory activity in human                                            Genus: ..................
  body is exercised by medulla         Each segment giving rise to a                                    mo Sapiens
                                                                           Species: ............ Ho
  oblongata.                           pair of spinal nerves.
  Medulla oblongata has the            10 pairs originate from the           smelled, the substance must be
  centres, for regulating the          brain stem. It contain sensory,       capable of entering to a gaseous
  working of the heart                 mixed and motor nerves.               state to reach nostrils and it
  contraction of blood vessels         We lose consciousness if              must be water soluble to
  and respiratory and digestive        blood flow to the brain is cut        dissolve in the mucus to make
  movements.                           off for more than five seconds.       contact with olfactory cells.
  The thermoregulatory centre          There are 12 pairs of cranial
  of the human body is                 nerves and 31 pairs of spinal
                                                                        Taste
  hypothalamus.                        nerves in man.                        Taste buds are sense crayons
  E.E.G (Electro Encephalogram)                                              for taste sensation.
  is used to record changes in        SENSE ORGANS                           Taste buds are oval bodies
  the electric potential in various    The organs which receive the          found as some elevation in
  areas of brain.                      external and internal stimuli         tongue called papillae.
  Biological death of a patient        and convey the same to the            Human beings recognise four
  means the death of tissues of        central nervous system are            basic modalities or tastes-
  the brain.                           called sense organs.                  sweet, sour, salty and bitter.
  Encephalitis is caused by                                                  They are principally perceived
  virus.
                                    Smell                                    at the tip, along lateral edges,
                                       Receptors for smell occur in          on upper surface of front half
  Disorder of brain affecting
                                                                             and on the back of the tongue,
  recognition of letters and           nasal mucosa and are made up
                                                                             respectively.
  words is Dyslexia.                   of modified pseudo stratified
                                                                             Sour taste is evoked by H+
  The final weight of the brain in     epithelium. This epithelium is
                                                                             ions, produced by ionisation
  an adult male is 1.4kg and 1.3       known as olfactory epithelium.        of acids.
  kg in case of a woman.               Olfactory epithelium is more          Sweet taste is evoked by
  Cerebellum is second largest         extensive in dogs with an acute       organic substances viz. sugar,
  portion of brain located at the      olfactory sense.                      dextrin, glycerol, chloroform,
  base, under the cerebrum.                                                  aspartame and saccharine.
                                       This epithelium is composed of
  Cerebellum contains centres          three types of cells - olfactory      Bitter taste is evoked by
  for the maintenance of posture       receptor cells, supporting cells      quinine, morphine, caffeine,
  and equilibrium of body and                                                nicotine, urea and cation of
                                       and basal cells.
  for the muscle tone. It also                                               many inorganic salts like
  modulates and moderate               Olfactory receptor cells              Magnesium salts.
  voluntary action initiated by        function as chemo receptors.          Salty taste is evoked from
  the cerebral cortex.                 In order for a substance to be        cations of Na+.
    Aspartame & saccharine are                          In an adult man skin covers the                          The eyeball has a diameter of
    widely used as artificial                           muscles of about 1.9m2 (20                               2.5 cm.
    sweetening agents.                                  sq.ft) and a woman has about                             The eyeball has 3 coatings
    Loss of smell reduces the                           1.6m2 (17sq.ft).                                         Outer most layer is an opaque,
    perception of taste also. That                      The outer layer of the skin is                           white, fibro elastic capsule
    is why people suffering from                        termed as epidermis, which has                           called sclera. This is continu-
    cold (rhinitis) often complain                      no nerves or blood vessels and                           ous with a transparent layer
    that they cannot taste their                        is continuously renewed.                                 called Cornea (bulging white
    food.                                               Inner layer, called dermis, is a                         part of the eye)
    Taste of chillies, black pepper                     thick layer below the epidermis                          The membrane that covers
    and hot sauces are not true                         which contain nerves, blood                              cornea is conjunctiva.
    sensation. It is mainly a                           vessels, hair follicles,                                 In case of eye transfer only
    sensation of pain receptors.                        sebaceous gland and sweat                                cornea is used.
    Many insects such as honey                          glands.
                                                                                                                 Middle layer is called choroid,
    bee, flies, butterflies and moth                    Colour of the skin is due to the
                                                                                                                 is a highly vascular, pigmented
    posses chemoreceptors for                           presence of the pigment,
                                                                                                                 layer.
    taste sensation at their feet.                      melanin, in epidermis.
                                                        The main function of human                               Ciliary body is the thickest
    Some mammals like rhesus                                                                                     portion of vascular tissue,
    monkey, dogs, pig and cat                           skin is excretion.
                                                        Sweat serves to regulate the                             arising from a point just behind
    possess taste sensation for                                                                                  the junction of sclera and
    water.                                              body temperature.
                                                                                                                 cornea. It consists of ciliary
    Man doesn’t possess taste                           Sweat glands seen in dermis
                                                        layer help to eliminate excess                           process and ciliary muscles.
    buds for tasting water.
                                                        heat from the body.                                      A pigmented, muscular,
Skin - Touch                                                                                                     opaque diaphragm called, Iris,
                                                        Dermatology is the branch of
    Skin : Touch corpuscle in the                       science that deals with the                              extend from ciliary body in
    skin responds to physical                           study of skin and its diseases.                          front of lens. It can be seen as
    sensations of pressure, heat,                                                                                a black screen through the
    cold, contact and pain.                     EYE - Vision                                                     cornea and has a small central
    Skin is our tactile (sense of                       The eye (photoreceptor) is a                             aperture called ‘Pupil’.
    touch) sense organ.                                 globular ball like organ situat-                         The iris has two sets of smooth
    It is the largest organ of the                      ed in a bony cavity, the orbit,                          muscles arranged circularly.
    human body.                                         of the skull.                                            The pupil is constricted and
                                               Facts about Human Body
  Largest and Longest bone in a man .......................................................................... Femur (thigh bone)
  Smallest muscle ..................................................................................................................... Stapedius
  Smallest bone .......................................................................................................... Stapes (middle-ear)
  Total amount of blood in body ................................................................. 5.6 litres (1/15 of body weight)
  Life span of RBC ..................................................................................................................... 120 days
  Number of RBC's ...................................................... in male 5000,000 /cu.mm /in female 45,00,000/cu.mm
  Number of WBC's ...................................................................................................... 5000-10000/cu.mm
  Life Span of WBC ..................................................................................................................... 2-5 days
  Heart beats ...................................................................................................................... 72 per minute
  Average amount of haemoglobin ..................................................................... 14-15 mg/100 ml of blood
  Thinnest skin ......................................................................................................... Conjunctiva (eyelid)
  Largest endocrine gland ................................................................................................. Thyroid gland
  Longest cell in body .............................................................................................................. Nerve cell
  Smallest cell in human body ................................................................................................... Sperm cell
  Largest cell in human body .......................................................................................................... Ovum
  dilated respectively by their        of ability for vision and is called   Astigmatism: Curvature of cor-
  construction, to reduce and          Blind Spot.                           nea become irregular and image
  increase the amount of light         Lateral to blind spot, there is a     is not clearly formed. Remedied
  falling on the lens.                 depressed area of retina, called      by cylindrical lens.
  In bright light the iris             Fovea, which contains only            Glaucoma: It is due to increase
  automatically shuts tighter,         cones and no rods. Ability of
                                                                             intra ocular pressure in aqueous
  reducing the amount of light         vision is highest in fovea.
  entering the pupil.                                                        chamber. Operation is needed at
                                       The anterior compartment is
                                                                             early stage.
