Kerala PSC - List of Recently Appointed Brand
Ambassadors
 Name of the Brands & Campaigns                      Person
Seagram‟s Royal Stag                 Jasprit Bumrah
Estrolo                              Jasprit Bumrah
Chelsea FC                           Arjun Kapoor
Himachal Government's Global
                                     Yami Gautam
Investors‟ Meet 2019
                                     Shilpa Shetty Kundra
Bodycare International
      
Brune & Bareskin                     Harbhajan Singh
Trusox India                         Rohit Sharma
Godrej Consumer Products             Anushka Sharma
Payment Technology Company Visa      P V Sindhu
FIFA World Cup 2018                  Victoria Lopreva
New India Conclave 2018              Akshay Kumar
Vivo "S" Series                      Sara Ali Khan
CARS24                               Mahendra Singh Dhoni
Arganish                             Indian Hockey Player Dharamvir Singh
V-Nourish                            Shah Rukh Khan
Malabar Gold & Diamonds              Anil Kapoor
„Emami 7 Oils in One‟.               Katrina Kaif
JBL                                  Ranveer Singh
Gatorade by PepsiCo                  Hima Das
Indian Army                          MS Dhoni
Magicbricks                          Ayushmann Khurana nd Kriti Sanon
      
Madhya Pradesh                       Govinda
GOQii                                Akshay Kumar
TAFE (Tractors and Farm Equipment)
                                     Akshay Kumar
Ltd
Pro Kabbadi Team Patna Pirates       Neetu Chandra
Himalaya Drug Company                Virat Kohli and Rishab Pant
Hero MotoCorp                        Colombian Footballer Yerry Mina
Emami Navratna Cool                  Varun Dhawan
Vector X                             Dalima Chhibbar
Pro Kabaddi League Outfit UP Yoddha  Gautam Gambhir
Reebok                               Katrina Kaif and Varun Dhawan
Monte Carlo                          Andrew Russell
Goa's Ambassador for promoting Yoga  Namrata Menon
GS Caltex India                      Shikhar Dhawan
Fanmojo                              Prithvi Shaw
Menswear Brand Indian Terrain        Mahendra Singh Dhoni
Myntra                               Virat Kohli, Anushka Sharma
      
BharatPe                             Salman Khan
PhonePe                              Aamir Khan
Fantasy 11                           Murali Kartik
redBus                               Mahendra Singh Dhoni
Indo-American Arts Council (IAAC)    Vikas Khanna
Fast&Up                              Mayank Aggarwal
PolicyX.com                          Virender Sehwag
Fantasy Sports Platform Fantain      Suresh Raina
Lloyd                                Ranveer Singh and Deepika Padukone
PokerStars India                     Nawazuddin Siddiqui
Clinique India                       Radhika Apte
MG Motor India                       Benedict Cumberbatch
French Open                          Justine Henin
Vingajoy                             Ayushmann Khurrana
Urban Clap                           Ayushmann Khurrana
Google Duo                           Virat Kohli
      
Xiaomi India                            Ranveer Singh
KajariaPly                              Ranveer Singh
CricPlay‟s inaugural „Ab India Khelega‟
                                        Gautam Gambhir
campaign
L V Prasad Eye Institute‟s Whitathon    VVS Laxman
Colgate                                 Mahendra Singh Dhoni
Election Commission (EC)                Pranitha Subhash
Women‟s football tourney                Jaya Ahsan
Fantasy Sports startup Hala-Play        Hardik and Krunal Pandya
Bareilly                                Gita Sharma
Mobile Premier League                   Virat Kohli
Kent for security product range         Shah Rukh Khan
Rajasthan Royals Indian Premier
League                                  Shane Warne
(IPL) season 2019
Denver                                  Mahesh Babu
PUMA                                    Mary Kom
Ascent Meditech                         Hrithik Roshan
       
E-Commerce Platform Mwoop              Sakshi Maggo
PepsiCo‟s Kurkure                      Taapsee Pannu
Sprite                                 Anmol K.C
Kerastase                              Lisa Haydon Lalvan
PNB MetLife                            PV Sindhu
Ambassador of India to the Republic of
                                       Dinesh Bhatia
Argentina
Swasth Immunised India                 Kareena Kapoor Khan
Indian Ambassadors to Bhutan           Ruchira Kamboj
Bharat Scouts And Guides               Shreya Chopra
Nissan Global Ambassador               Rohit Sharma
Clean India Mission                    PV Sindhu and Sakshi Malik
Sumadhura Group                        MS Dhoni
boAt – a lifestyle brand               Jacqueline Fernandez
India's Ambassador to UN               Pankaj Sharma
Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP)     Raveena Tondon
Ambassador for “For Girls and          Priyanka Das
      
Science” initiative in France
Ambassador of India to ASEAN          Rudrendra Tandon
Skill India Campaign                  Varun Dhawan and Anushka Sharma
Goodwill ambassador for Nepal tourism Jaya Prada
Health-related programmes of Haryana  Gauri Sheoran
BSNL                                  Mary Kom
India's Ambassador to US              Harsh Vardhan Shringla
Vistara                               Deepika Padukone
Gulf Oil                              Hardik Pandya
Dabur Honey                           Jacqueline Fernandez
Cox & Kings                           Anushka Sharma
Ponds                                 Disha Ptani
Fair & Lovely                         Yami Gautam
Lux (Soap)                            Katrina Kaif
Britania                              Sachin Tendulkar
Close Up                              Mahesh Babu
       
Clinic Plus                                Shweta Tiwari
SamSung                                    Aamir Khan
Brand Ambassador of TATA Group for
                                           Hrithik Roshan
its all-new stylish sedan, the Tata Tigor.
Colgate                                    Anushka Sharma
Kajol                                      Lifebuoy
Horlicks                                   Taapsee Pannu
Dettol India                               Amitabh Bachchan
Mastercard                                 Mahendra Singh Dhoni
Syska LED                                  Amitabh Bachchan
Manipal Hospitals                          Rahul Dravid
Dish TV                                    Ranveer Singh
Nokia                                      Alia Bhatt
HoloSuit                                   Yuvraj Singh
Maruti                                     Varun Dhawan
Bharat Matrimony                           M.S Dhoni
Uber eats                                  Alai Bhatt
        
Navneet Education Limited              Prithvi Shaw
Apollo Tyres                           Sachin Tendulkar
State Bank of India appoints for YONO  Swapna Barman
Datsun India                           Aamir Khan
Rupa and Company                       Anushka Sharma
Jonty Rhodes                           Isuzu D-Max V-Cross
Siyaram                                Ranveer Singh
Flipkart                               Ranbir Kapoor and Shraddha Kapoor
Assam ( state‟s brand ambassador)      Hima Das
SHARP TV                               Rohit Sharma
Sumadhura Group                        MS Dhoni
Remit2India, (an online money transfer
                                       Virat Kohli
portal)
Philips India (for its male grooming
                                       Virat Kohli
products)
Indigo Paints                          MS Dhoni
BoAt                                   Jacqueline Fernandez
      
Dabur(for its skin care brand Fem)       Kriti Sanon
Dollar Missy                             Chitrangada Singh
NetMeds (Online Pharmacy)                MS Dhoni
L'Oréal Paris                            Amber Heard
Kraft Heinz India(for the Complan
                                         Sourav Ganguly
brand)
„Educate Girls‟(non-profit organisation) Katrina Kaif
Whirlpool                                Kriti Sanon and Sushant Singh Rajput
BATA                                     Kriti Sanon
Tata Sons( for global corporate affairs) S Jaishankar
Tourism Fiji(for the India market)       Ileana D‟Cruz
Lubricants India (a Hinduja Group
                                         Hardik Pandya
company)
Vivo                                     Aamir Khan
Uber                                     Virat Kohli
Gaming platform Dream11                  Mahendra Singh Dhoni
Chocolate Snickers                       MS Dhoni
      
Bata‟s new sport wears                   Smriti Mandhana.
All India Chess Federation for the Blind
                                         Grand Master Vidit Gujrathi.
(AICFB)
Pakistan Cricket Board                   Shoaib Akhtar
T20 Mumbai League's                      Sachin Tendulkar
Sikkim                                   AR Rahman
The Muthoot Group                        Amitabh Bachchan
Harman International                     Priyanka Chopra
Frooti                                   Allu Arjun
Poker Sports League                      Viswanathan Anand
RP-Sanjiv Goenka Group(for its
                                         Virat Kohli
packaged snacking brand, Too Yumm)
Ghaziabad Municipal Corporation
                                         Cricketer Suresh Raina
(GMC)
Swachh Bharat Mission in Ghaziabad
                                         Cricketer Suresh Raina
City (Uttar Pradesh)
Delhi Dynamos FC                         Jacqueline Fer-nandez
Hyundai(Continues for 2 more years)      Shahrukh Khan
       
ITM Group of Institutions               Kidambi Srikanth
Environmental Issues                    Dia Mirza
Innerwear brand Lux                     Amitabh Bachchan
Futsal football franchise Kerala Cobras Sunny Leone
Indoor Cricket Team                     Sandeep Patil
WHO Goodwill Ambassador(for Autism
                                        Saima Wazed Hossain
in South Asia)
Road safety awareness campaign.         Akshay Kumar
China hails                             Amir Khan
Oneplus                                 Amitabh Bachhan
Leonardo Olive Oil                      Chef Sanjeev Kapoor
Luminous Power‟s new brand AMAZE        Virat Kohli
      
Kerala PSC - List of Chief of the Army/Navy/Airforce
Army - Chief of the Army Staff
S.No.                          Name                         Tenure
1.            General Sir Robert Lockhart      15 Aug 1947 – 31 Dec 1947
2.            General Sir Roy Bucher           01 Jan 1948 – 15 Jan 1949
3.            Field Marshal KM Cariappa        16 Jan 1949 – 14 Jan 1953
4.            General KS Rajendra Sinhji       15 Jan 1953 - 14 May 1955
      

5.         General S.M.Srinagesh             15 May 1955 - 7 May 1957
6.         General K.S. Thimayya             8 May 1957 - 7 May 1961
7.         General P.N. Thapar               8 May 1961 - 19 Nov 1962
8.         General J.N. Choudhuri            20 Nov 1962 - 7 Jun 1966
9.         General P.P. Kumaramangalam       8 Jun 1966 - 7 Jun 1969
10.        Field Marshal S.H.F.J. Manekshaw  8 Jun 1969 - 15 Jan 1973
11.        General G.G.Bewoor                16 Jan 1973 - 31 May 1975
12.        General T.N. Raina                1 Jun 1975 - 31 May 1978
13.        General O.P. Malhotra             1 Jun 1978 - 31 May 1981
14.        General K.V.Krishna Rao           1 Jun 1981 - 31 Jul 1983
    

15.        General A.S.Vaidya                1 Aug 1983 - 31 Jan 1986
16.        General K.Sunderji                1 Feb 1986 - 31 May 1988
17.        General V.N.Sharma                1 May 1988 - 30 Jun 1990
18.        General S.F.Rodrigues             1 Jul 1990 - 30 Jun 1993
19.        General B.C.Joshi                 1 Jul 1993 - 19 Nov 1994
20.        General S.Roychowdhury            22 Nov 1994 - 30 Sep 1997
21.        General V.P.Malik                 1 Oct 1997 - 30 Sep 2000
22.        General S. Padmanabhan            1 Oct 2000 - 31 Dec 2002
23.        General N.C.Vij                   31 Dec 2002 - 31 Jan 2005
24.        General J J Singh                 01 Feb 2005 - 30 Sep 2007
    

25.           General Deepak Kapoor            30 Sep 2007 - 30 Mar 2010
26.           General V.K. Singh               31 Mar 2010 - 31 May 2012
27.           General Bikram Singh             01 Jun 2012 - 31 Jul 2014
28.           General DS Suhag                 01 Aug 2014 - 31 Dec 2016
29.           General Bipin Rawat              31 Dec 2016 - 31 Dec 2019
30.           General Manoj Mukund Naravane    1 Jan 2020 - Till date
Navy - Chiefs of the Naval Staff
S.No.                         Name                         Tenure
1.             Vice Admiral WE Parry         26 Jan 1950 - 12 Oct 1951
2.             Vice Admiral Charles TM Pizey 13 Oct 1951 - 21 Jul 1955
3.             Vice Admiral SH Carlill       22 Jul 1955 - 21 Apr 1958
      

4.          Vice Admiral Ram Dass Katari   22 Apr 1958 - 04 Jun 1962
5.          Vice Admiral BS Soman          05 Jun 1962 - 03 Mar 1966
6.          Admiral AK Chatterji           04 Mar 1966 - 28 Feb 1970
7.          Admiral SM Nanda               28 Feb 1970 - 28 Feb 1973
8.          Admiral SN Kohli               01 Mar 1973 - 29 Feb 1976
9.          Admiral Jal Cursetji           01 Mar 1976 - 01 Mar 1979
10.         Admiral RL Pereira             01 Mar 1979 - 28 Feb 1982
11.         Admiral OS Dawson              01 Mar 1982 - 30 Nov 1984
12.         Admiral RH Tahiliani           01 Dec 1984 - 30 Nov 1987
13.         Admiral JG Nadkarni            01 Dec 1987 - 30 Nov 1990
    

14.         Admiral L Ramdas               01 Dec 1990 - 30 Sep 1993
15.         Admiral VS Shekhawat           01 Oct 1993 - 30 Sep 1996
16.         Admiral Vishnu Bhagwat         01 Oct 1996 - 30 Dece 1998
17.         Admiral Sushil Kumar           30 Dec 1998 - 29 Dec 2001
18.         Admiral Madhvendra Singh       29 Dec 2001 - 31 Jul 2004
19.         Admiral Arun Prakash           31 Jul 2004 - 31 Oct 2006
20.         Admiral Sureesh Mehta          31 Oct 2006 - 31 Aug 2009
21.         Admiral NK Verma               31 Aug 2009 - 31 Aug 2012
22.         Admiral DK Joshi               31 Aug 2012 - 26 Feb 2014
23.         Admiral RK Dhowan              26 Feb 2014 - 31 May 2016
    

24.             Admiral Sunil Lanba                31 May 2016 - 31 May 2019
25.             Admiral Karambir Singh             31 May 2019 - Till to date
Air Force - Chief of the Air Staff
S.No.                           Name                              Tenure
1.            Air Marshal Thomas Elmhirst             26 Jan 1950 - 23 Feb 1950
2.            Air Chief Marshal RI Chapman            23 Feb 1950 - 09 Dec 1951
3.            Air Marshal Gerald Gibbs                10 Dec 1951 - 31 Mar 1954
4.            Air Marshal Subroto Mukerjee            1 Apr 1954 - 8 Nov 1960
5.            Air Marshal Aspy Engineer               01 Dec 1960 - 31 Jul 1964
6.            Air Chief Marshal Arjan Singh           01 Aug 1964 - 15 Jul 1969
7.            Air Chief Marshal Pratap Chandra Lal    16 Jul 1969 - 15 Jan 1973
      

8.         Air Chief Marshal H Moolgavkar      01 Feb 1976 - 30 Aug 1978
9.         Air Chief Marshal IH Latif          01 Sep 1978 - 30 Aug 1981
10.        Air Chief Marshal Dilbagh Singh     01 Sep 1981 - 03 Sep 1984
11.        Air Chief Marshal L M Katre         03 Sep 1984 - 01 Jul 1985
12.        Air Chief Marshal Denis La Fontaine 03 Jul 1985 - 31 Jul 1988
13.        Air Chief Marshal Surinder Mehra    01 Aug 1988 - 31 Jul 1991
14.        Air Chief Marshal NC Suri           31 Jul 1991 - 31 Jul 1993
15.        Air Chief Marshal SK Kaul           01 Aug 1993 - 31 Dec 1995
16.        Air Chief Marshal Satish Sareen     31 Dec 1995 - 31 Dec 1998
17.        Air Chief Marshal AY Tipnis         31 Dec 1998 - 31 Dec 2001
    

18.        Air Chief Marshal S Krishnaswamy   31 Dec 2001 - 31 Dec 2004
19.        Air Chief Marshal SP Tyagi         31 Dec 2004 - 31 Mar 2007
20.        Air Chief Marshal Fali Homi Major  31 Mar 2007 - 31 May 2009
21.        Air Chief Marshal PV Naik          31 May 2009 - 31 Jul 2011
22.        Air Chief Marshal Norman AK Browne 31 Jul 2011 - 31 Dec 2013
23.        Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha        31 Dec 2013 - 31 Dec 2016
24.        Air Chief Marshal BS Dhanoa        31 Dec 2016 - 30 Sep 2019
25.        Air Chief Marshal RKS Bhadauria    30 Sep 2019 - Till Date
    