  In front of the eye there is a       filled with aqueous humour. It
  convex lens. The lens is             supplies nutrients to lens and        Trachoma: It is increased in
  attached to the ciliary bodies       cornea having no blood                Redness of eye and more secre-
  by suspensory ligaments.             supply, maintain shape of             tion of watery fluid. It is due to
  Retina is the inner most layer,      cornea and support the lens.          infection of bacteria, chlamidia
  sensitive and made up of many        The posterior compartment is          trachamastis. Due to this fol-
  cells and fibres.                    filled with transparent               licles may form in conjunctiva.
  Retina acts like the film in         gelatinous material called
                                                                             Xerophthalmia: It is due to de-
  camera. In order to form an          vitreous humour, which
                                                                             ficiency of vitaminA. (A2). Dur-
  image on the retina, light must      supports the lens and retina.
                                                                             ing this conjunctiva or cornea
  pass through all the media of        Colour blindness is a heredi-
                                                                             becomes Keratinized. It may
  eye (cornea, aqueous humour,         tary disease.
                                       Squint eye is another eye de-         lead to blindness.
  lens, vitreous humour)and it
  must be brought to focus on          fect which can be corrected by        Strabimus: In this type eyeball
  the retina to form an upside         an operation.                         remain in somewhat bent posi-
  down image on it.                  The parts of eye involved in            tion which is due to long ocular
  The interpretation takes place       eye transplantion surgery are         muscles formed during develop-
                                       cornea, sclera and vitreous           ment of eye. Operation is needed
  in the brain.
                                       humour.                               at early stage. Also associated
  The image formed on the            The loss of vision during dim
  retina of the human eye is real                                            with squint.
                                       light is called nightblindness.
  and inverted.                                                              Presbiopia: During this power
                                       Twenty-twenty means perfect
  Eye contain receptors called         vision.                               of accommodation of lens de-
  photoreceptors viz ‘rods’ and                                              creases due to age factor and
                                   SOME OF THE EYE DEFECTS
  ‘cone’ cells, which convert the                                            defected metabolism. Also
  energy of specific wavelength      Myopia: Also known as near              known as age sightness. Can be
  into action potential of nerve     sightness or short sightness.           removed by bifocal lens.
  fibre.                             Near object is clear. Far object is
                                                                             Photofobia: No clear image in
  Nerve impulses are carried from    not clear Eyeball become longer.
                                                                             bright light.
  rods and cones by bipolar          Image is formed in front of
                                     Retina. Can be remedied by con-         Emmetropia - Normal vision
  nerve cells to the ganglion
  cells. The axon of the ganglion    cave lens.                              Cataract - is the condition where
  cells converge and leave the       Hypermetropia: Also known as            lens became opaque which is
  eye ball to form ‘optic nerve.’    long sightness or far sightness.        due to defective protein metabo-
  The spot at the back of eye,       Far object is clear, near object is     lism leading to blindness. It may
  from where the optic nerve fibre   not clear. Eye ball become short.       be due to disease or old age. It
  leaves is covered by a zone of     Image is formed behind the              is remedied by replacing lens.
  retina free from rods and          Retina. Can be remedied by con-         Colour blindness: It is known
  cones. So this spot is devoid      vex lens.                               as daltonism. It is the inability
  to distinguish between red and         The ossicles transmit the            Types of glands - There are two
  green colour. It is a sex linked (x-   vibration to the inner ear,          types of glands
  linked) genetic disorder.              where they cause waves in the        i. Ducted glands - exocrine
  Night Blindness: During this           fluid called perilymph.              glands, ii. Ductless glands -
                                         Perilymph is filled in the coiled,   endocrine glands.
  Rhodopsin is not resynthesized
  while it is regenerated in dim         tube called cochlea, in the           Deficiency of Parathyroid
                                         middle ear.                           hormone (PTH) secreted by
  light.
                                         Cochlea is a tube coiled, like a      parathyroid gland causes
Ear - Hearing                            small snail shell, of 21⁄2 turns.       tetany in which calcium level
    The ears have two main func-         The sensory structures                in blood decreases.
    tions                                respond to different frequency,       Adrenal glands are situated
    i) Detection and analysis of         found on basilar membrane is          over the kidneys.
          sound.                         the rods or corti.                    Adrenal gland has two parts,
    ii) Maintenance of balance           The internal ear is made up of        Adrenal cortex and Adrenal
          of the body.                   bony        labyrinth        and      medulla.
    Ear has three main regions - the     membranous labyrinth. The            Blood pressure is controlled
    outer ear, the middle ear and        bony labyrinth contains a fluid       by Adrenal gland
    the inner ear.                       called perilymph.                     Adrenal medulla produces
    External ear consists of pinna       Endocrine Glands &                    two hormones- adrenalin
    and external auditory canal.                Hormones                       and nor- adrenalin.
    Pinna is a funnel shaped              Largest endocrine gland -            Adrenal gland prepares the ani-
    cartilaginous flap. It collects       Thyroid.                             mal to fight or flight.
    and directs sound waves into          Thyroid gland is popularly           Adrenaline hormone raises
    ear canal.                            known as Adam’s Apple.               the rate of heart beat and
    The external canal ends at a         Hormones are chemical                 blood pressure.
    delicate membranous diaphra-         substances produced by               The hormone secreted when a
    gm, called eardrum or tympanic       endocrine glands (ductless           man gets feared is adrenaline.
    membrane.                            glands).                              Deficiency of insulin leads to
    The middle ear is an air- filled     Endocrine hormone molecules           excess sugar in the blood and
    chamber. It communicates with        are secreted (released) directly      this sugar is excreted in the
    that of the pharynx through an       into the bloodstream, whereas         urine. This disease is known
    air filled tube called, Eusta-       exocrine hormones (or                 as diabetes mellitus (hyper
    chian tube.                                                                glycaemia)
                                         ectohormones) are secreted
    Eustachian tube helps to             directly into a duct, and, from      The main function of insulin
    equalize air pressure on either      the duct, they flow either into       is to control the level of sugar
    side of ear drum and thus            the bloodstream or from cell to       in the body.
    allows it to vibrate freely, when    cell by diffusion in a process       Pituitary gland is an endo-
    sound waves impinge on it.           known as paracrine signalling.        crine gland attached to the
                                         Glands are the organs of the          base of the brain.
    The vibrating eardrum trans-        
    mits the vibration to the ear        human         body        which       The pituitary gland is called
    ossicles. Ear ossicles consists      manufacture some liquid               'the master gland' in the body
    of the hammer (malleus), the         products which are secreted           because it controls all other
                                         from the cells.                       endocrine glands present in
    anvil (incus) and the strip
                                         Largest gland in our body is          the human body.
    (stapes). The stapes is the
    smallest bone in the body.           the liver.                            Water balance in the body is
                                                                                         mes
                                                               Sex chromoso
      mainly controlled by the se-
                                                                                                                  and
      cretion of ADH (Anti Diuretic
                                                                            om  es  X  X is pr esent in females
      Hormone) by hypothalamus                            gs sex chromos                              of female joins
                                         In human bein                  esen t in males. When X
                                         sex chromosom
                                                           es XY  is pr                                  e baby (XX)
         Endocrine and                                                   e pr od uc  t will be a femal
                                                           mosomes    th                                         oduct
       Exocrine System                    X of male chro                     ch ro m  os om e of a male, the pr
                                                           female joins Y                              ion of a baby is
     The secretions which the             and when X of                 ha t is th e sex determinat
                                                            by (XY ). T
endocrine glands produce, do not          will be male ba                           man.
                                                nd en t on sex chromosome of
leave the gland through a duct but         depe
pass directly from the cells to the                                                      Coenzymes are small organic
blood stream.                                                                            molecules that transport
                                           Pineal gland is another
     The organ in the body which           endocrine gland situated in                   chemical groups from one
     accumulates iodine is thyroid         brain. Pineal gland secretes                 enzyme to another.
     gland.                                the hormone melatonin and
     Insufficient iodine in the diet                                                        Muscular Tissue
                                           seratonin.Pineal gland is also
     results in the deficiency of the                                                    It is a contractile tissue
                                           known as ‘Biological clock’.
     thyroid hormone, thyroxine.                                                         consisting of very large cells.
     Thyroxine deficiency in body
                                            Exocrine Glands -                            The unit of muscle tissue is
     results in a disease called
                                               Ducted Glands                             muscle fibre, which is made of
     simple goitre.                        Exocrine glands secrete their                 myofilaments.
     Pancreas is an endocrine gland        product through well defined                  Based on structural and
     that produces both an enzyme          ducts.                                        functional differences three
     and a hormone.                        Liver is an exocrine gland,                   types of muscles are reco-
     The pituitary gland is called         secretes bile in stomach.                     gnised. Unstriated muscles,
     ‘the master gland’ in the body        Lachrymal gland secrete tears                 Striated muscle and Cardiac
     because it controls all other         in the eye.                                   muscle.
     endocrine glands present in           Salivary glands secrete saliva
     the human body.                       in the mouth.                           Reproduction
     Water balance in the body is          Sweat glands seen on skin,                     Reproduction is a process
     mainly controlled by the              secrete sweat.                                 by which an organism pro-
     secretion of ADH (Anti                Sweat is a mixture of sodium                   duces new individuals or off-
     Diuretic Hormone) by                  chloride and Urea.                             springs of its own species.
     hypothalamus.                         Spleen is the largest lymphatic                Sexual reproduction requires
     The normal value of blood             gland in human body.                           one individual of each sex.
     sugar is 80 to 120mg 100 ml of    Enzymes                                           Testis is the sperm producing
     blood.                                Enzymes are complex chemical                  organ of man.
     Insulin prepared outside the          substances consisting, wholely                 The average period of human
     body is known as Huminsulin.          or in a large part, of proteins                pregnancy is 36-38 weeks -
     Thymus is another endocrine           produced in the living cells.                  approximately 280 days
     gland situated in front of the        Enzymes are proteins that                      Mother’s milk contain 7% of
     trachea. Thymus secretes a           catalyze chemical reactions.                   lactose.
     juvenile hormone, Thymosin.           Some enzymes are used                         The part of the body that
     Thymus gland becames fully            commercially, for example, in                 comes out first during delivery
     developed by about 7 years and        the synthesis of antibiotics.S                - head
     degenerates and disappears            ome household products use                     Identical twins are formed,
     after 14 years of age because of      enzymes to speed up bio-                       when the ovum after fertiliza-
     the activities of the sex glands.     chemical reactions                             tion splits into two parts.
   Vasectomy - Sterilization           vagina, accessory genital            There are 24 ribs in human
   process in male.                    glands and the mammary               body.
   Tubectomy - Sterilization           glands.                              The total number of ear bones
   process in female.                  Graffian follicle produce a          are six.
   Five principal methods of           hormone estrogen.                    In an adult human being, the
   asexual reproduction are:           The external genital organs of       number of vertebrae is 26. Neck
   binary fission, multiple fission,   females are collectively called      region of human has 7 bones.
   fragmentation, budding and          vulva. Clitoris is the vestigeal     The face of a man is made up
   sporulation.                        penis in female.                     of 14 bones.
                                       Important sexual hormones of         Phosphate of lime forms 51%
Human Reproductive System              females include estrogen and         of bone.
   In the human reproductive           progesterone.                        The bones contain calcium
   process, two kinds of sex cells,    An important sexual hormone          phosphates upto 85%
   or gametes, are involved. The       of males is androgen, and            The smallest bone in the hu-
   male gamete, or sperm, and the      particularly testosterone.           man body is the stapes (stir-
   female gamete, the egg or           When the male ejaculates             rup) found in the middle ear.
   ovum, meet in the female's          during intercourse, semen is         Bone marrow contains the par-
   reproductive system to create       deposited into the female's          ent cells that give rise to blood
   a new individual. Both the male     vagina. From the vagina the          cells.
   and female reproductive             sperm make their way up              'Funny Bone' is a nerve at the
   systems are essential for           through the cervix and move          back of the elbow.
   reproduction.                       through the uterus with help         Cranium is the Brain box that
   The organs which performs           from uterine contractions. If a      encloses brain
   important functions in              mature egg is in one of the          Ethmoid is the bone of Nasal
   reproduction but neither            female's fallopian tubes, a          chamber
   produce gametes nor secrete         single sperm may penetrate it,       The total number of bones in
   sex hormones are called             and        fertilization, or         the skull is 29.
   secondary sex organs.               conception, occurs.
   Secondary sex organs include                                         Disorders of Bone
   the prostate, seminal vesicles,   Bones                                  The bones of aged persons are
   vas deferens and penis, in          Human skeleton is made of            more fragile than the bones of
   males. In females, secondary        bones and cartilages.                young persons.
   sex organs include fallopian        Largest and longest bone is          The breaking of a bone is
   tubes, uterus, vagina and           femur (thigh bone).                  known as fracture.
   mammary glands.                     The shortest bone in the
                                                                            When the person feels acute
   Extra-abdominal testes are the      human body is stapes or              pain at the joints, particularly
   testes of human males.              stirrup bone in the middle ear.      while moving the joints, is
   Testes is the male reproductive
                                       Human bones are made up of           referred to as arthritis.
   organ. The sperms are
   produced by spermatogonia.          Calcium phosphate and Cal-           Osteoarthritis is commonly
   The male sex hormone, testo-        cium carbonate.                      known as ‘‘wear and tear’’
   sterone, is produced by Leydig      The total number of bones in         arthritis.
   cells.                              human skull is 29.                   Osteoporosis is another bone
   The copulatory organ in male        The total number of bones in         disorder common in woman
   is the Penis.                       an adult human body is 206.          over 50 years, and is
   Female reproductive system          A new born baby has 300              characterised by decreased
   consists of a pair of ovaries, a    bones, but 94 bones fuse to-         bone mass and increased
   pair of oviducts, the uterus, the   gether as it grows.                  susceptibility to fractures.
Teeth                                                        Important Vaccines
   There are 20 milk teeth in hu-  Vaccine ......................................... Name of the Scientist
   man body.                       Small pox ....................................... Edward Jenner (1786)
                                   Cholera ......................................... Louis Pasteur (1880)
   A full set of permanent teeth
                                   Diphtheria and tetanus .................. Emil Adolf Von Belming
   consists of 32 teeth.
                                                                                     and Shiba saburo kita sato.
   The hardest material found in   TB Vaccine .................................... Leon Calmatte and
   human body is enamel.                                                             Camille Guerin.
   Milk teeth appear by the age    Polio Vaccine ................................. Jonas E. Salk
   of 7 months, adult teeth ap-    Measles Vaccine ............................ John F. Enders
   pear from 6th year onwards
   and wisdom teeth appear be-
   tween the ages of 17-30 years.
                                         National Research Institutes in India
   Fluorides are the compounds
   that prevent tooth decay.      Central Drug Research Institute ................................. Lucknow (U.P)
   One of the ingredients of      Cattle Breeding Research Institute .......................... Hissar (Haryana)
   tooth paste is calcium fluo-   National Dairy Research Institute ............................ Karnal (Haryana)
   ride.                          Forest Research Institute .......................................... Dehradun (U.P)
   Enamel is the hardest          Centre for Cellular and Molecular biology ...................... Hyderabad
   substance in the body.         Indian Cancer Research Centre .......................................... Mumbai
Skin                              Central Marine Research Institute ...................................... Chennai
   Skin is the largest organ in   Central Public Health Engineering Research Institute ........... Nagpur
   human body.                    National Institute of Communicable Diseases ..... Delhi
   Colour of the skin is due to
   the presence of melanin.