 Complete List of First in India
 
 
 
                                                               34.  Bharat Ratna: Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, C.
  Awards and Titles                                                 Rajagopalachari, and C. V. Raman in 1954
                                                               35.  Padma Vibhushan: Satyendra Nath Bose, Nand Lal
  1.    First Indian Mr. Universe: Monotosh Roy in 1952             Bose, Zakir Hussain, Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher,
  2.    First Indian Miss World: Reita Faria in 1966; also the      Jigme Dorji Wangchuk, V. K. Krishna Menon in 1954
        first Asian to win the title                           36.  Param Vir Chakra: Major Somnath Sharma
  3.    First Indian Miss Asia Pacific: Zeenat Aman in 1970    37.  Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters: Mrinal
  4.    First Indian International Teen Princess: Radha             Sen
        Bartake in 1974                                        38.  Chevalier of the Order of Arts and Letters: Sivaji
  5.    First Indian to win Miss Teenages Intercontinental:         Ganesan
        Elizabeth Anita Reddi in 1978                          39.  Dadasaheb Phalke Award: Devika Rani in 1969
  6.    First Indian Miss World Amber: Mala Rai Singani in     40.  Ashoka Chakra Award to a civilian: D.K. Jatar
        1978                                                        (posthumous) and M.C Dixit, captain and co-captain
  7.    First Indian to win World Miss University:                  respectively, of the sabotaged plane Kashmir
        Priyadarshini Pradhan in 1989                               Princess, for "most conspicuous bravery, daring and
  8.    First Indian Miss Universe: Sushmita Sen in 1994            self-sacrifice"
  9.    Miss India Worldwide: Karminder Kaur Virk in 1994      41.  Magsaysay Award: Vinoba Bhave, 1958
  10.   Miss Intercontinental: Lara Dutta in 1997              42.  Stalin Peace Prize (now known as Lenin Peace Prize)
  11.   Mr. International: Aryan Vaid in 2000                       in 1952: Saifuddin Kitchlew
  12.   Manhunt International: Rajeev Singh in 2001            43.  Oscar for Lifetime Achievement: Satyajit Ray
  13.   Miss Tourism International: Candice Pinto in 2001      44.  Nishan-e-Pakistan: Morarji Desai, 1990
  14.   Mrs. World: Aditi Gowitrikar in 2001
  15.   Miss Tourism Queen International: Zabina Abdul
        Rashid Khan in 2004
                                                               Nobel Prize
  16.   Miss World Tourism: Sonal Chauhan in 2005.             1.  1913: Literature: Rabindranath Tagore; also the first
  17.   Best Model of the World: Siddharth Shukla in 2005          Asian to win the prize
  18.   Miss Tourism: Priyanka Shah in 2007                    2.  1930: Physics: Sir C. V. Raman; first Asian and first
  19.   Miss Earth: Nicole Faria in 2010                           non-white person to win Science nobel prize.
  20.   Miss Asia Pacific World: Himangini Singh Yadu in       3.  1979: Peace: Mother Teresa; Indian citizen of
        2012                                                       Albanian origin
  21.   Mister United Nations: Rahul Vyas in 2013              4.  1998: Economics: Amartya Sen: First Indian for
  22.   Miss Supranational: Asha Bhat in 2014                      Economics
  23.   Miss Universal Peace and Humanity: Ruhi Singh in       5.  2014: Peace: Kailash Sathyarthi; first Indian-born
        2014                                                       recipient in Peace category
  24.   Miss Tourism International (China version): Parul
        Bindal in 2014                                         Oscar
  25.   First Indian to win Ms United Nations: Amiiee
        (Amisha) Chaudhary Verma in 2017                       1.  1982: Bhanu Athaiya for Costume Design
  26.   Mrs United Nations Classic: Neepa Singh in 2017        2.  1992: Satyajit Ray, Honorary Oscar
  27.   Mrs United Nations: Roshni Hassan in 2017              3.  2009: A. R. Rahman for Best Original Song, Best
  28.   First Indian to win any literary award (the Newbery        Original Score
        Medal) in the United States, in 1927 for Gay Neck, the 4.  2009: Resul Pookutty for Sound Mixing
        Story of a Pigeon: Dhan Gopal Mukerji                  5.  2009: Gulzar for Best Original Song
  29.   Mister World: Rohit Khandelwal; first Asian to win
        Mister World                                           Architecture
  30.   First ever Miss World to win Beauty with a Purpose
        award: Manushi Chhillar.                               1.  First dam in India: Kallanai Dam, one of the world's
  31.   Nirad C. Chaudhuri: first Indian to win a major non-       oldest, still in use; build across the Kaveri river in
        fiction award, the Duff Cooper Prize in the United         Thiruchirapalli District in the state of Tamil Nadu in
        Kingdom, in 1966 for The Continent of Circe                South India. originally constructed by the Chola king
  32.   Man Booker Prize: Arundhati Roy for her novel The          Karikala Cholan around the 2nd century BC
        God of Small Things in 1997                            2.  First Stepwell still existing: Mata Bhavani's Stepwell,
  33.   Bhaswati Bhattacharya was the first Indian to speak        built in the 11th century in Gujarat
        as orator at Harvard University, in the commence-      3.  First temple constructed from a single rock, still
        ment exercises in 1993.                                    standing: Kailasa temple, Ellora, built in 744 CE by
                                                                   Rashtrakuta king Krishna I
    
 
  4.    First temple in Kalinga architecture still standing:       2.  Person to fly in a balloon and land in a parachute:
        Konark Sun Temple,Puri, Odisha, built in 1255 AD               Shibnath Majumdar
  5.    First temple with many interconnected structures still     3.  Person to reach the South Pole: Colonel Jatinder
        standing: Brihadeeswarar Temple, Tanjore, Tamil                Kumar Bajaj
        Nadu, built in 1002 AD                                     4.  Person (Man) to scale Mount Everest: H.P.S.
  6.    First true dome: Alai Darwaza, Qutb complex, Delhi,            Ahluwalia
        built in 1311 CE, by first Khalji Sultan of Delhi, Ala-ud- 5.  Woman to scale Mount Everest: Bachendri Pal on 23
        din Khalji                                                     May 1984; the 5th woman in the world to scale the
  7.    First true arch: Balban's tomb, Mehrauli                       peak
        Archeological Park, Delhi, built c. 1287 CE, by Ghiyas     6.  Woman to reach South Pole: Reena Kaushal
        ud din Balban of Mamluk dynasty                                Dharmshaktu
  8.    First garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent, also         7.  Person to reach the North Pole: Jagannathan
        the first with Persian double-dome: Humayun's Tomb,            Srinivasaraghavan on 23 April 1985.
        Delhi, built 1562–1571 CE                                  8.  Person to have walked across Gobi desert: Sucheta
  9.    First church in India: St. Thomas Church, Palayoor             Kadethankar
        Built in 52 AD under leadership of St. Thomas the          9.  Youngest person in the world to climb Everest:
        Apostle its a Mix of Persian and Kerala architecture           Malavath Purna on 25 May 2014 at the age of 13
  10.   First mosque in India: Cheraman Juma Mosque in
        Methala, Kodungallur Taluk, Thrissur District of           Film, TV and entertainment
        Kerala, Built in 629 AD.                                   1.  1896: First film to be exhibited in India: on 7 July, with
                                                                       the Lumiere Brothers' Cinematography, unveiling six
  Defence (in the Republic of India)                                   silent short films at the Watson's Hotel in Bombay:
                                                                       Entry of Cinematographe, The Sea Bath, Arrival of a
  1.    First Prime Minister of Indian Republic: Pandit                Train, A Demolition, Ladies & Soldiers on Wheels and
        Jawaharlal Nehru                                               Leaving the Factory
  2.    First Vice President of Indian Republic: Dr. Sarvepalli    2.  1902: Music record was recorded by Gauhar Jaan
        Radhakrishnan                                                  singing a khayal in Raag Jogiya, recorded on 2
  3.    Defence Minister of India: Baldev Singh                        November, by Fred Gaisberg, assistant to Emile
  4.    Commander-in-Chief of Free India: Kodandera                    Berliner, the father of the gramophone record.
        Madappa Cariappa                                           3.  1913: Silent film to be made in India: Raja
  5.    Indian Commander-in-Chief of Free India: General               Harishchandra, by Dadasaheb Phalke and released
        Kodandera Madappa Cariappa,1949                                on 3 May.
  6.    Chief of Air Staff : Subroto Mukerjee                      4.  1913: Actress of Indian cinema: Durgabai Kamat in
  7.    Chief of Army Staff: Rajendrasinhji Jadeja                     Mohini Bhasmasur, released in November, second
  8.    Commander-in-Chief, IAF: Subroto Mukerjee                      movie of Phalke
  9.    Chief of Naval Staff: Sir Charles Thomas Mark Pizey        5.  1931: Sound film: Alam Ara directed by Ardeshir Irani
  10.   First Indian (pre-Independence) flying ace: Indra Lal      6.  1937: Government award for films: Bengal Film
        Roy                                                            Journalists' Association Awards
  11.   India's first military helicopter pilot: Air Commodore     7.  1937: Colour film: Kisan Kanya, directed by Moti B.
        Sudhindra Kumar Majumdar                                       Gidvani
  12.   Cosmonaut: Sqn Ldr Rakesh Sharma, 1984                     8.  1946: Palme d'Or at 1946 Cannes Film Festival:
  13.   Field Marshal: Sam Manekshaw (S.H.F Manekshaw),                Neecha Nagar, directed by Chetan Anand
        1973                                                       9.  1954: National Film Award for cinema: Shyamchi Aai
  14.   First female Jawan in the Army: Sapper Shanti Tigga        10. 1955: Film to attract International critical attention:
        lp                                                             Pather Panchali
  15.   First Param Vir Chakra winner: Major Som Nath              11. 1957: Oscar nomination for Best Foreign Language
        Sharma                                                         Film: Mother India
  16.   First woman in the Indian Army to receive the coveted      12. 1959: Film to be banned: Neel Akasher Neechey,
        ‘Sword of Honour' prize: Divya Ajith Kumar                     directed by Mrinal Sen
  17.   First Indian woman to fly fighter aircraft solo: IAF       13. 1959: Cinemascope film: Kaagaz Ke Phool, directed
        Officer Avani Chaturvedi                                       by Gurudutt
                                                                   14. 1960: First actor to win an international film award (
  Exploration                                                          Afro Asian film awards ceremony) : Sivaji Ganesan
  1.    Person to ride alone around the world on motorcycle:           for Veerapandia Kattabomman.
        Bharadwaj Dayala
    
 
  15.   1964: Guinness Book of World Records in the            8.  Prime Minister: Jawaharlal Nehru (1947–64); India
        category "Fewest actors in a narrative film": Yaadein      held its first constitutional elections in 1952 after
        directed and acted by Sunil Dutt                           which he was re-elected
  16.   1967: 70 mm film: Hindi film Around the World          9.  Deputy Prime Minister: Vallabhbhai Patel (1947–50)
  17.   1969: Dadasaheb Phalke Award recipient: Devika         10. Law Minister of India: B. R. Ambedkar
        Rani                                                   11. Leader of Opposition: A. K. Gopalan
  18.   1982: Oscar winner: Bhanu Athaiya for Best Costume     12. Prime Minister to be voted out of office: Indira Gandhi
        Design for the film Gandhi                                 (1977), when the Indian National Congress lost to the
  19.   1984: 3-D film: My Dear Kuttichathan, a Malayalam          Janata Party
        film, produced in 1984, dubbed in Hindi as Chhota      13. Non-Congress government: Janata Party, with Morarji
        Chetan                                                     Desai as the Prime Minister (1977–1980)
  20.   1984: Sponsored TV serial: Hum Log, started on 7       14. Non-Congress State government with Majority by a
        July, was also the first soap opera of India, ran for      single party: E. M. S. Namboodiripad of CPI, Kerala
        156 episodes                                               1957
  21.   1985: Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (Order of Arts and 15. Prime Minister to lead a minority government for a full
        Letters) – Director: Mrinal Sen                            term (five years): P. V. Narasimha Rao, 21 June 1991 –
  22.   1987: First film to shoot underwater - Kannada movie       16 May 1996
        Ondu Muttina Kathe, was the first Indian movie to be   16. Person outside the Nehru-Gandhi family to serve as
        shot under water in Maldives                               Prime Minister for a full term (five years): P. V.
  23.   1992: Oscar for Lifetime Achievement: Satyajit Ray         Narasimha Rao, 21 June 1991 – 16 May 1996
  24.   1992: Indian filmmaker to get Bharat Ratna: Satyajit   17. Non Congress Prime Minister to serve a full term: Atal
        Ray                                                        Bihari Vajpayee
  25.   1995: Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (Order of Arts and 18. Prime Minister from South India: P. V. Narasimha
        Letters) – Actor: Sivaji Ganesan                           Rao, 1991, H.D.Deve Gowda
  26.   2004: Colorized film: Mughal-e-Azam in 2004 (the       19. The first Viceroy of India: Lord Canning, 1858
        original black-and-white version was released in       20. Governor-General of India: Warren Hastings, 1773
        1960)                                                  21. Governor-General of Independent India: Lord
  27.   2004: Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (Order of Arts and     Mountbatten, 1947
        Letters) – Actress: Sharmila Tagore                    22. Indian Governor-General of Indian Union: C
  28.   2006: Film screened at the United Nations: Lage Raho       Rajagopalachari, 1948
        Munna Bhai, on 10 November, directed by Rajkumar       23. Chief Justice of India: H. J. Kania (1947–51)
        Hirani                                                 24. First Sikh Prime Minister: Manmohan Singh (2004–14)
  29.   2008: Actor to enact most roles (10): Kamal Haasan in  25. First Muslim President: Zakir Hussain (1967–69)
        Dasavathaaram                                          26. First Sikh President: Giani Zail Singh
  30.   2009: Music director to win an Oscar and first double  27. Indian ICS Officer: Satyendranath Tagore, 1863
        Oscar winner: A. R. Rahman for Slumdog Millionaire     28. Speaker of Lok Sabha: G. V. Mavlankar (1952–56)
  31.   2009: Actress to enact most roles (12): Priyanka       29. Finance Minister of Independent India: R. K.
        Chopra in What's Your Raashee?                             Shanmukham Chetty (1947–49), for others see First
  32.   2016: First Indian Editor who got recognized by Avid       Nehru ministry
        Editors : GA Gowtham                                   30. Presentation of the first budget after India's
                                                                   Independence: R. K. Shanmukham Chetty on 26
  Governance                                                       November 1947
  1.    First President of the Indian National Congress:       31. First Home Minister of India: Sardar Vallabh Bhai
        Womesh Chandra Bannerjee, 1885                             Patel
  2.    First President of the Indian National Congress of     32. First Indian President to die in Office: Zakir Hussain,
        independent India: Acharya Kripalani, until November       3 May 1969
        1947                                                   33. First Chief Minister to die in Office: C. N. Annadurai,
  3.    President: Dr. Rajendra Prasad (1950–62)                   Tamil Nadu
  4.    The first Chief Election Commissioner: Sukumar Sen     34. First Indian Prime Minister to resign from office:
  5.    First Industries and Supplies Minister: Shyama             Morarji Desai, 1979
        Prasad Mukherjee                                       35. First Prime Minister born after India's independence:
  6.    First person to resign from the Central Cabinet:           Narendra Modi, born 17 September 1950
        Shyama Prasad Mukherjee
  7.    Vice-President: Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan               Science
    
 
  1.    The first president of the inaugural session of the      25. 1975 – First PCM system commissioned between
        Indian Science Congress: Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee in           Mumbai City and Andheri telephone exchanges.
        1914                                                     26. 1976 – First digital microwave junction introduced.
  2.    Hydroelectric plant: Sidrapong near Darjeeling.          27. 1979 – First optical fibre system for local junction
        commissioned in 1897,                                        commissioned at Pune.
  3.    Place to get electricity: Darjeeling in 1897, followed   28. 1980 – First satellite earth station for domestic
        by Calcutta (now Kolkata) in 1898 and Kolar Gold             communications established at Secunderabad,
        Fields in 1902.                                              Telangana
  4.    Man in space: Rakesh Sharma aboard Soyuz T-11, on        29. 1983 – First analog Stored Program Control exchange
        3 April 1984. He was the 138th man in space                  for trunk lines commissioned at Mumbai.
        worldwide.                                               30. 1984 – First Underground Metro Railways System at
  5.    Woman in space: Kalpana Chawla aboard Space                  Calcutta.
        Shuttle Columbia flight STS-87, on 19 November           31. 1984 – C-DOT established for indigenous
        1997. She was a naturalized United States citizen, and       development and production of digital exchanges.
        represented the US during the event.                     32. 1990 – First technology park in India, Technopark,
  6.    Test-tube baby: Durga Agarwal, born 1978                     Trivandrum was launched
  7.    Scientific Expedition to Antarctica: 1981                33. 1995 – First mobile telephone service started on non-
  8.    Nuclear Reactor: Apsara, Mumbai, Maharashtra                 commercial basis on 15 August 1995 in Delhi.
  9.    First Genetically modified food product in India: Bt.    34. 2014 – First country to enter Mars' orbit on their first
        Egg plant Hybrid (Bt. – Bacilius thuringiensis)              attempt with successful launch of Mars Orbiter
  10.   Satellite: Aryabhata, launched on 19 April 1975              Mission (Mangalyaan)
  11.   Satellite dedicated exclusively for educational          35. 2015– First 3D printed humanoid robot in India at A-
        services: EDUSAT                                             SET Training & Research Institutes – Manav (robot)
  12.   Successfully indigenous launch vehicle: SLV-3
  13.   Prospective space tourist: Santhosh George
        Kulangara, proposed in 2009 aboard Virgin Galactic       Medical Science
  14.   Cloned animal: Bhass, sampura                            1.  First graduate in medicine: Surjo Kumar Chakraborty
  15.   In 1850, the first experimental electric telegraph line  2.  First rhinoplasty noted in the world/India: Over Ksatji,
        was started between Kolkata and Diamond Harbor. In           a British soldier by a Kumhar Vaidya.
        1851, it was opened for the use of the British East      3.  First physician in India and second in the world to
        India Company                                                perform the In vitro fertilization: Subhash
  16.   1854: Telegraph service opened to the Public                 Mukhopadhyay.
  17.   First telephone exchange: On 28 January 1882, Major      4.  First in India to receive a fellowship of the
        E. Baring, Member of the Governor General of India's         International Federation for Emergency Medicine –
        Council declared open the Telephone Exchanges in             Dr. K. Hari Prasad
        Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. The exchange in             5.  First Indian to be appointed as the deputy director
        Calcutta named the "Central Exchange", was opened            general of programmes (DDP) of the World Health
        at third floor of the building at 7, Council House           Organization (WHO): Dr. Soumya Swaminathan
        Street, with a total of 93 subscribers. Later that year,
        Bombay also witnessed the opening of a telephone
        exchange.
                                                                 Sports
  18.   1902 – First wireless telegraph station established      1.  Indian to swim across the English Channel: Mihir
        between Sagar Islands and Sandheads.                         Sen, 1958
  19.   1907 – First central battery of telephones introduced    2.  Woman to swim across the English Channel: Arati
        in Kanpur.                                                   Saha, 1959
  20.   1913–1914 – First automatic exchange installed in        3.  Anju Bobby George: First Indian Athlete ever to win a
        Shimla.                                                      Medal in World Championships in Athletics.She Won
  21.   1927 – Radio-telegraph system between the UK and             the Bronze Medal in Long Jump at the 2003 World
        India, with Imperial Wireless Chain beam stations at         Championships in Athletics in Paris.
        Khadki and Daund. Inaugurated by Lord Irwin on 23        4.  Formula One driver: Narain Karthikeyan
        July by exchanging greetings with King George V.         5.  Formula One team: Force India F1
  22.   1933 – Radiotelephone system inaugurated between         6.  A1 GP race victory: Narain Karthikeyan, Zhuhai,
        the UK and India.                                            China, 2007
  23.   1953 – 12 channel carrier system introduced.             7.  Person to equal world record in Archery: Limba Ram,
  24.   1960 – First subscriber trunk dialing route                  1992
        commissioned between Lucknow and Kanpur.
    
 
  8.    Person to walk across the Mongolian Gobi Desert:       12. First Woman to Win an Olympic Silver Medal: P. V.
        Sucheta Kadethankar who achieved the feat in 51            Sindhu in Badminton at the 2016 Summer Olympics
        days, 11 hours and 40 minutes in 2011                  13. First Woman to Win a Medal in Wrestling: Sakshi
  9.    Ashish Kumar, first Indian to win a medal in both          Malik Bronze in the 2016 Summer Olympics
        Asian games( 12 to 27 November November 2010,          14. First Indian Golfer : Aditi Ashok, 2016 Summer
        Guangzhou(China)) and Commonwealth games                   Olympics
        (Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010). He won      15. First Indian female gymnast ever to compete in the
        Bronze medal in both games.                                Olympics: Dipa Karmakar at 2016 Summer Olympics
  10.   Shiva Keshavan, first Indian to win two gold medals
        for India in winter sports at the Asia Cup in Japan in
        2011 and 2012; also a four-time Olympian and has set
        the new Asian speed record on ice at 134.3 km/h and    Chess
        track record of 49.590 seconds
                                                               1.  Chess Grandmaster: Male – Viswanathan Anand,
  11.   Santhi Soundarajan: first World Peace Sports Festival
                                                                   1988
        Ambassador from India and first Indian woman to win
                                                               2.  Chess Women Grandmaster: Female – Bhagyashree
        a medal at Asian Games
                                                                   Thipsay, 1986
  12.   Aanchal Thakur gives India its 1st international
                                                               3.  Female – Koneru Humpy – 2002; also the youngest
        bronze medal in skiing.
                                                                   woman to become a grandmaster, at 15 years old.
  13.   Navjot Kaur became the first Indian woman wrestler
                                                                   (Hou Yifan of China is the youngest woman to
        to win an Asian gold medal.
                                                                   become a grandmaster, at 14 years and 6 months.)
  14.   Vinesh Phogat became the first Indian woman
        wrestler to win an Asian Games gold medal.
  15.   Saina Nehwal became the first Indian woman             Football
        badminton player to win an Asian Games medal.          1.  First Indian footballer to play overseas: Mohammed
                                                                   Salim
  Olympics                                                     2.  First Indian football goalkeeper to play overseas:
                                                                   Subrata Paul
  1.    Olympic Team Medal: Gold in Field Hockey at 1928
                                                               3.  First footballer to be named the Indian footballer of
        Summer Olympics, Amsterdam, beating Netherlands
                                                                   the century (20th century): Pradip Kumar Banerjee
  2.    Individual Medal (in British India): Two Silver Medals
                                                               4.  First Indian as well as an Asian to be declared best
        by Norman Pritchard in 200 metres and 200 metres
                                                                   captains in the world by English FA: Shailen Manna
        Hurdles at the 1900 Summer Olympics, Paris (This is
                                                               5.  First Indian to manage a Bundesliga football club:
        disputed however. The IOC claims he participated for
                                                                   Robin Dutt
        India. The IAAF records him as a participant for Great
                                                               6.  First Indian to be inducted in the AFC Hall of Fame:
        Britain.)
                                                                   Baichung Bhutia
  3.    Individual Medal: Bronze by K. D. Jadhav for
                                                               7.  First Indian to score the fastest goals (third fastest in
        Wrestling at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki
                                                                   the world): I. M. Vijayan
  4.    Medal in Tennis: Leander Paes at the 1996 Summer
        Olympics in Atlanta
  5.    Individual Medal Woman: Bronze by Karnam               Tennis
        Malleswari for Weightlifting 54 kg class, at the 2000  1.  Grand Slam title: Mahesh Bhupathi (partnering with
        Summer Olympics Sydney                                     Japanese Rika Hiraki) in the mixed doubles category
  6.    Individual Gold Medal: Abhinav Bindra in the 10 m Air      of the 1997 French Open
        Rifle event at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.    2.  Woman to win a match in a Grand Slam event:
  7.    Individual Silver Medal (Independent India):               Nirupama Vaidyanathan beat Italian Gloria Pizzichini
        Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore in the Men's Double             in the first round of the 1998 Australian Open
        Trap event at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens       3.  Woman to reach 4th round (highest as of 2009) of a
  8.    Medal in Boxing: Vijender Singh in the Beijing             Grand Slam singles event: Sania Mirza in the singles
        Olympics 2008                                              category of the 2005 US Open
  9.    Medal in Badminton: Saina Nehwal, Bronze in the        4.  Woman to win a Grand Slam title: Sania Mirza
        London Olympics 2012                                       (partnering with Mahesh Bhupathi) in the mixed
  10.   Back to Back Medal: Sushil Kumar, Bronze in the            doubles category of the 2009 Australian Open
        Beijing Olympics 2008 and Silver in the London         5.  Grand Slam junior title: Ramanathan Krishnan in the
        Olympics 2012                                              singles category of the 1954 Wimbledon
  11.   Medal in Boxing Women: MC Mary Kom, Bronze in              Championship
        the London Olympics 2012
    
 
  6.    Grand Slam junior title by a woman: Sania Mirza         18. Hat-trick in an ODI: Chetan Sharma against New
        (partnering with Russian Alisa Kleybanova) in the           Zealand in 1987.
        doubles category of the 2003 Wimbledon                  19. Hat trick in test cricket: Harbhajan Singh against
        Championships                                               Australia in 2001 at Kolkata.
  7.    Yuki Bhambri became the first Indian to win the         20. First World Cup Runners up captain: Sourav Ganguly
        singles in the Junior Australian Open, when he              (2003)
        defeated the Greek Alexandros-Ferdinandos               21. World Cup: At the 1983 World Cup when India beat
        Georgoudas in the final 6–3, 6–1 in the finals in 2009.     West Indies in the finals, under the captaincy of Kapil
  8.    Sania Mirza became the first Indian to reach No. 1          Dev
        doubles WTA ranking.                                    22. Batsman to complete 10,000 runs in Tests: Sunil
                                                                    Gavaskar (first in the world to achieve this feat)
                                                                23. Batsman to complete 10,000 runs in ODIs: Sachin
                                                                    Tendulkar (first in the world to achieve this feat)
  Cricket                                                       24. Winner of the first T20 World Cup: India (in 2007)
                                                                    against Pakistan
  1.    First cricket club in India: Calcutta Cricket and
                                                                25. Cricketer to score 100 centuries in Test and ODIs
        Football Club (1792) in Calcutta (now Kolkata)
                                                                    combined: Sachin Tendulkar (he was the first in the
  2.    First test match played in India: India vs England in
                                                                    World to achieve this feat)
        Eden Gardens, Calcutta (result draw) (5–8 Jan 1934)
                                                                26. First bowler to take all 10 wickets in an innings: Anil
  3.    First Indian captain and the third in history to have
                                                                    Kumble (against Pakistan)
        led his team to victory after being enforced to follow
                                                                27. First batsman to score 50 centuries in Test cricket:
        on, against Steve Waugh's Australia in 2001–02:
                                                                    Sachin Tendulkar
        Sourav Ganguly
                                                                28. First woman to score a double hundred in Test
  4.    First cricket stadium: Eden Gardens in Kolkata
                                                                    cricket: Mithali Raj (214* against New Zealand at
  5.    First test victory: against England At Madras
                                                                    Wellington, 2004); first in the world to achieve this
  6.    Cricket tournament: the Bombay Triangular (1905–
                                                                    feat
        1911) which later became the Bombay Quadrangular
                                                                29. First Indian to score a T20 century: Suresh Raina
        (1912–1936)
                                                                    (India vs South Africa)
  7.    First Indian captain to win more than 21 test matches
                                                                30. Six sixes in an Over: Yuvraj Singh in a T20 match vs
        as a captain: Mahendra Singh Dhoni
                                                                    England
  8.    Test match: against England at Lord's, 25 June 1932
                                                                31. First nation to win a World Cup Finale on its home
  9.    Captain in tests: C. K. Nayudu for the 1932 tour of
                                                                    ground: India (ICC 2011 Cricket World Cup) final held
        England.
                                                                    at Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai
  10.   ODI captain: Ajit Wadekar
                                                                32. Fastest fifty in a T20I: 50 runs off 12 balls by Yuvraj
  11.   Cricketer to score a century in a test match: Lala
                                                                    Singh (vs England in the Inaugural World T20
        Amarnath, 118 against England in December 1933 at
                                                                    Championship held in South Africa, 2007)
        Bombay Gymkhana grounds.
  12.   First Indian to score the highest runs in a World Cup:
        Sourav Ganguly 183 runs vs Sri Lanka in 1999 World      Women in general
        Cup Cricket.                                            1.  First female Monarch in India: Prabhavatigupta (385-
  13.   Cricketer to score a double century in a test match:        405) of Vakataka dynasty
        Polly Umrigar, 223 against New Zealand at Hyderabad     2.  First women's court in India: Malda, West Bengal
        in 1955–56                                              3.  Graduates: Kadambini Ganguly and Chandramukhi
  14.   Cricketer to score a triple century in a test match:        Basu, 1883
        Virender Sehwag, 309 against Pakistan in Multan in      4.  The first woman honours graduate: Kamini Roy, 1886
        2004.                                                   5.  Head of an undergraduate academic institution:
  15.   Indian to score an ODI century: Kapil Dev, 175*             Chandramukhi Basu, 1888
        against Zimbabwe in the 1983 Cricket World Cup.         6.  Honours graduate: Kamini Roy (1886)
  16.   Indian to score an ODI double century is Sachin         7.  Pilot a locomotive engine (train driver): Surekha
        Tendulkar, 200* against South Africa at Gwalior, 24         Yadav
        February 2010 (he was the first in the World to         8.  Chairperson of State Bank of India: Arundhati
        achieve this feat).                                         Bhattacharya
  17.   Indian to score three ODI double centuries and the      9.  Court martialled: Anjali Gupta in 2005
        highest individual runs in ODI is Rohit Sharma, 264     10. Lawyer: Cornelia Sorabjee (1892), also the first female
        against Sri Lanka in 2014.                                  graduate from Bombay University, and the first
                                                                    woman in the world to read law at Oxford
    