   The main function of human         of the body to maintain the
   skin is protection and excre-      body temperature. Sweat                             Dermatology is the branch of
   tion.                              glands help to eliminate excess                     science that deals with the
   Perspiration is an usual way       heat from body.                                     study of skin and its diseases.
      Genetics
                                        Father of Modern Genetics
  Genetic engineering is the
                                            Rev. Gregor Mendel was the
  branch of Science.
                                        Augustinian priest and scientist. The
  Genetics is the science of
                                        theories of heredity attributed to Gregor
  genes, heredity, and variation
                                        Mendel, based on his work with pea plants.
  in living organisms.
                                        Experiments with Plant Hybrids, in which
  A gene is the fundamental bio-
                                        Mendel described how traits were
  logical unit which is transmit-
                                        inherited, has become one of the most enduring and influential
  ted from one generation to the
                                        publications in the history of science.
  next. It is the unit of heredity.
                                            Mendel’s study showed that one in four pea plants had
  It remains at a definite posi-
                                        purebred recessive alleles, two out of four were hybrid and one
  tion on a chromosome. In man
                                        out of four were purebred dominant. His experiments brought
  about 1,00,000 genes are
                                        forth two generalizations, the Law of Segregation and the Law
  known to be found in 23 pairs
                                        of Independent Assortment, which later became known as
  of chromosomes.
                                        Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance.
  Genetics deals with heredity
  and the laws that govern it.                                                            The number of chromosomes
  Rev. Gregor Mendel is the              The nitrogen base Thymine in                     in a human cell is 46.
  'Father of Modern Genetics.'           DNA is replaced by Uracil in                     Presence of an extra chromo-
  Mutation is the process of             RNA.
                                                                                          some in the foetus - mongol-
  sudden heritable change un-            RNA has sub-species m-RNA
  dergone in a gene due to                                                                ism.
                                         and t-RNA, which carries the
  change in its composition.                                                              The Bacteria which receives
                                         stored information of the DNA
  Mutation is a change that is                                                            genes from another species is
                                         for translation into various
  inherited                                                                               called Transgenic bacteria.
                                         proteins.
  DNA (Deoxyribo nucleic acid)                                                            The genes transfer from one
                                         In protein synthesis, the ge-
  is the principal genetic mate-                                                          species to another species
                                         netic code is carried from the
  rial of all living beings.                                                              through Plasmids.
                                         DNA of the nucleus to the ri-
  The structure of DNA mol-                                                               The gene with Bt.Toxin is iso-
                                         bosomes of the cytoplasm by
  ecule was discovered by                                                                 lated       from            Bacillus
                                         m-RNA.
  Watson and Crick in 1953.                                                               Thuringiensi’s Bacteria.
  Recombinant DNA involves               DNA fingerprinting has
                                         helped to solve many myster-                     Bt. Cotton is the cotton plant
  transplanting a piece of DNA                                                            with Bt.Toxin gene.
  of one organism to the DNA             ies and crimes.
  of another, which finds appli-
  cation in the production of In-                                      DNA testing                                      sis
                                                                                              dividuals on the ba
  terferon and Insulin.
                                             testing   is  us ed   fo r identification of in         ed  fo  r  pa  rent al
  DNA has a double helical            DNA                                  profiles. It is also
                                                                                                   us
                                              r  re sp ec tiv e  D  N  A                                hu  m   an   D N A
                                      of thei                                                   .9% of
  structure of nucleotide chains
                                                an d  ra pe  in ve  sti gation. Although 99           of  th   e D  N  A  is
                                      testing                                                    ough
  consisting of deoxyribose
                                               ce s  ar e  th e sa  m  e  in every person, en             r.  Th  e  D N  A
                                      sequen                                                  m anothe
  sugar and nitrogen bases-
                                               nt  to  di sti ng  ui sh  one individual fro            lec    Je ffr eys  in
                                       differe                                                 by Sir A
  Adenine, Guanine, Thymine
                                               tec hn  iq ue  wa   s fir st reported in 1984             nt  in  g  is no  w
                                       testng                                                    ge rpri
  and Cytosine. It stores and
                                                 d.  Jeffr  ey ’s te ch  ni que of D NA fin              It  is  al so us ed
                                       Englan                                               boratories.
  transfers hereditary informa-                                      inals in forensic la                                    l
                                        used to identify crim                                     o the true biologica
  tion and creates its own rep-
                                                 m  in e pa  ter ni ty  or  maternity, th is wh
                                                                                         at
                                        to deter
  lica.                                                             a child.
                                         father or mother of
      ECOLOGY                                                     Charles Darwin
  Ecology is the scientific study                                  He discovered a hypothesis for the origin
  of the relation of plants and                                    and continuation of life on Earth. His
  living organisms to each other                                    theory is also called the Theory of
  and their surroundings.                                            Evolution. Charles Darwin became
  Ecology is closely related to                                      famous when he hypothesized that all
  the disciplines of physiology,                                      life evolved from common ancestors
  evolution, genetics and                                              through evolutionary processes of
  behavior.                                                             natural selection. Darwin is the first of
                                                                        the evolutionary biologists, the
  Biodiversity describes all
                                                                         originator of the concept of natural
  varieties of life from genes to
                                                                         selection – Theory of Natural
  ecosystems and spans every
                                                                          Selection.
  level of biological organization.
  An ecosystem is the largest                                              Charles Darwin collected a large
                                                     number of specimens and concluded that the Species
  functional unit in ecology
                                       arose as a result of natural selection. He published his theory in his
  because it includes both living
                                       book On the Origin of Species (1859). "The Voyage of the Beagle"
  (biotic) and non-living
                                       - another important book. "In the struggle for survival, the fittest
  (abiotic) environments.
                                       win out at the expense of their rivals because they succeed in
  June 5 is considered as World
                                       adapting themselves best to their environment' - Charles Darwin.
  Environment Day.
  Ecomark is given to
  environment friendly products
  of BIS (Bureau of Indian             There are six major air                    B.O.D gives an idea of the
  Standards)                           pollutants : carbon monoxide,              amount of pollution in water.
  Ecological friendly tourism is       sulphur oxides, nitrogen                   B.O.D is measured as the weight
  termed ecotourism.                   oxides, particulates, hydro                (in mg) of oxygen that is con-
  Prof. R. Mishra is called as         carbons and photochemical                  sumed in 1 litre of water stored
  ‘Father of Ecology in India’.        oxidants.                                  for 5 days in darkness at a con-
  The rich source of energy            The mode of transfer of energy             stant temperature of 200C.
  which         never       causes     of food synthesised in plants              Water pollution is caused by
  atmospheric pollution is solar       through a series of organisms              sewage, sullage and industrial
  energy.                              of an ecosystem with repeated              effluents.
  The conditions under which           eating and being eaten is                  The mass death of living
  an organism lives constitute its     known as food chain.                       organisms including man in
  environment. A few physical          The rich source of energy                  one night at Bhopal (1984),
  factors that greatly influence       which never causes atmo-                   was due to the leakage of
  the environment are Light,           spheric pollution is solar en-
                                                                                  methyl isocyanate (toxic gas)
  Temperature, water and gases.        ergy.
                                                                                  into the air from an insecticide
  A biome is a unit resulting from     The interlocking of many food
                                                                                  plant managed by Union
  the interaction of a regional        chains is called 'food web'.