 
  11.   Muskan Sethi, 2015 India's first female Professional   45. First woman appointed as the United Nations Civil
        Poker Player                                               Police adviser: Kiran Bedi (2003)
  12.   Photojournalist: Homai Vyarawalla (1913)               46. First woman boxer (in world too) to win a medal in all
  13.   Doctorate of Science: Asima Chatterjee (1944)              six World championships: Mary Kom
  14.   Chief Justice of a High Court (Himachal Pradesh):      47. First and the only Indian golfer to participate in Asian
        Leila Seth, 1991                                           Youth Games (2013), Youth Olympic Games (2014),
  15.   Air Vice Marshal: Padmavathy Bandopadhyay                  Asian Games (2014) and Olympic Games (2016): Aditi
  16.   Supreme Court judge: Justice M. Fathima Beevi              Ashok
  17.   High Court Judge: Anna Chandy
  18.   Woman President of the United Nations General          Women in Governance
        Assembly: Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, 1953                  1.  Indian National Congress President: Annie Besant
  19.   Physician: Kadambini Ganguly, 1886                     2.  President of India: Pratibha Patil, 2007
  20.   Airline Pilot: Durba Banerjee                          3.  Prime Minister of India: Indira Gandhi, 1966
  21.   Space: Kalpana Chawla aboard Space Shuttle             4.  Speaker of the Lok Sabha: Meira Kumar
        Columbia flight STS-87, on 19 November 1997. She       5.  Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha: Margaret Alva
        was a naturalized United States citizen, and           6.  Secretary-General of the Rajya Sabha: V.S. Ramadevi
        represented the US during the event.                   7.  Secretary-General of the Lok Sabha: Snehalata
  22.   Nobel Prize winner: Mother Teresa of calcutta in 1979      Shrivastava
        (Albanian born Indian citizen)                         8.  IPS Officer Kiran Bedi
  23.   To cross English Channel: Aarti Saha                   9.  Cabinet Minister in India: Rajkumari Amrit Kaur
  24.   Monarch of Delhi Sultanate: Razia Sultana (1205–       10. Minister in India: Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit
        1240) of Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi)                      11. Chief Minister: Sucheta Kriplani Uttar Pradesh
  25.   Minister in a government: Rajkumari Amrit Kaur in the  12. Governor: Sarojini Naidu (Governor of Uttar Pradesh,
        Ministry of Health                                         1947–49)
  26.   Speaker of the Lok Sabha: Meira Kumar                  13. Home Minister of a state: Sabitha Indra Reddy,
  27.   Asha Pande, first Indian woman to be the member of         Andhra Pradesh
        Legion of Honour                                       14. Finance Minister of State Government in India: Dr
  28.   Anjali Gopalan, first Tamil woman member of the            Upinderjit Kaur, in Punjab Govt.
        royal French Legion of Honour.                         15. Director General of Police: Kanchan Chaudhary
  29.   Asian Games gold medal winner: Kamlijit Sandhu             Bhattacharya
  30.   Climb Mount Everest: Bachendri Pal, 1984               16. Railway Minister of India: Mamata Banerjee
  31.   Chess Grandmaster: Koneru Humpy, 2002. She was         17. Fully blind IFS officer: Beno Zephine N L
        also the youngest woman in the world to become a       18. To join IFS, to be a diplomat, to become the
        grandmaster, at 15 years old.                              ambassador/High commissioner (also sued the Indian
  32.   To win 1st round match in a Grand Slam event:              government for gender bias): C. B. Muthamma.
        Nirupama Vaidyanathan beat Italian Gloria Pizzichini   19. IPS officer, Assam: Yamin Hazarika
        in the first round of the 1998 Australian Open         20. IPS officer, Sikkim: Aparajita Rai
  33.   To reach 4th round (highest as of 2008) of a Grand     21. IPS officer, Maharashtra: Meera Borvankar
        Slam event: Sania Mirza in the Singles category of the
        2005 US Open.
  34.   Grand Slam junior title: Sania Mirza (partnering with
                                                               States
        Russian Alisa Kleybanova) in the doubles category of   1.  achieve 100% primary education – Kerala 2016
        the 2003 Wimbledon Championships.                      2.  become a fully organic state – Sikkim 2016
  35.   Paris Brest Paris Cycling Event: Divya Tate (44):      3.  unveil retail policy – Andhra Pradesh 2016
        August 2011                                            4.  complete 100% online electoral enrollment – Kerala
  36.   Pilot (Indian Air Force): Harita Kaur Deol             5.  e-auction limestone blocks – Jharkhand 2016
  37.   Pilot (aircraft): Sarla Thakral                        6.  build first gender park – Kerala 2016
  38.   To Cross Gobi Desert: Sucheta Kadethankar (33):        7.  become a 'complete digital state' – Kerala 2016
        2011                                                   8.  World's Largest Community Kitchen (Golden Temple)
  39.   Reach the final of an Olympic event: P. T. Usha            –Amritsar
  40.   IAS officer:Isha Basant Joshi
  41.   Youngest Ultramarathoner to run a 100-mile race        Places
        (Himalayas)                                            1.  First Wi-Fi Jetty in India:- Mandwa Jetty, Alibaug-
  42.   Magasasay Award: Mother Teresa                             Maharashtra launched by 'SmartAd Solutions &
  43.   Bus driver at Delhi Transport Corporation: Sarita          Services LLP'
  44.   Managing director of LIC of India : Usha Sangwan       2.  First partition of Indian state: Bengal
   
 
  3.    First road which is a connected to a Wi-Fi zone:         13. First woman to drive a railway train in India: Surekha
        Rajarhat (connecting Rajarhat Main Arterial Road to          Yadav
        the airport to Sector V in the city of Kolkata with 10.5 14. First female auto-rickshaw driver – Shila Dawre;
        km)                                                          Pune, 1988
  4.    District to achieve a 100% literacy rate: Ernakulam      15. First motor taxi: Mumbai, 1911
        district, Kerala, 1990. Pothanicad in Ernakulam          16. First large scale import of motor cars: relatively large
        district is the first panchayath in India that achieved      contingent of motorcars imported for the Delhi Darbar
        100% literacy.                                               held in 1911 to mark the arrival of King George V
  5.    City/town to achieve a 100% literacy rate: Kottayam,     17. First registration scheme for motor vehicles in India:
        Kerala, 1989                                                 1912
  6.    District to achieve a 100% literacy rate and lowest      18. Arrival of mass production technology makes the
        population growth rate: Pathanamthitta district,             Automobile a practical means of transport by the
        Kerala                                                       1920s and most British officers had cars
  7.    District to be polio-free: Pathanamthitta district,      19. First assembly of motor cars: General Motors sets up
        Kerala                                                       the first assembly unit to assemble cars from
  8.    District to become tobacco-free: Kottayam district,          imported parts in 1928. The National Series AB sedan
        Kerala, 27 September 2008                                    is produced.
  9.    District to become India's 'total electrified district': 20. First manufacture of motor cars: Hindustan Motors
        Palakkad, Kerala, 2011                                       begins production of cars in 1942. Premier
  10.   City to have an e-court: Ahmedabad, 8 February 2009          automobiles and Standard Motors setup. Technology
  11.   City to ranked as the No.1 Indian city for ‘quality of       stagnates as a result of economic autarky as India is
        life’ – Chennai, Tamil Nadu                                  isolated from the rest of the world
  12.   India's first Wi-Fi city: Kolkata                        21. First act leading to liberalization of the Auto sector:
                                                                     Maruti 800 launched in 1983 and the automotive
  Transport                                                          industry is progressively liberalized
  1.    First City to get India's first underwater Metro which   22. First fully indigenous passenger car developed in
        is below the flowing Hooghly River : Kolkata Metro at        India: Tata Indica, launched in 1998
        Kolkata                                                  23. First expressway: Mumbai - Pune Expressway in
  2.    First (Metro) rail to become zone of Indian Railways:        2000,
        Kolkata Metro as the (17Th Zonal Headquarter) (30        24. First major acquisition of a foreign company by an
        December 2010)                                               Indian company: Tata Motors acquires Jaguar and
  3.    First and the only Indian (Metro) rail under Indian          Land Rover in 2007. Mahindra Automotive emerges
        Railways: Kolkata Metro                                      as the top bidder for SsangYong Motor Company in
  4.    First passenger train: between Mumbai and Thane on           2010.
        16 April 1853                                            25. First aeroplane in India: Maharaja of Patiala, 1910
  5.    First suburban railway line: Mumbai Suburban             26. Domestic commercial aviation is born in India in 1911
        Railway in 1857                                              when on 18 February, Henri Piquet, flying a Humber
  6.    First rapid transit (Metro) rail: Kolkata Metro in 1984      biplane, carries mail from Allahabad to Naini
  7.    First motorcar: in 1897, Mr Forster of Crompton              Junction, some six miles away.
        Greaves                                                  27. 1927: India's first airline, Imperial Airways, extends its
  8.    First motorcar in regular use: Francis Spring,               Empire Routes to India, connecting India with the
        Chennai in 1901                                              outside world for the first time through an air
  9.    First Indians to own a motorcar: Jamsetji Tata, with         network. A de Havilland Hercules flies the Cairo-
        Parsi lawyer Rustom Cama, in 1901                            Basra-Karachi-Jodhpur-Delhi route. It is also the first
  10.   First competitive event: Delhi – Bombay trials in 1905       domestic passenger flight to be operated in India.
        at the behest of Lord Curzon and otor Union of               Passengers could be for the first time fly from
        Western India to test the suitability of the Automobile      Karachi to Jodhpur and to Delhi on Imperial Airways.
        for Indian roads and to facilitate interaction between   28. On 10 February 1929, J. R. D. Tata is awarded India's
        the fledging Automobile Industry and prospective             first pilot licence, Pilot Licence No.1 by Federation
        Indian clients                                               Aeronotique International signed by Sir Victor
  11.   Oldest surviving and running cars in India: De Dion          Sasoon on behalf of the Aero Club of India and
        Bouton 1904, Rover 1905                                      Burma.
  12.   First woman to drive a car in India: Eshan Ulla Robet,   29. 1932: Urmila K Parikh becomes the first woman to get
        RD Tata 1905                                                 a pilot licence when she is given a licence by the
                                                                     Aero Club of India and Burma.
    
  
   30.   1932: J. R. D. Tata launches India's first scheduled
         airline, Tata Airlines, by piloting the first flight himself
         from Karachi to Bombay via Ahmedabad on a single-
         engine Puss Moth with a load of airmail.
   31.   2009: India's first electric motorcycle
   Literature and media
   1.    Newspaper: Hicky's Bengal Gazette started in 1780.
   2.    Hindi newspaper: Udant Martand on 30 May 1826;
         published and edited by Jugal Kishore Shukla from
         Calcutta.
   3.    Hindi monthly magazine: Saraswati on 1 January
         1900, started by Chintamani Ghosh in Allahabad
   4.    Exclusive Internet magazine: Bharat Samachar
   Others
   1.    The first Indian to cross English Channel: Mihir Sen
   2.    First practicing barrister of Indian origin: Monomohun
         Ghose
   3.    First Indian as well as an Asian to be called to the bar
         in England: Gnanendramohan Tagore
   4.    First post office opened in India: Kolkata (1727)
   5.    First telegraph message: on 5 November 1850,
         between Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Diamond
         Harbour, a distance of about 50 km.
   6.    Wax statue of a living Indian: Mahatma Gandhi at
         Madame Tussaud's in 1939
   7.    Miss India to participate in Miss Universe: Indrani
         Rahman in the Miss Universe 1952 Pageant at Long
         Beach, California
   8.    India's first woman Merchant Navy Officer: Sonali
         Banerjee
   9.    First woman teacher: Savitribai Phule
   10.   First woman doctor: Anandi Gopal Joshi
   11.   First Indian World No. 1 women's tennis sportsperson
         (doubles): Sania Mirza
   12.   First Indian No. 1 women's badminton player: Saina
         Nehwal
   13.   The first record holder in the field of development of
         eco-innovation: Shripad Vaidya 13 June 2010; Vaidya
         is the first Nagpurian to get two Limca records within
         a year, as the first record holder in the field of
         development of eco-innovation.
   14.   World's first hand written needle book: Madhushala
   15.   Writer of world's first hand written needle book
         (Madhushala): Piyush Goel
   16.   First disabled friendly bank ATM: Union Bank of India
    

Important Question Answers and Notes on Indian Railways
                                                                          
                                                                                           
                                                                                           
        Indian Railways is Asia's largest and the World's second largest
       railway system under single management.                                                 
        The biggest public sector undertaking and the largest single employed in              
       India : Indian Railways
                                                                                           
        Indian Railways is the second biggest electri ed railway system in the
       World after Russia.
                                                                                           
        Indian Railways operate in three different gauges
                                                                                           
               Broad Guage (1676 metre width)
                                                                                           
               Metre Guage (1 metre width)
               Narrow Guage (0.762 metre and 0.610 metre)                                     
        The rst train service in India : Bombay to Thane                                      
        The rst railway service was introduced in : 1853 April 16                             
        The railway was introduced in India by : Lord Dalhousie
                                                                                           
        The rst electric train in India : Deccan Queen (was introduced in 1925
       between Kalyan and Pune).
                                                                                           
        Indian Railways was nationalised in : 1951
        Total Number of Railway zone is ; 17                                                  
                                                                                           
        Total Number of Railway divisions is : 67                                             
                                                                                           
        In 1991, Indian Railways introduced the world's rst hospital on wheels to             
       provide medical aid in rural areas called : Life Line Express (Jeevan                   
                                                                                           
       Rekha)                                                                                  
                                                                                      
                - 
                                                                                           
        The rst private train in India : Palace on Wheels                                     
        The luxurious train that services through the tourist centres of Rajasthan
       Palance on Wheels
        Mass Rapid Transit System was introduced in 1995 in : Chennai                         
                                                                                           
        Railway Staff College is at : Baroda
                                                                                           
                                                                                           
        The online reservation system launched by the State Bank of India (SBI) :
       e-Rail
                                                                                           
        Indian Railways has converted the number of trains into 5 digit from :                
                                                                                           
       December 20, 2010                                                                       
                                                                                           
        First railway station in India : Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus (Mumbai)
                                                                                           
        The railway station which got place in world Heritage site by UNESCO is :             
       Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus                                                             
                                                                                           
        Former name of Shivaji Terminus : Victoria Terminus Station                           
        The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway is a narrow gauge railway in West                    
                                                                                           
       Bengal.                                                                                 
                                                                                           
               It was declared a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1999.                       
        The Nilgiri Mountain Railway is a metre gauge railway in Nilgiri Hills in             
       Tamil Nadu.                                                                             
                                                                                           
                                                                                           
               UNESCO added the Nilgiri Mountain Railway as a World
              heritage site : July 2005
                                                                                           
                                                                                           
        The Kalka-Shimla Railway is a narrow gauge railway in the Shivalik
                                                                                           
       mountains in Himachal Pradesh                                                           
                                                                                           
        Indian Railway museum : Chanakyapuri (Delhi)
                                                                                           
        Highest railway station in India : Ghum Railway Station (Darjeeling)                  
                                                                                           
        World's longest railway platform : Gorakhpur Station (Uttar Pradesh                   
       1350 meters)                                                                            
        The longest distance travelling train in India : Dibragarh Kanyakumari                
                                                                                           
       Vivek Express                                                                           
                                                                                           
               It joins Dibrugarh Town in Assam, North-East India to                          
              Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu which is Southernmost tip of                             
                                                                                               
              mainland India. It travels distance of 4286 kms in 82:30 hrs                     
                                                                                           
              (almost 4 days)                                                                  
                                                                                           
        The train passes through most number of states : Mangalapuram -
                                                                                           
       Jammu Tawi Navayug Express                                                              
                                                                                           
        The state in India which have no railway : Meghalaya                                  
                                                                                           
        Computer Railway Reservation System was introduced by the Indian                      
       Railways in 1988,                                                                       
                                                                                           
        The World's working steam locomotive engine : Fairy Queen (Fairy                      
       Queen runs in India for tourism promotion).                                             
                                                                                           
        Indian Railways celebrated its 150th anniversary on : April 16 2002
                                                                                               
        The Mascot of Indian Railways : The elephant called Bholu which                       
                                                                                           
       represents the work of a guard                                                          
                                                                                           
        The largest Railway zone : Northern Railway
                                                                                               
        The headquarters of Indian Railways : Baroda House (New Delhi)                        
        The Luxurious train that services through the tourist centres of                      
                                                                                           
       Maharashtra : Deccan Odyssey
        The train that services through the tourist centres of Gujarat and
       Rajasthan : Royal Orient train
        Train connecting popular tourist destinations in Karnataka and Goa :                                                               
       Golden Chariot
        The latest most luxurious train in India : Maharajas (Mumbai - Delhi)
                                                                   
                - 
        The luxury tourist train launched in January 2009 following the success of
                                                                                                                          Woke Morjim
       the Palace on wheels : Royal Rajasthan on wheels
                                                                                                                          ₹965
        Passenger train service connecting New Delhi with other state capitals
       introduced in 1969 : Rajdhani Express.
        The train service started to commemorate the centenary of Pandit
       Jawahar Lal Nehru's birthday in 1988 : Shatabdi Train
                                                                                                                                Learn more
        Shatabdi Train was rst operated from New Delhi to Gwalior, later
                                                                                                                          Sandpiper Hotel @
       extended to Jhansi and then nally to Bhopal.
                                                                                                                          Little India
        The tourist train connecting historical Buddhist pilgrim sites : Buddha                                          ₹2,380
       Parikrama Express.
        Budha Parikrama Express was introduced in : 1999
        The train service connecting historical Sikh Pilgrim sites : Guru
                                                                                                                                Learn more
       Parikarma Express
                                                                                                                          LetsBunk Poshtel
        India's fastest train : Gatimaan Express between New Delhi and Agra (It
                                                                                                                          ₹1,183
       travels at a maximum speed of 160 per hour) introduced in June 2014.
        Long distance non stop trains run by the Indian railways : Duronto
       Express
        India's slowest train : Nilgiri Express (speed 10km/hr)
                                                                                                                                Learn more
        The AIDS/HIV awareness campaign train by the Indian Railway : Red
       Ribbon Express
        The train service that connects important historical and educational
                                                                                                         Use code: IHSURPRISE40
       places in various parts of the country : Janam Bhoomi Gaurav
        The train service started to commemorate the 150th birth anniversary of              LABELS
       Swami Vivekananda : Vivek Express
                                                                                                Computer        Current Affairs      Download
               Vivek Express runs between : D.Brugarh in Assam and
                                                                                                English      General Knowledge
              Kanyakumari
                                                                                                Geography        Government Schemes
        The train service started to commemorate the 100th birth anniversary of
       Mother Theresa : Mother Express                                                          History      Miscellaneous
        The exhibition train service started to commemorate the 150th birth                    Model Papers        Personalities
       anniversary of Rabindra Nath Tagore : Sanskrit Express
                                                                                                Previous Question Paper         Science
        First superfast train in India : Delhi-Howrah Rajadhani Express
                                                                                                Study Material      Syllabus
        First Double Decker express train in India : Howrah - Dhanbad
                                                                                                Tips And Tricks      Videos
        First Ac Double Decker express in South India : Chennai - Bangalore
        An education tourist train connecting important places related to
       freedom movement : Azadi Express (introduced in 2014)
        The train service introduced in railway budget 2014 to set up cabins
       equipped with computers, printers, internet and refreshment in a few
       coaches of selected trains : Of ce on Wheels
        The service provided to train passengers to       le FIR from any places
       during or after travel Zero FIR.
        The monthly magazine of Indian Railways : Indian Rail
        Longest Rail Bridge in India : Vembanad Rail Bridge
               It connects Edappally and Vallapadam in Kochi
        The name given to Railways drinking water Project : Railneer
        India;s longest railway tunnel : Pirpanjal tunnel in J&K (11 Kms)
        The train that runs between Delhi (India) and Lahore (Pakistan) :
       Samjhauta Express
        The train connecting karachi (Pakistan) and Jodhpur (India) : Thar
       Express
                                                                                                                                      
        The train that connect India's Kolkata and Bangladesh Dhaka : Maitree
       Express
                                                             
                 - 
               It has been revived on April 14, 2008 after being closed for 43
              years.
        Indian Railway Catering & Tourism Corporation (IRCTC) Headquarters :
       New Delhi
        IRTC was incorporated on September 27, 1999
        It handles catering, tourism and online ticketing operation of the
       railway.
        The most expensive luxury train in the world : Maharaja Express
               It is operated by IRCTC
               It covers more than 12 destinations across North-West and
              Central India.
        Fourth Rail manufacturing factory will be set up in Palakkad, Kerala on a
       Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode.
               It would use Japanese Technology for the rst time in India to
              roll out lighter coaches consuming less fuel.
        First Railway Minister : John Mathai
        First Women Railway Minister : Mamta Banerjee
        First Woman Station Master in India : Rinku Sinha Roy
        India's First woman passenger train driver : Surekha Yadav on Mumbai
       Central Railway
        The Konkan Railway, the 760 km rail system. It links Mangalore with
       Roha in Maharashtra.
        Konkan railway started functioning in : 1998 January 26
        Konkan railway was built under the leadership of : E Sreedharan
        E Sreedharan is popularly known as : Metro Man
        First chairman and MD of Konkan railway : E Sreedharan
        States through which Konkan railway pass : Maharashtra, Goa,
       Karnataka
        The service of Konkan railway where loaded trucks are directly carried by
       railway wagons to their destination : RoRo (Roll on Roll off)
        Headquarters of Konkan Railway : Belapur (Navi Mumbai)
        First Metro Rail in India : Calcutta (opened 1984-85)
        The Second Metro Rail system was built in : New Delhi (2002)
        The Metro Known as Namma Metro : Bangalore Metro
        Namma Metro was inaugurated on : October 20, 2011
        Mumbai Metro Rail Project was stated in : June 8th 2014
        India's rst Public Private Partnership (PPP) Metro Project (in which the
       three phases. The Construction, Operation and Maintenance were given to
       private players) : Mumbai Metro
        The rst Metro train to be built in Inida : Movia
        Metro railway in Kerala under construction : Kochi Metro (Aluva-
       Pettah, Ernakulam)
        The name of Kochi metro project : Komet
        India's     rst fully privately funded metro project : Gurgaon's Rapid
       metro
               It started functioning from : November 2013
        The cities in Kerala proposed           for the    light metro    project :
       Thiruvananthapuram, Kozhikode                                                                                         
        First monorial in India : Mumbai
        Mumbai monorail was started in : 2014 February 1



Kerala PSC - Awards and Instituted Years

          
SL         Prize/Award/Medal         Instituted        First Recipient
01. Nobel Prize                      1901       Frédéric Passy & Henry Dunant
02. Pulitzer Prize                   1917       Jean Jules Jusserand
03. Oscar Award                      1929       --
04. Sahitya Akademi Award (Mal)      1954       R Narayana Panikkar 1954
                                                C. Rajagopalachari
05. Bharat Ratna                     1954       Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
                                                C. V. Raman
                                                Satyendra Nath Bose
                                                Nandalal Bose
                                                Zakir Husain
06. Padma Vibhushan                  1954
                                                Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher
                                                V. K. Krishna Menon
                                                Jigme Dorji Wangchuck
07. Padma Bhushan                    1954       --
08. Padma Shri                       1954       --
09. Grammy Award                     1959       --
10. Param Vishisht Seva Medal (PVSM) 1960       --
11. Jnanpith Award                   1961       G. Sankara Kurup
12. Arjuna Award                     1961       --
13. Ati Vishist Seva Medal (AVSM)    1961       --
14. Ashoka Chakra                    1967       --
15. Kirti Chakra                     1967       --
16. Shaurya Chakra                   1967       --
                                                P. H. Newby
                                                Barry England
17. Man Booker Prize                 1969
                                                Nicholas Mosley
                                                Iris Murdoch
                                       Muriel Spark
                                       Gordon Williams
18. Saraswati Samman           1991    Harivanshrai Bachchan
19. Khel Ratna Award           1991-92 Viswanathan Anand
                                       Bhalachandra Bhaskar Bhagwat
20. Dronacharya Award          1985    Om Prakash Bhardwaj
                                       O. M. Nambiar
21. Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize 1995    Julius K Nyerere
                                       Shahuraj Birajdar
22. Dhayanchand Award          2002    Ashok Diwan
                                       Aparna Ghosh

Chief Minister and Council of Ministers in Kerala
                Name                                        Designation
          Pinarayi Vijayan                                  Chief Minister
                                   Minister for Welfare of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes an
              A. K. Balan
                                     Backward Classes, Law, Culture and Parliamentary Affairs
        E. Chandrasekharan                       Minister for Revenue and Housing
              K. T. Jaleel          Minister for Local Self Governments, Welfare of Minorities,
                                                      Wakf and Haj Pilgrimage
     Kadakampally Surendran             Minister for Co-operation, Tourism and Devaswoms        
                                                                                                
             M. M. Mani                                Minister for Electricity
        Mathew T. Thomas                            Minister for Water Resources
                                                        Minister for Fisheries,
       J. Mercykutty Amma                                                                       
                                             Harbour Engineering and Cashew Industry
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
            A. C. Moideen                 Minister for Industries, Sports and Youth Affairs
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
             Adv. K. Raju                Minister for Forests, Animal Husbandry and Zoos
                                                                                                
           Ramachandran                             Minister for Ports, Museums,
           Kadannappally                              Archaeology and Archives                  
                                                                                                
        T. P. Ramakrishnan                         Minister for Labour and Excise
                                                                                                
      Prof. C. Raveendranath                            Minister for Education                  
                                                                                                
          A. K. Saseendran                              Minister for Transport
                                                                                                
       K. K. Shailaja Teacher                   Minister for Health and Social Justice
                                                                                                
           G. Sudhakaran                     Minister for Public Works and Registration         
                                                                                                
      Adv. V. S. Sunil Kumar                           Minister for Agriculture
                                                                                                
           P. Thilothaman                        Minister for Food and Civil Supplies           
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
      Dr. T. M. Thomas Isaac                        Minister for Finance and Coir

Indian Government Welfare Schemes
One Nation, One Ration Card
Stand Up India Loan Scheme
                                                                                      
Gangajal Delivery Scheme
National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS)
Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
She Pad Scheme                                                                        
National Pension Scheme (NPS)                                                         
Atal Pension Yojana
                                                                                      
Atal Jan Ahar Yojna                                                                   
Atal Bhujal Yojana                                                                    
80 Important Question and Answers on Social Welfare Schemes
Kudumbashree                                                                          
Deen Dayal SPARSH Yogana                                                              
Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana
One Rank One Pension Scheme (OROP)                                                    
Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana                                                        
Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (PMSMA)
Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY)
                                                                                      
Pradhan Mantri Nai Manzil Yojana (PMNMY)                                              
Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY)
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana(PMFBY)                                               
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY)
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Antyodaya Yojana                                                 
Pradhan mantri Ujjawala yojana                                                        
Make In India
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushal Yojana
                                                                                      
Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY)                                                     
Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana (VKY)
Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao Yojana
                                                                                      
Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission                                                 
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
Vidyanjali Yojana
Indian Railways Passenger Travel Insurance Scheme
                                                                                      
smart Ganga City Project                                                               



List of Chief Ministers of Kerala 
                                                                            
                Name                   From              To                 Part
       E. M. S. Namboodiripad        05/04/1957      31/07/1959              CPI
            President Rule           31/07/1959      22/02/1960
         Pattom Thanupillai          22/02/1960      26/09/1962      Praja Socialist Party
               R. Sankar             26/09/1962      10/09/1964              INC
            President Rule           10/09/1964      06/03/1967
                                                                                
       E. M. S. Namboodiripad        06/03/1967      01/11/1969              CPM
          C. Achutha Menon           01/11/1969      01/08/1970              CPI
            President Rule           01/08/1970      04/10/1970
                                                                                
                                                                                
                                                                                
          C. Achutha Menon           04/10/1970      25/03/1977              CPI
                                                                                
            K. Karunakaran           25/03/1977      25/04/1977              INC
                                                                                
              A.K. Antony            27/04/1977      27/10/1978              INC
                                                                                
         P. K. Vasudevan Nair        29/10/1978      07/10/1979              CPI
                                                                                
        C. H. Mohammed Koya          12/10/1979      01/12/1979              MUL
                                                                                
            President Rule           01/12/1979      25/01/1980                 
             E. K. Nayanar           25/01/1980      20/10/1981              CPM
                                                                                
            K. Karunakaran           29/12/1981      17/03/1982              INC
                                                                                
                                                                                
            K. Karunakaran           24/05/1982      25/03/1987              INC
                                                                                
             E. K. Nayanar           26/03/1987      17/06/1991              CPM
                                                                                
                                                                                
            K. Karunakaran           24/06/1991      16/03/1995              INC

            A.K. Antony           22/03/1995     09/05/1996             INC
                                                                                
                                                                                
                                                                                
            E. K. Nayanar         20/05/1996     13/05/2001             CPM     
                                                                                
                                                                                
            A.K. Antony           17/05/2001     29/08/2004             INC
                                                                                
                                                                                
                                                                                
         Oommen Chandy            31/08/2004     18/05/2006             INC     
                                                                                
                                                                                
        V.S. Achuthanandan        18/05/2006     14/05/2011             CPM
                                                                                
                                                                                
                                                                                
         Oommen Chandy            18/05/2011     25/05/2016             INC
                                                                                
                                                                                
          Pinarayi Vijayan        25/05/2016       Present              CPM     
                                                                                

List of Countries  Capitals  Currency
  Country                   Capital                       Currency
   Afghanistan           Kabul                          Afghan Afghani
   Albania               Tirane                         Albanian Lek                    
                                                                                        
   Algeria               Algiers                        Algerian Dinar                  
                                                                                        
   Andorra               Andorra la Vella               Euro
                                                                                        
   Angola                Luanda                         Angolan Kwanza
                                                                                        
   Antigua and           Saint John’s                   East Caribbean dollar
   Barbuda                                                                              
   Argentina             Buenos Aires                   Argentine Peso                  
   Armenia               Yerevan                        Armenian Dram                   
   Australia             Canberra                       Australian dollar               
                                                                                        
   Austria               Vienna                         Euro
   Azerbaijan            Baku                           Manat                           
   Bahamas               Nassau                         Bahamian dollar                 
                                                                                        
   Bahrain               Manama                         Bahrain dinar
                                                                                        
   Bangladesh            Dhaka                          Bangladeshi Taka
                                                                                        
   Barbados              Bridgetown                     Barbados dollar
                                                                                        
                                                                                        
   Belarus               Minsk                          Belorussian ruble
                                                                                        
   Belgium               Brussels                       Euro

  Belize              Belmopan                     Belize dollar                        
                                                                                        
  Benin               Porto-Novo                   West African CFA Franc               
                                                                                        
  Bhutan              Thimphu                      Ngultrum, Indian rupee               
                                                                                        
  Bolivia             La Paz                       Bolivian boliviano                   
                                                                                        
  Bosnia and          Sarajevo                     Marka
                                                                                        
  Herzegovina                                                                           
                                                                                        
  Botswana            Gaborone                     Botswana Pula                        
                                                                                        
                                                                                        
  Brazil              Brasilia                     Brazilian Real                       
                                                                                        
  Brunei              Bandar Seri Begawan          Brunei dollar
                                                                                        
                                                                                        
  Bulgaria            So a                         Bulgarian Lev                        
                                                                                        
  Burkina Faso        Ouagadougou                  CFA Franc                            
                                                                                        
  Burundi             Bujumbura                    Burundi franc                        
                                                                                        
                                                                                        
  Cambodia            Phnom Penh                   Cambodian Riel                       
                                                                                        
  Cameroon            Yaounde                      CFA Franc                            
                                                                                        
                                                                                        
  Canada              Ottawa                       Canadian dollar                      
                                                                                        
  Cape Verde          Praia                        Cape Verdean escudo                  
                                                                                        
  Central African     Bangui                       CFA Franc                            
  Republic                                                                              
  Chad                N’Djamena                    CFA Franc                            
                                                                                        
                                                                                        
  Chile               Santiago                     Chilean Peso                         
                                                                                        
                                                                                        
  China               Beijing                      Yuan/Renminbi
                                                                                        
                                                                                        
  Colombia            Bogota                       Colombian Peso
                                                                                        
                                                                                        
  Comoros             Moroni                       Franc                                
                                                                                        
  Congo               Brazzaville                  CFA Franc                            
                                                                                        
  Costa Rica          San Jose                     Colón                                
                                                                                        
  Cote d’Ivoire       Yamoussoukro                 CFA Franc                            
                                                                                        
                                                                                        
  Croatia             Zagreb                       Kuna                                 
                                                                                        
  Cuba                Havana                       Cuban Peso                           
                                                                                        
                                                                                        
  Cyprus              Nicosia                      Cyprus pound                         
                                                                                        
                                                                                        
  Czech Republic      Prague                       Koruna
                                                                                        
                                                                                        
  Denmark             Copenhagen                   Krone                                
                                                                                        
  Djibouti            Djibouti                     Djibouti franc                       
                                                                                        
  Dominica            Roseau                       East Caribbean dollar                
                                                                                        
  Dominican           Santo Domingo                Dominican Peso                       
  Republic                                                                              
  East Timor          Dili                         U.S. dollar                          
                                                                                        
  (Timor-Leste)                                                                         
                                                                                        
  Ecuador             Quito                        U.S. dollar                          

  Egypt                Cairo                        Egyptian pound
  El Salvador          San Salvador                 Colón, U.S. dollar
  Equatorial Guinea Malabo                          CFA Franc
  Eritrea              Asmara                       Nakfa
  Estonia              Tallinn                      Kroon
  Ethiopia             Addis Ababa                  Birr
  Fiji                 Suva                         Fiji dollar
  Finland              Helsinki                     Euro
  France               Paris                        Euro
  Gabon                Libreville                   CFA Franc
  Gambia               Banjul                       Dalasi
  Georgia              Tbilisi                      Lari
  Germany              Berlin                       Euro
  Ghana                Accra                        Cedi
  Greece               Athens                       Euro (formerly drachma)
                                                                                        
  Grenada              Saint George’s               East Caribbean dollar
                                                                                        
  Guatemala            Guatemala City               Quetzal
                                                                                        
  Guinea-Bissau        Bissau                       CFA Franc                           
  Guyana               Georgetown                   Guyanese dollar                     
                                                                                        
  Haiti                Port-au-Prince               Gourde
                                                                                        
  Honduras             Tegucigalpa                  Lempira
                                                                                        
  Hungary              Budapest                     Forint                              
  Iceland              Reykjavik                    Icelandic króna
  India                New Delhi                    Rupee
  Indonesia            Jakarta                      Rupiah
  Iran                 Tehran                       Iranian Rial
  Iraq                 Baghdad                      Iraqi Dinar
  Ireland              Dublin                       Euro (formerly Irish pound
                                                    [punt])
  Israel               Jerusalem*                   Israeli new Shekel
  Italy                Rome                         Euro (formerly lira)
  Jamaica              Kingston                     Jamaican dollar
  Japan                Tokyo                        Japanese Yen
  Jordan               Amman                        Jordanian dinar
                                                                                        
  Kazakhstan           Astana                       Tenge
  Kenya                Nairobi                      Kenya shilling