                                                                                  Carbide.
  climate, animal and plant life       A simple sequence in which the
                                       grass grows, a cow eats the                Environmental planning
  and substrate. The types of
  biome are grasslands, deserts,       grass, a human eats the cow or             organisation is NEERI. NEERI
  coniferous forests, deciduous        drinks its milk, is an example of          is National Environment Engi-
  forests, tropical forests, tundra,   food chain                                 neering Research Institute. It
  fresh water and marine               B.O.D means Biological Oxygen              is in Nagpur.
  environment.                         Demand. The estimation of                  First Earth Summit (1992) at Rio
      de Janerio (Brazil) was related               Global warming
      to conservation of genetic re-                Global Warming is the increase of the average
      sources of plants and animals.                temperature on Earth. As the Earth is getting
      Second Earth Summit (2002) at                 hotter, disasters like hurricanes, droughts and
      Johannesburg (South Africa).                  floods are getting more frequent. It happens
      Petroleum, coal, fossil fuel etc              when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide,
      are non-renewable sources.                    water vapor, nitrous oxide, and methane)
      Domestic wastes contain biode-                trap heat and light from the sun in
      gradable pollutants.                          the earth’s atmosphere, which
      Most hazardous metal pollut-                  increases the temperature.
      ant of the automobile exhaust                 Over the last 100 years, the
      is lead. Unleaded petrol is free              average air temperature near the
      of lead.                                      Earth’s surface has risen by a
      Biomass is a renewable source                 little less than 1 degree Celsius or
      of energy.                                    1.3 degrees Fahrenheit.
      Ultra Violet rays are non-                    Increase of one degree Celsius makes                the earth warmer now
      ionising radiations damaging                  than it has been for at least a thousand years.The top 11 warmest years
      to DNA.                                       on record have all been in the last 13 years, said NASA in 2007, and the
      Nuclear radiations may cause                  first half of 2010 has already gone down in history as the hottest ever
      cataract, an eye disease.                     recorded.
      Strontium-90 (Sr90) causes leu-               Projections from the UN climate change body the Intergovernmental
      kaemia (blood cancer).                        Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) say that global surface temperature will
      Radiation causes leukaemia.                   probably rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 degrees Celsius (2.0 to 11.5 degrees
      CSE – Centre for Science and                  Fahrenheit) during the 21st century.
      Environment
    Origin & Evolution                                     provided proof that micro-                Greenhouse
      Life was present on the earth                        organisms come only from                       Eff ect
      about 3.9 billion years ago.                         other micro- organism.                                   s heat up
      Theories :-                                   (iii) Cosmic origin : This notion          Green house ga se
                                                                                                                      e part of
                                                           advocates that life could have      our planet. They ar
(i) Special creation : This idea                                                                                    e and trap
                                                           originated once or several          Earth's atmospher
      embodies that life on Earth is                                                                                   the sun,
                                                           times in various part of galaxy     warmth emitted by
      divine creation.                                                                                               . It is this
                                                           in universe.                         thus heating Earth
(ii) Spontaneous generation :                                                                                            ouse ef-
                                                                                                process – the greenh
      According to this theory, life                (iv) Terrestrial or Biogenic origin :                            life on the
                                                           This idea holds that life arose       fect – that makes
      originates spontaneously from                                                                               .
                                                           by series of sequential               planet possible
      lifeless matter ie. abiogenesis.                                                                                  se ga ses
                                                           chemical reactions. This is            Nat ur al gr eenh ou
      However this idea has been put                                                                                 e, methane,
                                                           modern concept.                        like carbon dioxid
      to rest when Louis Pasteur                                                                                      e  have al -
                                                                                                  and nitrous oxid
                                                                                                                       mosphere.
    Tall grass grasslands of North America ................................ Prairie                ways been in the at
                                                                                                                        e wor ld’s
    Short grass grass lands ...................................................... Plains          With out th em, th
                                                                                                                        mperature
                                                                                                   average surface te
    Plants of deserts ....................................................... Xerophytes                                 8 degrees
                                                                                                    would be a chilly -1
    Coniferous forests ...................................... Boreal forests (Taiga)                                      we enjoy
                                                                                                    Celsius. However,
                                                                                                                          ture of 14
    Trees those shed their leaves ....................................... Deciduous                 an average tempera
    Tropical forests ........................................ Evergreen Rain forests.               degr ees.
    Tundra .......................................................................... Treeless
                                                                 Koppenhagen Summit
                                     The 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, commonly known as the
                                     Copenhagen Summit, was held at the Bella Center in Copenhagen, Denmark.
                                     This was the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP 15) to the United Nations
                                     Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 5th Meeting of the Parties
                                     (MOP 5) to the Kyoto Protocol. The Koppenhagen Accord is a significant first
                                     step in engaging the world's largest emitters in the global effort to slash carbon
                                     emissions.
                                     The Copenhagen Accord was drafted by the US, China, India, Brazil and South
                                     Africa. Accord is not legally binding and does not commit countries to agree to
                                     a binding successor to the Kyoto Protocol, whose present round ends in 2012.
                                                     l
                             Kyoto protoco                         ted Nat ions
                                                                                         The most important method of
                                          pr ot oc ol to th e Uni                        conversion of pollutant is
                          toco l  is  a                             C or FCCC),
       T he K yoto Pro                   lim  ate C hange (UNFCC                         oxidation in air.
                        ventio  n on   C                             international
        Framework Con                   m in g. T he UNFCCC is an                        Sewage waste are always rich
                          glob al w ar                                opted on 11
        aimed at fighting                Pr ot oc ol was initially ad                    in bacteria and organic
                         treaty . T he                               upon was an
        environmental                      pa n. T he target agreed                      substrate.
                           in K yo to , Ja                            year 2012.
         December 1997           5. 2%   fr om   19 90 levels by the                     In organic nitrates and
                            n of
         average reductio                                                                phosphates           stimulate
                                                     combining with Hb.                  excessive plant growth in lake.
                                                     The effect of particulate matter    The organochlorides in
Radiation Pollution                                  depends on the size and fate        pesticides are highly persistent
      Nuclear fuel cycle, combustion                 of particles on our body.           and pass through food chain.
of coal, accidents in nuclear power                  The effect of gaseous pollutant     They accumulate in fatty tissue
plants, medical therapy and                          depends on their solubility in      and affect the nervous system.
diagnosis, scientific research,                      water.                              Change in colour is a very
detonation of nuclear weapons in                     NO2 at high concentrations          common effect produced by
testing and war, television sets are                 impairs functioning of lungs by     dyes, inorganic substances
sources of radiation. Foeteses are                   accumulating water in air           like chromium and iron
more sensitive to radiation. Cancer                  spaces.                             compound.
may be increased by ionising   Polluted air cause respiratory                            Noise is physical form of
radiation.                                           disorders such as bronchitis,       pollution.
      Ozone layer filters out solar                  emphysema and lung cancer           Kyoto protocol - To reduce the
      ultraviolet radiation which is                 especially in children.             emissions of Green House
      harmful to most animal and   Fluorides destroy leaf tissues.                       Gases (GHGs)
      plant life. 90% of ozone resides   Oxides of Nitrogen and                          Montreal Protocol - To keep
      in stratosphere.                               fluoride reduce crop yields.        ozone layer intact (To reduce
      One chlorine atom can destroy   Hydrocarbon                         such     as    CFCs)
      about 1,00,000 ozone                           ethylene causes premature           Cartegena Protocol - To
      molecules.                                     falling of leaf, flower bud and     preserve bio diversity &
      Tetraethyl lead and tetramethyl                curling of petals.                  Biosafty protocols
      lead are used in automobiles   Smaller particles are separated                     Stockholm convention - To
      as anti- knocking agent.                       from harmless gases by              reduce the use of POPs
      Lead, SO 2 , NO 2 and CO                       cyclone        collector      or    (Persistent Organic Pollutants)
      impedes oxygen transport by                    electrostatic precipitator.         or Dirty Dozen
                                         Evolution of Man
  Apes are represented by gibbons, orangutans,         (together called anthropoids) as well as lemurs,
  chimpanzees, and gorillas.                           lorises and tarsiers, ( together called prosmians)
  ‘Homo sapiens’ appeared in either Africa or          Generally they have forward directed eyes,
  Asia 5,00,000 years back and spread out. Today       gripping hands and feet opposable thumbs and
  no other species is as widely distributed as         big toes. They tend to have nails rather than
  animals.                                             claws with gripping pads on the ends of the digits,
  Neanderthal specimen of man is excavated from        all adaptations to the climbing mode of life.
  Neander Valley of Germany. The Neanderthals          Ramapithecus : Extreme reduction of canines,
  lived 100,000 to 30,000 years ago. They were         modification of the chewing teeth, to be much
  the typical cave humans, short with heavy            stronger. Development of bipedalism :- walking
  brows, retreating foreheads, large jaws, a           on two feet, and than an erect posture and free
  lumbering gait and stooped posture. They wore        hands. Terrestrial living and balance of head on
  clothing and were good hunters.                      the spinal column. Terrestrial gathering economy.
  ‘Cro - magnon’ man bears the closest                 Australopithecus :- Walked erect with a curved
  resemblance to modern man. He was                    back Larger size of brain barrel like trunk with
  completely errect, and 6 feet tall. He belonged      robust build. Meat eaters and gathers, but still
  to Stone Age. He is the most recent pre-historic     not hunters but scavenger.
  man.                                                 Homo erectus : More rounded head, 5 feet in
  Dryopithecus, Ramapithecus, Australo                 height and had strong bones. Made stone tools,
  pithecus, and Homo erectus are prehuman              started hunting ‘Domesticated’ fire.
  types, ranging from 20 million years to 12 million   Homo Sapiens : More strengthened chewing
  years back.                                          muscles more developed brain (all lobes
  The fossil record of humans and other primates       developed). Humans, known taxonomically as
  is incomplete.                                       Homo sapiens.
  Modern man and apes are recent products of           Anatomically modern humans originated in Af-
  evolution and both are thought to have               rica about 200,000 years ago, reaching full be-
  descended from a common extinct ancestral            havioral modernity around 50,000 years ago.
  form. The view that humans evolved from apes         The study of human evolution encompasses
  has been invalidated.                                many scientific disciplines, including physical
  Primates are members of the order of mammals         anthropology, primatology, archaeology, linguis-
  that includes monkeys, apes and human                tics and genetics.
                                      mide) is a hallucinogenic drug.     Euthanasia means mercy kill-
  Medical Science                     Eldepyl is a new wonder drug        ing. It was first introduced
                                      to treat Parkinson’s disease (a     legally in Netherlands and in
Pharmacy                              neurodegenerative disease).         Belgium second time.
   Small pox was the disease          Aspirin (i.e., Acetyl Salicylic     Computer Axial Tomograph
   that led to the discovery of       Acid) is commonly used as a         (CAT) scan is used for photo-
   first antiviral vaccine.           pain reliever.                      graphing a selected plain of
   Small pox is the only disease      The chief ingredient of the         the human body using X-rays
   totally eradicated in 1980         mosquito repellant cream is         for diagnosing the cause of a
   throughout the world by vac-       derived from neem plant.            disease.
   cination.                          B.C.G. (Bacillus Calmette           CAT Scan is also known as
   Tetracyclins (antibiotics)         Guerine) Vaccine is adminis-        CT Scan.
   helps to cure trachoma, an eye     tered to prevent tuberculosis.
   disease.                                                               CAT scanner was invented by
                                      Tranquillizers are drugs to         Godfrey Hounsfield.
   Antibiotics are the drugs          calm the nervous system and
   which are produced by bacte-                                           MRI-Scan means Magnetic
                                      prevent tension and worry
   ria and which act against other                                        Resonance Imaging Scan.
                                      while sedatives are drugs
   strains of bacteria.                                                   PET Scan is Positron Emis-
                                      used to induce sleep.
   e.g.penicillin,streptomycin,                                           sion Tomography scan. It is
                                      Shanvac-B is India’s first in-
   chloromycin.                                                           used for studying brain.
                                      digenous genetically engi-
   Antihistamines are the sub-        neered Hepatitis - B vaccine        Otoscope is an instrument
   stances that relieve the symp-     Viagra is a tablet for stimulat-    used for examining the outer
   toms of asthma, hay fever and      ing sex potential.                  ear and ear drum.
   other allergies.                   Morphine works as an anal-          Physiotherapy is the treat-
   Antipyretics are the drugs         gesic drug and is classified as     ment of diseases or disabili-
   used medically to lower body       narcotics.                          ties by massaging and exer-
   temperature.                       An antibiotic is a substance        cise.
   Leprosy is also known as           produced by a living organ-      Cancer
   Hansen's disease.                  ism, especially a bacterium or      Uncontrolled growth of cell,
   The vaccine, triple antigen is     a fungus.                           which can be caused by
   given to children to immunise      Penicillin is produced from         Oncogenes are cancers.
   them against Diphtheria, Per-      fungus known as Penicillium         A biopsy is done in order to
   tussis (whooping cough) and        notatum.                            detect the presence of can-
   Tetanus.                           CP-20-961 is a malarial vac-        cer.
   Quinine is an alkaloid that        cine.                               Biopsy means examination of
   cures malaria.
                                                                          tissue cut from living body.
   Quinine is extracted from the        Diseases and                      Lithotripter is the machine
   tree ‘Cinchona officinalis.
   Azidothymidine (AZT) is a
                                          Treatments                      used to break up kidney
   drug used to combat AIDS.         Avian influenza virus is             stones by ultra sound waves.
   To prevent polio, two vaccines    responsible for contagious           Oral Rehydration Therapy
   Sabin (oral) and Salk (inject-    disease “Avian flu” affecting        (ORT) is useful in combating
   able) vaccine are offered.        birds.                               cholera, dysentery and gas-
   A drug that prevents infection    Avian flu is due to the mutated      troenteritis.
   and decay is called an anti-      genes of H5N1 virus.                 In medicine, radioactive iso-
   septic.                           SARS is severe Acute                 topes are used as tracers for
   LSD (lysergic acid diethyla-      Respiratory Syndrome.                diagnostic purposes.
                  Diseases and Affected Organs                                                     Contagious diseases are dis-
  Osteomyelitis ................................................... Vertebral column               eases which spread from one
  Polio ...................................................... Central nervous system              person to another by physi-
  Malaria ............................................................................... RBC      cal contact.
  Meningitis ................................................. brain and spinal cord               Infectious diseases are diseases
  Typhoid .................................................... Intestine, whole body               caused by a specific organism
  Diphtheria ........................................................................ throat       and spread through air, water,
  Bright’s disease .............................................................. kidney           food, etc.
  Eczema ................................................................................ skin    The loss of elasticity of
  Hepatitis ............................................................................. liver   muscles results in a disease
  Jaundice ............................................................................. liver    called Parkinson’s disease. It
  Tuberculosis ..................................................................... lungs        was invented by an English
  Pneumonia ........................................................................ lungs        surgeon namely James
  Gingivitis,pyorrhoea .......................................................... gums            Parkinson.
  Goitre ............................................................................. thyroid     Malaria is caused by Plasmo-
  Trachoma ........................................................................... eyes        dium vivax.
  Arthritis ............................................................................ joints    Malaria is spread by female
                                                                                                   anopheles mosquitoes and it
   Arsenic - 74 is used to detect                         Protozoans cause amoebic                 affects the RBC.
   tumours.                                               dysentery, malaria, African              Plague is spread by rat fleas.