  Kiribati            Tarawa Atoll                 Australian dollar
  Korea, North        Pyongyang                    Won
  Korea, South        Seoul                        Won
  Kosovo              Pristina                     Euro (German Mark prior
                                                   to 2002)
  Kuwait              Kuwait City                  Kuwaiti dinar
  Kyrgyzstan          Bishkek                      Som
  Latvia              Riga                         Lats
  Lebanon             Beirut                       Lebanese pound
  Lesotho             Maseru                       Maluti
  Liberia             Monrovia                     Liberian dollar
  Libya               Tripoli                      Libyan dinar
  Liechtenstein       Vaduz                        Swiss franc
  Lithuania           Vilnius                      Litas
  Luxembourg          Luxembourg                   Euro (formerly
                                                   Luxembourg franc)
  Macedonia           Skopje                       Denar
  Madagascar          Antananarivo                 Malagasy franc
  Malawi              Lilongwe                     Kwacha
  Malaysia            Kuala Lumpur                 Ringgit
  Maldives            Male                         Ru ya
  Mali                Bamako                       CFA Franc
  Malta               Valletta                     Maltese lira
  Marshall Islands    Majuro                       U.S. Dollar
  Mauritania          Nouakchott                   Ouguiya
  Mauritius           Port Louis                   Mauritian rupee
  Mexico              Mexico City                  Mexican peso
  Moldova             Chisinau                     Leu
  Monaco              Monaco                       Euro
  Mongolia            Ulaanbaatar                  Tugrik
  Montenegro          Podgorica                    Euro
  Morocco             Rabat                        Dirham
  Mozambique          Maputo                       Metical
  Myanmar (Burma) Naypyidaw                        Kyat                                 
  Namibia             Windhoek                     Namibian dollar
  Nepal               Kathmandu                    Nepalese rupee

  Netherlands         Amsterdam                    Euro
  New Zealand         Wellington                   New Zealand dollar
  Nicaragua           Managua                      Gold cordoba
  Niger               Niamey                       CFA Franc
  Nigeria             Abuja                        Naira
  Norway              Oslo                         Norwegian krone
  Oman                Muscat                       Omani rial
  Pakistan            Islamabad                    Pakistani rupee
  Palau               Melekeok                     U.S. dollar
  Panama              Panama City                  balboa; U.S. dollar
  Papua New Guinea Port Moresby                    Kina
  Paraguay            Asuncion                     Guaraní
  Peru                Lima                         Nuevo sol
  Philippines         Manila                       Peso
  Poland              Warsaw                       Zloty
  Portugal            Lisbon                       Euro (formerly escudo)
  Qatar               Doha                         Qatari riyal
  Romania             Bucharest                    Leu
  Russia              Moscow                       Ruble
  Rwanda              Kigali                       Rwanda franc
  San Marino          San Marino                   Euro
  Sao Tome and        Sao Tome                     Dobra
  Principe
  Saudi Arabia        Riyadh                       Riyal
  Senegal             Dakar                        CFA Franc
  Serbia              Belgrade                     Yugoslav dinar
  Seychelles          Victoria                     Seychelles rupee
  Sierra Leone        Freetown                     Leone
  Singapore           Singapore                    Singapore dollar
  Slovakia            Bratislava                   Koruna
                                                   Slovenian tolar; euro (as
  Slovenia            Ljubljana                    of 1/1/07)
  Solomon Islands     Honiara                      Solomon Islands dollar
  Somalia             Mogadishu                    Somali shilling                      
  South Africa        Cape Town                    Rand
  South Sudan         Juba                         Sudanese Pound

  Spain               Madrid                       Euro (formerly peseta)
  Sri Lanka           Colombo                      Sri Lankan rupee
  Sudan               Khartoum                     Sudanese pound
  Suriname            Paramaribo                   Surinamese dollar
                                                   Swazi lilangeni, South
  Swaziland           Lobamba, Mbabane             African rand
  Sweden              Stockholm                    Swedish krona
  Switzerland         Bern                         Swiss franc
  Syria               Damascus                     Syrian pound
  Taiwan              Taipei                       New Taiwan dollar
  Tajikistan          Dushanbe                     Tajikistani somoni
  Tanzania            Dar es Salaam                Tanzanian shilling
  Thailand            Bangkok                      Thai baht
  Togo                Lome                         CFA Franc
  Tonga               Nuku’alofa                   Pa’anga
  Trinidad and                                     Trinidad and Tobago
  Tobago              Port-of-Spain                dollar
  Tunisia             Tunis                        Tunisian dinar
  Turkey              Ankara                       Turkish lira (YTL)
  Turkmenistan        Ashgabat                     Manat
  Tuvalu              Vaiaku village, Funafuti     Australian dollar
                      province
  Uganda              Kampala                      Ugandan shilling
  Ukraine             Kyiv                         Ukrainian Hryvnia
  United Arab
  Emirates            Abu Dhabi                    U.A.E. dirham
  United Kingdom      London                       Pound sterling
  United States of    Washington D.C.              United states Dollar
  America
  Uruguay             Montevideo                   Uruguay peso
  Uzbekistan          Tashkent                     Uzbekistani sum
  Vanuatu             Port-Vila                    Vatu
  Vatican City        Vatican City                 Euro
  Venezuela           Caracas                      Venezuelan bolívar
  Yemen               Sanaa                        Yemeni Rial
  Zambia              Lusaka                       Kwacha
  Zimbabwe            Harare                       Zimbabwean dollar                    


List of IPL Records and Statistics
                                               Most Runs Overall
                          Batsman                      Innings         Runs           Span
                                                                                                     
                       Virat Kohli (IND)                   169          5412       2008–2019         
                                                                                                     
                      Suresh Raina (IND)                   189          5368       2008–2019
                                                                                                     
                      Rohit Sharma (IND)                   183          4898       2008–2019      
                                                                                                  
                      David Warner (AUS)                   126          4706       2009–2019
                                                                                                  
                     Shikhar Dhawan (IND)                  158          4579       2008–2019      
                                            Highest individual score                                                 
                              Batsman                        Runs        Balls        Season
                                                                                                  
                           Chris Gayle (WI)                   175*         66           2013      
                                                                                                  
                       Brendon McCullum (NZ)                  158*         73           2008
                                                                                                  
                          AB de Villiers (SA)                 133*         59           2015      
                                                                                                  
                          AB de Villiers (SA)                 129*         52           2016
                                                                                                  
                           Chris Gayle (WI)                   128*         62           2012
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                              Fastest centuries                                                        
                                    Batsman                         Balls          Season         
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                Chris Gayle (WI)                      30              2013
                                                                                                  
                
                                                                                                  
                             Yusuf Pathan (IND)                 37              2010              
                               David Miller (SA)                38              2013
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                            Adam Gilchrist (AUS)                42              2008              
                                                                                                  
                              AB de Villiers (SA)               43              2016
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                                    Fastest Fifties                                                          
                                                                                                  
                                  Batsman                     Balls           Season              
                                                                                                  
                                KL Rahul (IND)                  14              2018              
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                               Sunil Narine (WI)                15              2017
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                             Yusuf Pathan (IND)                 15              2014              
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                              Suresh Raina (IND)                16              2014              
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                             Hardik Pandya (IND)                17              2019              
                                                                                                  
                              Ishan Kishan (IND)                17              2018              
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                               Sunil Narine (WI)                17              2018
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                             Kieron Pollard (WI)                17              2016              
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                               Chris Morris (SA)                17              2016              
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                            Adam Gilchrist (AUS)                17              2009              
                                                                                                  
                                Chris Gayle (WI)                17              2013              
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                                          Most Wickets                                                             
                                                                                                  
                         Bowler                   Innings      Wickets           span
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                    Lasith Malinga (SL)              122          170          2009-2019          
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                    Amit Mishra (IND)                147          157          2008-2019          
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                  Harbhajan Singh (IND)              157          150          2008-2017          
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                   Piyush Chawla (IND)               128          126          2008-2019          
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                    Dwayne Bravo (WI)                131          147          2008-2019
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
                                        List of hat-tricks                                                       
                                                                                                  
   No.                               Bowler                  Opposition          Season
    1.                     Lakshmipathy Balaji (IND)             KXIP              2008
                                                                                                  
    2.                          Amit Mishra (IND)                 DC               2008
    3.                         Makhaya Ntini (SA)                KKR               2008

    4.                           Yuvraj Singh (IND)                  RCB                  2009
    5.                          Rohit Sharma (IND)                    MI                  2009
    6.                           Yuvraj Singh (IND)                   DC                  2009
    7.                         Praveen Kumar (IND)                    RR                  2010
    8.                           Amit Mishra (IND)                   KXIP                 2011
    9.                          Ajit Chandila (IND)                  PWI                  2012
   10.                           Sunil Narine (WI)                   KXIP                 2013
   11.                           Amit Mishra (IND)                   PWI                  2013
   12.                          Pravin Tambe (IND)                   KKR                  2014
   13.                          Shane Watson (AUS)                   SRH                  2014
                                                                                                  
   14.                            Axar Patel (IND)                    GL                  2016
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
   15.                          Samuel Badree (WI)                    MI                  2017
                                                                                                  
   16.                           Andrew Tye (AUS)                    RPS                  2017    
                                                                                                  
   17.                         Jaydev Unadkat (IND)                  SRH                  2017
                                                                                                  
                                                                                                  
   18.                           Sam Curran (ENG)                     DC                  2019
                                                                                                  
   19.                          Shreyas Gopal (IND)                  RCB                  2019
Results summary
  Season           Winner                        Runner-up              Player of the Series
    2008       Rajasthan Royals              Chennai Super Kings          Shane Watson (Aus)
    2009       Deccan Chargers           Royal Challengers Bangalore     Adam Gilchrist (Aus)
    2010     Chennai Super Kings               Mumbai Indians           Sachin Tendulkar (Ind)
    2011     Chennai Super Kings         Royal Challengers Bangalore        Chris Gayle (WI)
    2012     Kolkata Knight Riders           Chennai Super Kings           Sunil Narine (WI)
    2013       Mumbai Indians                Chennai Super Kings          Shane Watson (Aus)
    2014     Kolkata Knight Riders             Kings XI Punjab           Glenn Maxwell (Aus)
    2015       Mumbai Indians                Chennai Super Kings           Andre Russell (WI)
    2016     Sunrisers Hyderabad         Royal Challengers Bangalore        Virat Kohli (Ind)
    2017       Mumbai Indians              Rising Pune Supergiant           Ben Stokes (Eng)
    2018     Chennai Super Kings             Sunrisers Hyderabad           Sunil Narine (WI)
                                                                                                     
    2019       Mumbai Indians                Chennai Super Kings           Andre Russell (WI)
                                          Highest Totals

    Score                      Team                            Opponent              Season
    263/5           Royal Challengers Bangalore            Pune Warriors India         2013
    248/3           Royal Challengers Bangalore                Gujarat Lions           2016
    246/5               Chennai Super Kings                  Rajasthan Royals          2010
    245/1               Kolkata Knight Riders                Kings XI Punjab           2018
    240/5               Chennai Super Kings                  Kings XI Punjab           2008
                                          Lowest Totals
   Score                   Team                              Opponent                 Season
     49         Royal Challengers Bangalore             Kolkata Knight Riders           2017
     58               Rajasthan Royals              Royal Challengers Bangalore         2009
     66               Delhi Daredevils                     Mumbai Indians               2017
     67               Delhi Daredevils                     Kings XI Punjab              2017
     67            Kolkata Knight Riders                   Mumbai Indians               2008
                                  Highest successful run chases
   Score                 Team                            Opponent                    Season
    217/7          Rajasthan Royals                    Deccan Chargers                 2008
    214/3          Delhi Daredevils                     Gujarat Lions                  2017
    211/4           Kings XI Punjab                  Sunrisers Hyderabad               2014
    208/5        Chennai Super Kings             Royal Challengers Bangalore           2012
    207/5        Chennai Super Kings             Royal Challengers Bangalore           2018
    206/4           Kings XI Punjab                 Chennai Super Kings                2014

List of Miss World Winners 
                                                                                          
         List of Miss World Winners                                
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
    Year        Title                     Name                       Country
    2019  Miss World Of 2019         Toni-Ann Singh                   Jamaica
    2018  Miss World Of 2018          Vanessa Ponce                   Mexico      
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
    2017  Miss World Of 2017        Manushi Chhillar                   India
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
    2016  Miss World Of 2016       Stephanie Del Valle              Puerto Rico
                                                                                  
    2015  Miss World Of 2015         Mireia Lalaguna                   Spain
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
    2014  Miss World Of 2014          Rolene Strauss                South Africa
                                                                                  
    2013  Miss World Of 2013           Megan Young                      US        
                                                                                  
    2012  Miss World Of 2012            Yu Wenxia                      China
                                                                                  
    2011  Miss World Of 2011           Ivian Sarcos                  Venezuela
                                                                                  
    2010  Miss World Of 2010         Alexandria Mills                   US        
                                                                                  
    2009  Miss World Of 2009         Kaiane Aldorino                 Gibraltar
                                                                                  
    2008  Miss World Of 2008        Ksenia Sukhinova                   Russia     
                                                                                  
    2007  Miss World Of 2007           Zhang Zilin                     China
  2006   Miss World Of 2006        Taťána Kuchařová            Czechoslovakia
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  2005   Miss World Of 2005    Unnur Birna Vilhjálmsdóttir        Iceland         
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  2004   Miss World Of 2004       María Julia Mantilla               Peru
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  2003   Miss World Of 2003         Rosanna Davison                Ireland        
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  2002   Miss World Of 2002             Azra Akın               Netherlands
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  2001   Miss World Of 2001          Agbani Darego                Nigeria
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  2000   Miss World Of 2000         Priyanka Chopra                 India         
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1999   Miss World Of 1999          Yukta Mookhey                  India
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1998   Miss World Of 1998           Linor Abargil                 Israel        
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1997   Miss World Of 1997           Diana Hayden                  India
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1996   Miss World Of 1996            Irene Skliva                Greece         
                                                                                  
  1995   Miss World Of 1995       Jacqueline Aguilera            Venezuela        
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1994   Miss World Of 1994           Aishwarya Rai                 India
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1993   Miss World Of 1993            Lisa Hanna                 Jamaica
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1992   Miss World Of 1992        Julia Kourotchkina           Soviet Union      
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1991   Miss World Of 1991           Ninibeth Leal              Venezuela        
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1990   Miss World Of 1990           Gina Tolleson                   US
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1989   Miss World Of 1989         Aneta Kręglicka                Poland
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1988   Miss World Of 1988        Linda Pétursdóttir             Iceland
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1987   Miss World Of 1987        Ulla Weigerstorfer             Austria         
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1986   Miss World Of 1986          Giselle Laronde        Trinidad and Tobago   
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1985   Miss World Of 1985      Hólmfríður Karlsdóttir           Iceland
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1984   Miss World Of 1984      Astrid Carolina Herrera         Venezuela
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1983   Miss World Of 1983         Sarah-Jane Hutt                Britain        
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1982   Miss World Of 1982         Mariasela Álvarez       Dominican Republic    
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1981   Miss World Of 1981             Pilín León               Venezuela
  1980   Miss World Of 1980         Kimberley Santos                  US
  1979   Miss World Of 1979           Gina Swainson               Bermuda
  1978   Miss World Of 1978           Silvana Suárez              Argentina
  1977   Miss World Of 1977            Mary Stävin                 Sweden
  1976   Miss World Of 1976        Cindy Breakspeare               Canada
  1975   Miss World Of 1975         Wilnelia Merced              Puerto Rico
  1974   Miss World Of 1974           Anneline Kriel            South Africa
  1973   Miss World Of 1973         Marjorie Wallace               Indiana
  1972   Miss World Of 1972           Belinda Green               Australia
  1971   Miss World Of 1971           Lúcia Petterle                Brazil
  1970   Miss World Of 1970          Jennifer Hosten               Grenada
                                                                                  
  1969   Miss World Of 1969        Eva Rueber-Staier               Austria
                                                                                  
  1968   Miss World Of 1968        Penelope Plummer               Australia       
                                                                                  
  1967   Miss World Of 1967       Madeline Hartog-Bel                Peru
                                                                                  
                                                                                  
  1966   Miss World Of 1966             Reita Faria                 India
                                                                                  
  1965   Miss World Of 1965           Lesley Langley          United Kingdom      
                                                                                  
  1964   Miss World Of 1964             Ann Sidney                 England
  1963   Miss World Of 1963       Carole Joan Crawford             Jamaica
  1962   Miss World Of 1962    Catharina Johanna Lodders    Haarlem, Netherlands
  1961   Miss World Of 1961       Rosemarie Frankland               Wales
  1960   Miss World Of 1960     Norma Gladys Cappagli      Buenos Aires, Argentina
  1959   Miss World Of 1959        Corine Rottschäfer           Netherlands
  1958   Miss World Of 1958      Penelope Anne Coelen       Durban, South Africa
  1957   Miss World Of 1957           Marita Lindahl               Finland
  1956   Miss World Of 1956         Petra Schürmann               Germany
  1955   Miss World Of 1955           Susana Duijm                Venezuela
     1954     Miss World Of 1954              Antigone Costanda             Egypt
     1953     Miss World Of 1953                Denise Perrier              France
     1952     Miss World Of 1952              May-Louise Flodin             Sweden
     1951     Miss World Of 1951                Kiki Håkansson              Sweden