   Sodium - 24 is incorporated                            sleeping sickness, Kala-azar             Dengue fever is spread by
   into salt (NaCl) and used to                           etc..                                    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
   detect the presence of blood                           Fungi causes athelete’s foot             Tuberculosis, Smallpox and
   clots in the circulatory system.                       and ringworm.                            Influenza are diseases that
   Cobalt-60 is used in treatment                         Haemophilia, sickle cell                 spreads through air.
   of cancer.                                             anaemia and Huntington’s                 Tuberculosis is known as
  China is famous for the mode                            disease (It is a hereditary dis-         'White Plague.'
  of medical treatment called                             ease resulting in the involun-
  Acupuncture.                                                                                     Tetanus can cause lock jaw.
                                                          tary movement of body parts.)
   Anaemia is the shortage of                             are congenital diseases (ie,             Cholera, typhoid, dysentery
   haemoglobin in blood.                                  present at birth).                       and diarrhoea are water borne
   The number one killer dis-                             Diphtheria is a disease of               diseases.
   eases in the world are tuber-                          throat.                                  Exophthalmic goitre is known
   culosis and cardiovascular                                                                      as grave’s disease.
                                                          D.P.T. Vaccine (Triple Vac-
   disease respectively.                                                                           Disease causing microorgan-
                                                          cine) is used to prevent diph-
   Pneumonia, gonorrhoea, tu-                                                                      isms are called pathogens.
                                                          theria, pertusis or whooping
   berculosis, tetanus (or lock-
                                                          cough and tetanus.                       The virus which attack bacteria
   jaw), botulism, syphilis, ty-
                                                          Rubeola is the medical name              is called bacteriophage.
   phoid, cholera, leprosy,
   plague, whooping cough etc                             of the disease measles.                  Arthritis and rheumatism af-
   are bacterial diseases.                                Elephantiasis is caused by the           fect the joints.
   Chickenpox, rubeola (German                            nematoda              ‘Wuchereria        Hydrophobia is a disease
   measles), measles, mumps, in-                          bancrofti’.                              caused by the bite of a mad
   fluenza, common cold, AIDS,                            The vector of the disease fi-            dog. It is commonly known as
   hepatitis, polio and rabies are                        lariasis (elephantiasis) is culex        rabies. It can be prevented by
   viral diseases.                                        mosquito.                                injections discovered by Louis
    Pasteur. Injections are known                               Common Drugs
    as ARV ( Anti-Rabies Venom).
                                        Anaesthetics     Drugs that block sensory nerves and make a patient
    Rabies is caused by a virus,                         fully unconscious to prevent him from feeling pain.
    and it affects the nerve cells
                                        Analgesics       Drugs used to prevent or relieve pain like aspirin.
    of the brain.
                                        Antibiotics      Drugs used to prevent growth of bacteria or other
    Alzheimer’s disease Amyloid                          germs.
    beta (A  ) deposits are the
                                        Antihistamines These drugs are used to relieve symptoms of asthma,
    fundamental cause of this dis-                       hay fever and other allergies.
    ease.                               Antipyretics     Drugs used to lower body temperature.
    Trypanosomiasis is transmit-
                                        Hormones         Drugs used to combat hormone deficiency that cause
    ted from animal to man by the                        diseases.
    tse-tse fly and causes the
                                        Narcotics        Drugs that deaden the nervous system and prevent a
    dreaded disease sleeping sick-                       person from feeling pain.
    ness. Kala-azar (Leishmania-
                                        Sedatives        Drugs used to induce sleep, like barbiturates and
    sis) is transmitted by                               bromides.
    sandflies.
                                        Tranquillizers Drugs that calm nervous system and prevent worry,
    Hypothermia is the loss of
                                                         tension etc.
    body heat (below 31.70C).
    People living in hilly areas        Vaccines         Drugs that are injected to help the body to develop
                                                         resistance to disease or immunization of the body.
    suffer from goitre because of
    the lack of iodine in diet and
    drinking water.                         stimulates the formation of             tan. But an excess is harmful
    Minamata disease resulting              antibodies.                             and can cause skin cancer and
    from mercury poisoning                  A colour-blind person has dif-          damage to retina.
                                            ficulty in distinguishing be-           Test tube baby refers to the
    causes brain damage, birth
                                            tween green and red colour.             phenomenon, where the fer-
    defects and death.
                                            This disease mainly affects
    Virus is responsible for                                                        tilization is external and devel-
                                            males.
    commoncold, the disease                 Hookworm enters the intes-              opment is internal.
    which affects largest number            tine by penetrating through             World's first test tube baby
    of people in the world.                 the skin.                               Louise Brown was born on
                                            Amnesia is related to the loss          25th July 1978.
Miscellaneous
                                            of memory.                              World health day is observed
    Antigen is a substance which            UV radiation also give us a sun         on April 7th.
                                   Important Digestive Enzymes
  Amyalse, (ptyalin)              Salivary glands in mouth                  Starch to maltose
  Pepsin                          Gastric glands in stomach                 Proteins to peptones
  Trypsin                         Pancreas in abdomen                       Proteins to peptones
  Amylase                         Pancreas                                  Carbohydrate to maltose
  Lipase                          Pancreas                                  Fats to fatty acid and glycerol.
  Erepsin                         Intestinal glands in small intestine      Peptides to amino acids
  Maltase                         Intestinal glands                         maltose to glucose
  Lactase                         Intestinal glands                         lactose to glucose
  Sucrase                         Intestinal glands                         sucrose to glucose.
  Agriculture                                                                         dens in India
                                            Famous Botanical Garre, Kolkata
                                                                     of India, Alipo
                                     Agri Horticultural Society
   The chemical contained in to-                                     Shibpur, Kolkata
                                     Indian Botanical Gardens,
   bacco is nicotine in root.                                         taka
                                     Lalbagh, Bangalore, Karna                                         l Nadu
   Quinine, Tannin and Cinna-                           tan ica l Garde ns, Udagamandalam, Tami
                                     Government Bo
                                                                     Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh
   mon are obtained from the          Jhansi Botanical Garden,                                      desh
                                                                    rden, Saharanpur, Uttar Pra
   bark of the tree.                  Saharanpur Botanical Ga
                                                                      Darjeeling, West Bengal
   Tea leaves contain 18% tan-        Lloyd's Botanical Garden,                                 rsity, West Bengal
                                                                    nts, North Bengal Unive
   nin.                               Garden of Medicinal Pla                                     lode Kerala
                                                                     and Research Institute Pa
   T x D and D x T are high yield-     Tropical Botanic Garden
   ing hybrid varieties of coco-
   nut.                            Fertilizers                                       ily and rapidly degraded in
   Hybrid is an animal or plant                                                      nature.
                                        Azolla acts as biofertilizer in              Biological control of insects
   that has been bred from two
                                        association with the blue-green              means control of insect popu-
   different types of animals or
                                        algae. It is used in the cultiva-            lation in exploitation of natu-
   plants.                              tion of rice.                                ral prey-predator relationship.
   HYV means High Yielding Va-          N.P.K. mixtures are fertilizers              D.D.T. (an insecticide) has a
   rieties.                             with the mixtures of nitrogen,               tendency to remain stable in
   Foot and Mouth disease oc-           phosphorus and potassium.                    environment for long periods.
   curs in cattle, sheep and pigs.      Nitrogen helps in greening of                Bordeaux mixture is a fungi-
   Cocoon stage of silkworm pro-        plants and their rapid growth.               cide.
   duces silk.                          Phosphorous helps in flower-                 BHC is Benzene Hexa Chlo-
   Silk worms are reared on mul-        ing of plants.                               ride.
                                        Potassium helps in the fruit                 Loss of agricultural productiv-
   berry.
                                        forming stage in plants.                     ity due to pests and diseases
   The most important stimulant         Salinity of soil can be neutral-             is about 30%.
   in coffee leaves is caffeine.        ized by using pyrite and gyp-                Sporeine is a bio insecticide.
   Opium is extracted from the          sum.                                         Sporeine was the first bio in-
   immature fruits of the plant         Iron is an essential micro-nu-               secticide to be developed on
   poppy(Papaver somniferum).           trient required for the devel-               a commercial scale.
   Paper is chemically cellulose.       opment of plants.                            Natural insecticide 'azadira-
   Sunflower oil has the maxi-          Blue-Green algae works as a                  ctin' is obtained from Neem.
   mum polyunsaturated fatty            bio-fertilizer.                              The pesticide used in founda-
   acids.                                                                            tions of buildings for prevent-
   Mint is propagated through
                                   Pesticides                                        ing, termite attack is 'Aldrin.'
   rhizomes.                            Pesticides include insecti-
                                        cides, fungicides, nemati-
                                                                               Forestry
   For safe storage, the moisture
                                        cides, rodenticides and herbi-
   contents of foodgrains                                                            Turpentine oil is obtained from
                                        cides.
   should be less than 14%.                                                          pinus tree.
                                        D.D.T and Parathion pesti-
  The acid present in the soil          cides are banned in most of                  Sweet potato is a modification
  and substances formed by the          the developed countries. Ma-                 of adventitious roots.
  decomposition of decayed              jor drawback of D.D.T as a                   Plants and animals living in a
  green matter is ‘humic acid.’         pesticide is that it is not eas-             given area form a community.
                                              Numbers in Human Body
Number of bones ........................................ 206          Rate of blood pressure ........................... 120/80 mm. Hg.
Number of muscles ..................................... 639           Number of RBC's ................. in male - 5,000,000/Cu. m.m.
Number of ribs .............................................. 24                                          in female - 45,000,000/Cu. m.m.
Number of bones in skull .............................. 22            Life span of RBC ............................................. 120 days
Number of bones in neck ............................... 7             Life span of WBC ........................................... 2-15 days
Number of bones in face ............................... 14            Amount of blood ............................................. 5-6 litres
Number of cranial nerves ...................... 12 pairs              Average amount of haemoglobin .. 14-15 mg/100 ml blood
Number of spinal nerves ....................... 31 pairs              Weight of brain .................................................. 1.4 kg.
Number of heart beat ........... 70-72 times/minute
Respiratory rate ................... 16-20 times/minute                                    Test and Diseases
                                                                       Byopsi ....................................................... Cancer
                                                                       Lepromin Test .......................................... Leprosy
     Rain forests occur in Western Ghat and East-                      Eliza Test ....................................................... Aids
     ern Himalayas.                                                    Western Blot ................................................. Aids
     Herbarium is a collection of 'preserved                           Shik Test ................................................. Diptheria
     plants.'                                                          Tuberculin Test ................................. Tuberculosis
                                                                       Papsmear ......................................... Uterus Cancer
     The 'Great Banyan Tree' is in Indian Botani-
                                                                       Glycocelated Haemoglobin ..................... Diabetics
     cal Garden Sibpur, Kolkata.                                       E.E.G .............................................. Brain Diseases
     Wild Life Protection Act was enacted in India in                  E.C.G .............................................. Heart Diseases
     1972.                                                             Mamography .................................... Breast Cancer
     The threat of extinction of tigers forced the India               Widal Test ................................................ Typhoid
                                                                       Vasarman Test ......................................... Syphilles
     government to initiate the 'Project Tiger' on April 1,
     1973.                                                                    (BSI) with its head office in Kolkata came into
     In India, paper is mainly manufactured from                              existence in 1890.
     Bamboos.                                                                 National Botanical Garden (National Botanical
     Mango, Papaya, Banana, Guava, Pineapple,                                 Research Institute, NBRI) is situated in Lucknow.
     Mangosteens etc are included
     in tropical fruits.
                                                 Human Genome Project (HGP)
     Silent valley is a conserved                        HGP was launched in 1988, with the Nobel
     forest.                                     laureate      Dr. James D. Watson as the director
     Tropical rain forest is seen in             and    the   project envisaged.
     Assam.                                              The Human Genome Project originally
     Nicotine is a poisonous aimed to map the nucleotides contained in a
     alkaloid present in Tobacco.                human haploid reference genome (more than
     Brazil is the native place of three billion).
     cashewnut.                                          Objective of the Human Genome Project
     Rainforests occur in Western is to understand the genetic makeup of the
     Ghat and Eastern Himalayas. human species, the project has also focused
     ‘Vanamahotsav’ started in on several other nonhuman organisms such as
     1950.                                       E. coli, the fruit fly, and the laboratory mouse.
     Chipko movement is                                  Project identified and map the
     connected with plant approximately 20,000–25,000 genes of the
     conservation.                               human genome from both a physical and
     Botanical survey of India functional standpoint.
                    The Ramsar Convention                                                                       Cloning
   The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conserva-                                  Cloning is the process of
                                                                                                       producing many identical
   tion and sustainable utilisation of wetlands. Ramsar Convention
                                                                                                       organisms or clones (clone
   (1971) was drafted at Ramsar, Iran. The headquarters is located in                                  means exact carbon copy or
   Gland, Switzerland.                                                                                 copies of a single parent).
                                                    World Wetlands Day occurs
                                                                                                       It is the production of one
                                                       on 2 February each year.
                                                                                                       individual organism from a
                                                                                                       nucleus, cell or asexual offshot
Tallest Animal ........................................................................... Giraffe
                                                                                                       or another.
Largest Bird ............................................................................ Ostrich
                                                                                                       Ian Wilmut and his colleagues
Smallest Bird................................................................. Humming Bird
                                                                                                       at the Roslin Research Institute
Largest snake ..................................................................... Anakonda
                                                                                                       in Scotland cloned the first
Largest Mammal ............................................................. Blue Whales
                                                                                                       sheep Dolly.
Largest animal in land ............................................... African Elephant
Longest flying bird ............................................................... Articturn          The young one of Dolly,
Largest Reptile .................................................................... Crocodile         named Polly, was born in 1998.
Fastest animal........................................................................... Chetta       Ian Wilmut is considered as
                           The Scientific Names
          Indian elephant ............................. Elephas maxims
          Frog ......................................... Rana hexadactyla
          Man ................................................ Homo sapiens
          Cat ............................................ Felix domesticus
          Hornbill ....................................... Buseros bywrnis
          Peacock .......................................... Pavo cristatus
          Tiger ............................................. Panthera tigris                          the father of cloning.
                                                                                                       Carbon copy is the first cloned
          Cockroch ........................... Periplaneta americana
                                                                                                       cat, in 2001, at Texas A and M
          Earthworm ............................ Pheretima Posthuma                                    university.
          Crow ......................................... Corvus Splendens                              Cell cloning is based on the
          Parrot ....................................... Psittacula krameri                            property of totipotency ( in
          Penguin .................................. Aptenodytes forsteri                              plant) or pleuripotency ( in
                                                                                                       animals).
          Sparrow.................................... Passer domesticus
                                                                                                       Totipotency is a potential
          Whale .................................. Balaenoptera indica
                                                                                                       ability of plant cell to grow into
          Cow ..................................................... Bos indica                         complete plant. Pleuripotency
          Pig ...................................................... Sus scrofa                        is the potential ability of an
          Camel .................................. Camelus dromedarius                                 animal cell to develop into any
          Horse ............................................ Equus caballus                            type of cell in the animal body.
                                                                                                   Species cloned
          Donkey ............................................ Equus asinus
                                                                                                       Tadpole, Carp, Mice, Sheep,
          Rabbit ................................ Oryctolagus cuniculas                                Rhesus Monkey, Gaur, Cattle,
          Squrrel ............................... Funambulus pennanti                                  Cat, Dog, Rat, Mule, Horse,
                                                                                                       Water Buffalo and Camel.