List of Presidents of India

                  Name                        Time Period                     Party
            Rajendra Prasad              26/01/1950 - 13/05/1962     Indian National Congress
       Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan          13/05/1962 - 13/05/1967           Independent
     Zakir Hussain (Died in of ce)        13/05/1967 - 3/05/1969           Independent
                                                                                               
        Varahagiri Venkata Giri          24/08/1969 - 24/08/1974           Independent
                                                                                               
        Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
  (second president to die in of ce)    24-Aug-1974 - 11-Feb-1977    Indian National Congress
        Neelam Sanjiva Reddy             25/07/1977 - 25/07/1982           Janata Party
                                                                                               
                                                                                               
            Giani Zail Singh             25/07/1982 - 25/07/1987     Indian National Congress  
                                                                                               
      Ramaswamy Venkataraman             25/07/1987 - 25/07/1992     Indian National Congress
                                                                                               
                                                                                               
        Shankar Dayal Sharma             25/07/1992 - 25/07/1997     Indian National Congress
                                                                                               
      Kocheril Raman Narayanan           25/07/1997 - 25/07/2002           Independent
                                                                                               
                                                                                               
          A. P. J. Abdul Kalam           25/07/2002 - 25/07/2007           Independent
                                                                                               
             Pratibha Patil              25/07/2007 - 25/07/2012     Indian National Congress
                                                                                               
           Pranab Mukherjee              25/07/2012 - 25/07/2017     Indian National Congress
                                                                                               
                                                                                               
           Ram Nath Kovind                  25/07/2017 to date                 NDA

List of Prime Ministers of India since independence

     List of Prime Ministers of India since independence
                 Name                    Time Period                         Party
            Jawahar Lal Nehru        15/08/1947 - 27/05/1964        Indian National Congress
             Gulzarilal Nanda        27/05/1964 - 09/06/1964        Indian National Congress
                                                                                                
           Lal Bahadur Shastri       09/06/1964 - 11/01/1966        Indian National Congress
                                                                                                
             Gulzarilal Nanda        11/01/1966 - 24/01/1966        Indian National Congress
              Indira Gandhi          24/01/1966 - 24/03/1977        Indian National Congress
                                                                                                
              Morarji Desai          24/03/1977 - 28/07/1979              Janata Party          
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
              Charan Singh           28/07/1979 - 14/01/1980              Janata Party
                                                                                                
              Indira Gandhi          14/01/1980 - 31/10/1984        Indian National Congress    
                                                                                                
               Rajiv Gandhi          31/10/1984 - 02/12/1989    Indian National Congress(Indira)
                                                                                                
        Vishwanath Pratap Singh      02/12/1989 - 10/11/1990               Janata Dal           
                                                                                                
             Chandra Shekhar         10/11/1990 - 21/06/1991         Samajwadi Janata Party
                                                                                                
           PV Narasimha Rao          21/06/1991 - 16/05/1996        Indian National Congress
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
          Atal Bihari Vajpayee       16/05/1996 - 01/06/1996          Bharatiya Janata Party
                                                                                                
             HD Deve Gowda           01/06/1996 - 21/04/1997               Janata Dal
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
           Inder Kumar Gujral        21/04/1997 - 19/03/1998               Janata Dal
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
          Atal Bihari Vajpayee       19/03/1998 - 22/05/2004          Bharatiya Janata Party
                                                                                                
          Dr. Manmohan Singh         22/05/2004 - 26/05/2014        Indian National Congress                                                                                                
                                                                                                
                                                                                                
            Narendra Modi          26/05/2014 to present     Bharatiya Janata Party             
                                                                                                
                                                                                                

List of Lakes in India
 State                                                 Lakes
                                                                      
                                        Kolleru Lake
  Andhra Pradesh                                                      
                                        Pulicat Lake
                                        Chandubi Lake                 
                                        Chapanala Lake
  Assam                                                               
                                        Ha ong Lake
                                                                      
                                        Son Beel Lake
  Bihar                                 Kanwar Lake                   
                                        Hamirsar Lake                 
                                        Kankaria Lake                 
                                        Lakhota Lake
  Gujrat                                                              
                                        Sursagar Lake
                                                                      
                                        Thol Lake
                                        Vastrapur Lake
                                                                      
  Himachal Pradesh                      Brighu Lake
                                                                      
                                        Dashair and Dhankar Lake      
                                                                      
                                        Kareri and Kumarwah lake      
                                                                      
                                                                      
                                        Khajjiar Lake
                                                                      
                                                                      
                                        Macchial Lake                 

                               Manimahesh Lake                        
                                                                      
                               Nako Lake
                               Pandoh Lake
                               Prashar Lake                           
                                                                      
                               Renuka Lake                            
                                                                      
                               Rewalsar Lake
                                                                      
                               Seruvalsar and Manimahesh Lake         
                                                                      
                                                                      
                               Badkhal Lake
                                                                      
                                                                      
                               Beauty lake
                                                                      
                               Blue Bird Lake                         
                                                                      
                               Brahma Sarovar                         
                                                                      
  Haryana                      Current lake
                                                                      
                               Karna Lake                             
                                                                      
                               Sannihit Sarovar                       
                                                                      
                               Surajkund
                                                                      
                               Tilyar Lake                            
                                                                      
                               Dal Lake                               
                               Manasbal Lake
                                                                      
                               Mansar Lake                            
                                                                      
  Jammu & Kashmir              Pangong Tso                            
                                                                      
                               Sheshnag Lake
                                                                      
                               Tso Moriri                             
                                                                      
                               Wular Lake                             
                                                                      
                               Agara Lake
                                                                      
                               Bellandur Lake                         
                                                                      
                               Byrasandra Lake                        
                                                                      
                               Hebbal Lake
                                                                      
                                                                      
                               Kempambudhi Lake
                                                                      
                               Lalbagh Lake                           
                                                                      
                               Madiwala Lake                          
                                                                      
                                                                      
                               Puttenahalli Lake                      
  Karnataka                    Sankey Lake                            
                                                                      
                               Ulsoor Lake                            
                                                                      
                                                                      
                               Dalavai Lake                           
                                                                      
                               Devanoor Lake                          
                               Karanji lake                           
                                                                      
                                                                      
                               Kukkarahalli lake                      
                                                                      
                               Lingambudhi Lake                       
                               Honnamana Kere                         
                                                                      
                               Pampa Sarovar                          
                                                                      
  Kerala                       Ashtamudi Lake
                               Kuttanad Lake
                               Maanaanchira
                                                                      
                               Manakody
                               Padinjarechira
                               Paravur Kayal
 
                                          y
                               Punnamada Lake
                               Shasthamkotta lake
                               Vadakkechira
                               Vanchikulam
                               Vellayani Lake
                               Vembanad Lake
                               Bhoj Wetland
                               Lower Lake
                               Moti lake
  Madhya Pradesh               Sarang pani lake
                               Shahpura lake
                               Tawa Reservoir
                               Upper Lake
                               Gorewada Lake
                               Khindsi Lake
                               Lonar Lake
                               Mehrun Lake
                               Pashan Lake
                               Powai Lake
  Maharashtra
                               Rankala Lake                           
                               Salim Ali Lake                         
                               Shivasagar lake                        
                               Talao Pali                             
                               Upvan Lake                             
                               Venna Lake
                                                                      
  Meghalaya                    Umiam Lake
                                                                      
  Manipur                      Loktak Lake
                                                                      
                               Palak dïl
  Mizoram                                                             
                               Tam Dil
                               Anshupa Lake
  Orissa                       Chilika Lake
                               Kanjia lake
                               Harike Lake
  Punjab                       Kanjli Lake
                               Ropar Lake
  Rajasthan                    Ana Sagar Lake
                               Balsamand lake
                               Dhebar Lake
                               Jaisamand Lake
                               Jal Mahal, Man Sagar lake
                               Kaylana Lake
                               Nakki Lake
                               Pushkar Lake
                                                                      
                               Rajsamand Lake
                               Ramgarh Lake

                               Talwara Lake
                               Sambhar Salt Lake
                               Fateh Sagar Lake
                               Rangsagar lake
                               Uday sagar Lake
                               Gurudongmar Lake
                               Khecheopalri Lake
  Sikkim
                               Lake Tsongmo
                               Lake Cholamu
                               Alwal Cheruvu Lake
                               Durgam Cheruvu (Secret Lake)
                               Himayat Sagar
                               Hussain Sagar
  Telengana
                               Osman Sagar
                               Sa lguda Lake
                               Saroornagar Lake
                               Shamirpet Lake
                               Berijam Lake
                               Chembarambakkam Lake
                               Kaliveli Lake
                               Kaveripakkam Lake
                               Kodaikanal Lake
  Tamil Nadu                   Ooty Lake
                               Perumal Eri
                               Red Hills Lake
                               Sholavaram Lake
                               Singanallur Lake
                               Veeranam Lake
                               Amakhera Lake
                               Barua Sagar Tal
                               Belasagar Lake
                               Bhadi Tal
  Uttar Pradesh                Chando Tal Lake
                               Keetham Lake
                               Nachan Tal
                               Ramgarh Tal Lake
                               Sheikha Jheel
                               Skeleton Lake (Roopkund Lake)
                               Bhimtal Lake
                               Dodital
  Uttarakhand
                               Nainital Lake
                               Naukuchiatal
                               Sat Tal
                                                                      
  West Bengal                  Debar Lake
                               East Calcutta Wetlands
                               Jore Pokhri

                                 Mirik Lake
                                 Rabindra Sarobar
                                 Rasikbil
                                 Santragachhi Lake
                                 Senchal Lake

Notes on Banks and Financial Institutions
                                                                                            
1. The Central Bank in India is the Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
2. RBI came into existence on 1st April 1935.                                               
3. RBI was formed on the recommendation of Hilton Yang Commission in 1926.
                                                                                            
4. RBI is the also known as Banker's Bank
5. RBI was nationalised on January 1, 1949.                                                 
6. The head of ce of RBI is in Mumbai
                                                                                            
7. First Governor of RBI Sir Osbourne Arkall Smith
8. First Indian RBI Governor CD Deshmuk
9. RBI has the sole right to issue currency notes of various denominations except one       
rupee note.                                                                                 
10. RBI maintains gold and foreign exchange reserves.
                                                                                            
11. As Banker's Bank, RBI holds a part of the cash reserves of the banks, lends them
funds for short periods and provides them with centralised clearing and cheap and           
quick remittance facilities.
                                                                                            
12. RBI regulates the issue of notes above 1 rupees
13. The one rupee notes are issued by the Ministry of Finance.                              
14. Punjab National Bank was established in the year 1894.
                                                                                            
15. The largest public sector bank in Indian State Bank of India.
16. Imperial Bank of India was formed in the year 1921 (by amalgamation of three
Presidency banks - Bank of Bengal, Bank of Bombay and Bank of Madras).                      
17. Imperial Bank was nationalised in 1955 and renamed as State Bank of India.
                                                                                            
18. State Bank of India is the Biggest commercial bank in the Public Sector of India.       
19. SBI has the largest number of branches (more than 13000) in the world.                  
                                                                                            
20. First bank nationalization took place on July 19, 1969. 14 large commercial banks       
were nationalised during the Prime Ministership of Indira Gandhi.                           
                                                                                            
21. On April 15, 1980 six banks were nationalized by Indira Gandhi.                         

                                                                                            
22. The New Bank of India was merged with the Punjab National Bank in                       
September 1993.
23. ICICI bank was formed in 1994
24. SIDBI was established in 1990.
                                                                                            
25. EXIM (Export Import Bank of India) was set up on January 1, 1982.                       
26. IDBI was established in 1964.                                                           
                                                                                            
27. IRBI (Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India) was established in 1971.
28. 14 banks having deposits more than Rs 50 crore nationalized in July 1969                
                                                                                            
29. 6 banks having deposits more than Rs 200 crore nationalized in April 1980.              
                                                                                            
30. Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) was established in April, 1988 and 
given statutory status by an Act of Parliament in 1992.                                     
31. Oldest Stock Exchange in India Bombay Stock Exchange (Oldest of Asia)                   
                                                                                            
32. Bombay Stock Exchange was established in 1875.                                          
33. India Security Press is located at Nasik Road, Maharashtra.                             
                                                                                            
34. Security Printing Press is located at Hoshangabad, which was established in 1982.
35. Currency Notes Press is located at Nasik Road in Maharashtra.                           
                                                                                            
36. Postal and Judicial stamps : Indian Securit Press, Nasik, Maharashtra.                  
37. Bank note press : Devas (Madhya Pradesh), Mysore and Salboni                            
                                                                                            
38. Minting of gold medals : Kolkata and Noida
                                                                                            
39. Security printing press : Hyderabad                                                     
40. Coins are minted at Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Noida.                               
                                                                                            
41. All coins and one rupee notes are issued by the Ministry of Finance.
42. Once rupee note bears the signature of Finance Secretary, Government of India.          
                                                                                            
43. National Stock Exchange (NSE) was established in the year 1992                          
                                                                                            
44. GIC (General Insurance Corporation) was set up in the year : 1973                       
45. LIC (Life Insurance Corporation) was established in the year : 1956                     
46. HUDCO (Housing and Urban Development Finance Corporation) was established in the year 1970.
                                                                                            
47. HDFC (Housing Development Finance Corporation) was set up in the year 1977.             
                                                                                            
48. NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development) was established
in the year 1982.                                                                           
                                                                                            
49. NABARD was established on the recommendation of Shivraman Committee.                    
50. NABARD headquarters is at Mumbai                                                        
                                                                                            
51. SIDBI (Small Industries Development Bank of India) was setup in the year 1990
                                                                                            
52. IDBI (Industries Development Bank of India) was set up in the year 1964                 
53. Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI) was established in the year : 1948       
                                                                                            
54. State Bank of India has the highest number of ATMs in India                             
55. Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) was established on September 1, 1956.                  
                                                                                            
56. LIC Headquarters is located at Mumbai                                                   
                                                                                            
57. Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) was constituted on April 19, 2000.                                                                                   
58. Who will settle the grievances of customers of banks : Ombudsman                        
                                                                                            
                                                                                           
Popular Books by Indian Politicians
                                                                            
       Name and Author                                  Name and Author
                                                                            
The Disy of India                               My Experiments with    
                                                     Truth
                                                                            
Jawaharlal Nehru                                     Gandhi
                                                                            
       Name and Author                                  Name and Author
                                                                            
The Broken Wings: Songs                              Jinnah: India- Partitio
of Love, Death and Spring                            Independence
                                                                            
Sarojini Naidu                                       Jaswant Singh          
                                                                            
       Name and Author                                  Name and Author
                                                                            
My Truth                                             The Indian Struggle 192
                                                     1942
                                                                            
                                                                            
Indira Gandhi                                        Subash Chandra Bose    
                                                                            
                                                                            
       Name and Author                                  Name and Author
                                                                            
India wins Freedom                                   Unhappy India          
                                                                            
                                                                            
Maulana Abdul Kalam                                  Lala Lajpat Rai
Azad                                                                        
                                                                            
                                                                            
                                                                            
                                                                            
       Name and Author                     Name and Author             
                                         Governance for Growth in           
The Insider                              India
                                                                            
                                                                            
                                                                            
                                                                            
P.V Narasimha Rao                        A P J Abdul Kalam
                                                                            
                                                                            
       Name and Author                     Name and Author             
                                                                            
                                                                            
The Accidental Prime
Minister : The making and                My Years with Rajiv &              
unmaking of Manmohan                     Sonia                              
Singh                                                                       
                                                                            
                                                                            
Sanjaya Baru                             RD Pradhan
                                                                            
       Name and Author                     Name and Author             
                                                                            
                                                                            
Assassination of Rajiv                   India at Risk
Gandhi: An Inside Job                                                       
                                                                            
                                                                            
Faraz Ahmad                              Jaswant Singh                      
                                                                            
       Name and Author                     Name and Author             
                                                                            
                                                                            
                                                                            
Dramatic Decade: The                     2014: The Election that            
Indira Gandhi years                      changed India
                                                                            
                                                                            
                                                                            
Pranab Mukherjee                         Rajdeep Sardesai                   
                                                                            
       Name and Author                     Name and Author             
                                                                            
                                                                            
                                                                            
Indian Parliamentary                     Green Signals Ecology,             
Diplomacy Speaker’s                      Growth and Democracy in            
Perspective                              India
                                                                            
                                                                            
Meira Kumar                              Jairam Ramesh                      
                                                                            
                                                                            
       Name and Author                     Name and Author             
                                                                            
                                                                            
Public Issue before                      Modinomics - Inclusive             
Parliament                               Economics Inclusive                
                                         Governance                         
                                                                            
                                                                            
Vijay Darda                              Sameer Kochar
                                                                            
                                                                            
       Name and Author                     Name and Author             
                                                                            
India After Gandhi -                                                        
History of the World’s                   The Annihilation of Caste          
largest Democracy                                                           
Ramchandra Guha                          Dr. B R Ambedkar
       Name and Author                     Name and Author             
                                                                            
Unreal Elections                         The Doctor and Saint:
                                         Caste, Race and
                                         Annihilation of Caste

C S Krishna                                 Arundhati Roy
       Name and Author                       Name and Author           
                                            Debate Between B R
The Audacity of opinion                     Ambedkar and M K
                                            Gandhi
Jaswant Singh                               Arundhati Roy
       Name and Author                       Name and Author           
The Rebel: A biography of                   Jinnah vs Gandhi
Ram Jethmalani
Sujan Adelman                               Roderick Matthews
       Name and Author                       Name and Author           
The Great Indian Novel                      To the Brink and Back:
                                            India's 1991 story
Shashi Tharoor                              Jairam Ramesh                   
       Name and Author                       Name and Author           
                                                                            
India 2020 - A Vision for                   Glimpse of World History
New Millennium                                                              
                                                                            
A P J Abdul Kalam and YS                    Jawaharlal Nehru
Rajan                                                                       
                                                                            
       Name and Author                       Name and Author           
                                                                            
Narendra Modi: A Political                  My Unforgettable                
Biography                                   Memories
Andy Marino                                 Mamta Banerjee
       Name and Author                       Name and Author           
Golden Threshold                            India Divided



list-of-different-parliaments
                     Countries and their Parliaments
               Parliament of Different Countries
           Country                                   Parliament
Afghanistan                 Shora
Albania                     People's Assembly
Algeria                     National People's Assembly
Andorra                     General Council
Angola                      National People's Assembly
Argentina                   National Congress
Australia                   Federal Parliament
Austria                     National Assembly
Azerbaijan                  Melli Majlis
Bahamas                     General Assembly
Bahrain                     Consultative Council
Bangladesh                  Jatiya Sansad
Belize                      National Assembly
Bhutan                      Tsogdu
Bolivia                     National Congress
Botswana                    National Assembly
Brazil                      National Congress
Britain                     Parliament (House of Commons and House of Lords)
Brunei                      National Assembly
Bulgaria                    Narodno Subranie
Cambodia                    National Assembly
Canada                      Parliament
Chile                       National Congress (Chamber of Deputies and Senate)
China                       National People's Assembly
Colombia                    Congress
Comoros                     Legislative Council and Senate
      
Congo Democratic              Rep. of National Legislative Council
Costa Rica                    Legislative Council and Senate
Croatia                       Hrvatski Sabor
Cuba                          National Assembly of People's Power
Czech Republic                Chamber of Deputies and Senate
Denmark                       Folketing
East Timor                    Constituent Assembly
Ecuador                       National Congress
Egypt                         People's Assembly
El Salvador                   Legislative Assembly
Ethiopia                      Federal Council and House of Representative
Fiji Islands                  Senate & House of Representative
France                        National Assembly
Germany                       Bundestag (Lower House) and Bundesrat (Upper House)
Greece                        Chamber of Deputies
Guyana                        National Assembly
Hungry                        National Assembly
Iceland                       Althing
India                         Sansad (Rajya Sabha) (Lok Sabha)
Indonesia                     People's Consultative Assembly
Iran                          Majlis
Iraq                          National Assembly
Israel                        Knesset
Italy                         Chamber of Deputies and Senate
Japan                         Diet
Jordan                        National Assembly
Korea(North)                  Supreme People's Assembly
Korea(South)                  National Assembly
Kuwait                        National Assembly
Laos                          The National Assembly
        
Lebanon                     National Assembly
Lesotho                     National Assembly and Senate
Libya                       General People's Congress
Lithuania                   Seimas
Luxembourg                  Chamber of Deputies
Madagascar                  The National Assembly
Malaysia                    Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara
Maldives                    Majlis
Mongolia                    State Great Khural
Montenegro                  The Parliament
Mozambique                  Assembly of the Republic
Myanmar                     Pyithu Hluttaw (Assembly of the Union)
Nepal                       Federal Parliament
Netherlands                 The Staten General
New Zealand                 Parliament (House of Representative)
Oman                        The Council of Oman
Pakistan                    National Assembly & Senate
Papua New Guinea            National Parliament
Paraguay                    Senate & Chamber of Deputies
Philippines                 The Congress
Poland                      Sejm
Romania                     Parliament of Romania
Russia                      Duma & Federal Council
Saudi Arabia                Majlis Al-Shura or Shura Council
Senegal                     National Assembly
Serbia                      National Assembly
Seychelles                  National Assembly
South Africa Rep.           National Assembly
Spain                       Cortes Generales
Sudan                       Majlis Watani
      
Sweden                      Riksdag
Switzerland                 Federal Assembly
Syria                       People's Council
Turkey                      Grand National Assembly
USA                         Congress
Venezuela                   National Assembly
Vietnam                     National Assembly
Zambia                      National Assembly
      



            List of Geographical Epithets of the World
                  Epithet                 City/Country/River/Place
  America’s Motor City             Detroit
  Britain of the South             New Zealand
  Cockpit of Europe                Belgium
  City of Skyscrapers              New York (USA)
  City of Seven Hills              Rome (Italy)
  City of Quiet thoroughfares      Venice
  City of Magnificent Buildings    Washington (USA)
  City of Golden Gate              San Francisco (USA)
  City of Flowers                  Cape Town (S.Africa)
  City of Eternal Springs          Quito (S.America)
  City of Dreaming Spires          Oxford (England)
  China’s Sorrow                   River Hwang Ho
  Dark Continent                   Africa
  Eternal City of Hopes            Rome, Italy
  Empire City                      New York
  Emerald Isle                     Ireland
  Forbidden City                   Lhasa (Tibet)
  Granite City                     Aberdeen
  Golden City                      Johannesburg
  Gift of Nile                     Egypt
  Gibraltar of Indian Ocean        Aden
  Gate of tears                    Strait of bab-el-Mandeb

  Garden of England                Kent (England)
  Garden in the desert             Ethiopia
  Garden City                      Chicago
  Human Equator of the Earth       Himalayas
  Holy Land                        Palestine
  Herring Pond                     Atlantic Ocean
  Hermit Kingdom                   Korea
  Hanging Valleys                  Valley of Switzerland
  Islands of Sunshine              West Indies
  Island of Pearls                 Bahrain (Persian Gulf)
  Island of Cloves                 Zanzibar
  Island Continent                 Australia
  Key to Mediterranean             Gibraltar
  Kashmir of Europe                Switzerland
  Manchester of Japan              Osaka (Japan)
  Loneliest Island                 Tristan De kunha (Mid. Atlantic)
  Land of White Elephant           Thailand
  Land of Thunderbolt              Bhutan
  Land of Thousand Lakes           Finland
  Land of Thousand Elephants       Laos
  Land of Setting Sun              United Kingdom
  Land of Rising Sun               Japan
  Land of Morning Calm             Korea
  Land of Midnight Sun             Norway

  Land of Maple                    Canada
  Land of Lilies                   Canada
  Land of Lakes                    Scotland
  Land of Kangaroo                 Australia
  Land of Golden Pagoda            Myanmar
  Land of Golden Fleece            Australia
  Land of Five Seas                South West Asia
  Play Ground of Europe            Switzerland
  Pillars of Hercules              Straits of Gibraltar
  Queen of the Adriatic            Venice
  Quaker City                      Philadelphia
  Roof of the World                The pamirs (Tibet)
  River in the Sea                 Gulf Stream
  Sugar Bowl of the world          Cuba
  Sick man of Europe               Turkey
  Venice of the North              Stockholm
  Venice of the East               Bangkok
  Windy City                       Chicago
  White City                       Belgrade
  Workshop of Europe               Belgium
  Yellow River                     Hwang Ho (China)



List of Head of Countries


        Country                      Current President and Prime Minister
                    President – Ashraf Ghani (2014–present)
Afghanistan
                    Prime Minister – Abdullah Abdullah (2014–present)
                    President – Ilir Meta (2017–present)
Albania
                    Prime Minister – Edi Rama (2013–present)
                    President – Abdelaziz Bouteflika (1999–present)
Algeria
                    Prime Minister – Ahmed Ouyahia (2017–present)
Angola              President – João Lourenço (2017–present)
                    Monarch – Elizabeth II, Queen of Antigua and Barbuda (1981–
                    present)
Antigua and Barbuda
                    Governor-General – Sir Rodney Williams (2014–present)
                    Prime Minister – Gaston Browne (2014–present)
                    President – Armen Sarkissian (2018–present)
Armenia
                    Prime Minister – Nikol Pashinyan (2018–present)
Argentina           President – Mauricio Macri (2015–present)
       
                    Governor – Alfonso Boekhoudt (2017–present)
Aruba
                    Prime Minister – Evelyn Wever-0.Croes (2017–present)
                    Monarch – Elizabeth II (1952–present)
Australia           Governor-General – David Hurley (2019)
                    Prime Minister – Scott Morrison (2018–present)
                    President – Alexander Van der Bellen (2017–present)
Austria
                    Chancellor – Brigitte Bierlein (since 2019)
                    President – Ilham Aliyev (2003–present)
Azerbaijan
                    Prime Minister – Novruz Mammadov (2018–present)
                    Monarch – Elizabeth II (1973–present)
Bahamas             Governor-General – Dame Marguerite Pindling (2014–present)
                    Prime Minister – Hubert Minnis (2017–present)
                    Monarch – Sheikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa (1999–present)
Bahrain             Prime Minister – Prince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa (1970–
                    present)
                    President – Abdul Hamid (2013–present)
Bangladesh
                    Prime Minister – Sheikh Hasina (2009–present)
                    Monarch – Elizabeth II (1966–present)
Barbados            Governor-General – Dame Sandra Mason (2018–present)
                    Prime Minister – Mia Mottley (2018–present)
                    President – Alexander Lukashenko (1994–present)
Belarus
                    Prime Minister – Syarhey Rumas (2018–present)
                    Monarch – Philippe (2013–present)
Belgium
                    Prime Minister – Charles Michel (2014–present)
                    Monarch – Elizabeth II (1981–present)
Belize              Governor-General – Sir Colville Young (1993–present)
                    Prime Minister – Dean Barrow (2008–present)
       
Benin               President – Patrice Talon (2016–present)
                    Monarch – Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck (2006–present)
Bhutan
                    Prime Minister – Dasho Tshering Wangchuk (2018–present)
Bolivia             President – Evo Morales (2006–present)
Botswana            President – Mokgweetsi Masisi (2018–present)
Brazil              President – Jair Bolsonaro (2022 - Present )
                    Monarch – Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of Brunei (1967–present)
Brunei
                    Prime Minister – Hassanal Bolkiah (1984–present)
                    President – Rumen Radev (2017–present)
Bulgaria
                    Prime Minister – Boyko Borisov (2017–present)
Burundi             President – Pierre Nkurunziza (2005–present)
                    Monarch – Norodom Sihamoni, King of Cambodia (2004–present)
Cambodia
                    Prime Minister – Hun Sen (1985–present)
                    President – Paul Biya (1982–present)
Cameroon
                    Prime Minister – Philémon Yang (2009–present)
                    Monarch – Elizabeth II (1952–present)
Canada              Governor-General – Julie Payette (2017–present)
                    Prime Minister – Justin Trudeau (2015–present)
Chile               President – Sebastián Piñera (2018–present)
                    Communist Party Leader – Xi Jinping (2012–present)
China               President – Xi Jinping (2013–present)
                    Premier – Li Keqiang (2013–present)
Colombia            President – Iván Duque Márquez (2018–present)
       
                   President – Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (2015–present)
Croatia
                   Prime Minister – Andrej Plenković (2016–present)
Cyprus             President – Nicos Anastasiades (2013–present)
                   Monarch – Margrethe II (1972–present)
Denmark
                   Prime Minister – Lars Løkke Rasmussen (2015–present)
                   President – Abdel Fattah el-Sisi (2014–present)
Egypt
                   Prime Minister – Moustafa Madbouly (2018–present)
                   President – Kersti Kaljulaid (2016–present)
Estonia
                   Prime Minister – Kaja Kallas (2019–present)
                   President – Mulatu Teshome (2013–present)
Ethiopia
                   Prime Minister – Abiy Ahmed (2018–present)
                   President – George Konrote (2015–present)
Fiji
                   Prime Minister – Frank Bainimarama (2007–present)
                   President – Sauli Niinistö(2012–present)
Finland
                   Prime Minister – Juha Sipilä (2015–present)
                   President – Emmanuel Macron (2017–present)
France
                   Prime Minister – Édouard Philippe (2017–present)
                   President – Giorgi Margvelashvili (2013–present)
Georgia
                   Prime Minister – Mamuka Bakhtadze (2018–present)
                   President – Frank-Walter Steinmeier (2017–present)
Germany
                   Chancellor – Angela Merkel (2005–present)
Ghana              President – Nana Akufo-Addo (2017–present)
                   President – Prokopis Pavlopoulos (2015–present)
Greece
                   Prime Minister – Alexis Tsipras (2015–present)
      
Guatemala           President – Jimmy Morales (2016–present)
                    President – Alpha Conde (2010–present)
Guinea
                    Prime Minister – Ibrahima Kassory Fofana (2018–present)
                    President – Ram Nath Kovind (2017–present)
India
                    Prime Minister – Narendra Modi (2014–present)
Indonesia           President: Joko Widodo (2014–present)
                    Supreme Leader – Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (1989–present)
Iran
                    President – Hassan Rouhani (2013–present)
                    President: Fuad Masum (2014–present)
Iraq
                    Prime Minister: Haider al-Abadi (2014–present)
                    President: Michael Daniel Higgins (2011–present)
Ireland
                    Prime Minister: Leo Varadkar (2017–present)
                    President: Reuven Rivlin (2014–present)
Israel
                    Prime Minister: Benjamin Netanyahu (2009–present)
                    President: Sergio Mattarella (2015–present)
Italy
                    Prime Minister: Giuseppe Conte (2018–present)
                    Monarch – Elizabeth II (1962–present)
Jamaica             Governor-General – Sir Patrick Allen (2009–present)
                    Prime Minister – Andrew Holness (2016–present)
                    Monarch – Akihito, Emperor of Japan (1989–present)
Japan
                    Prime Minister – Shinzō Abe (2012–present)
                    King : Abdullah II (1999–present)
Jordan
                    Prime Minister: Omar Razzaz (2018–present)
                    President – Nursultan Nazarbayev (1990–present)
Kazakhstan
                    Prime Minister – Bakhytzhan Sagintayev (2016–present)
       
Korea, North       Supreme leader : Kim Jong-un (2011–present)
                   President – Moon Jae-in (2017–present)
Korea, South
                   Prime Minister – Lee Nak-yeon (2017–present)
                   Monarch – Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (2006–
                   present)
Kuwait
                   Prime Minister – Sheikh Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah
                   (2011–present)
                   President – Michel Aoun (2016–present)
Lebanon
                   Prime Minister – Saad Hariri (2016–present)
                   President : Aguila Saleh Issa (2014–present)
Libya
                   Prime Minister : Abdullah al-Thani (2014–present)
                   Monarch – Muhammad V, Yang di-Pertuan Agong of
Malaysia           Malaysia (2016–present)
                   Prime Minister: Mahathir Mohamad (2018–present)
                   President: Ibrahim Mohamed Solih (17 November 2018 -
Maldives
                   present);
                   President – Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta (2013–present)
Mali
                   Prime Minister – Soumeylou Boubèye Maïga (2017–present)
                   President : Barlen Vyapoory (2018–present)
Mauritius
                   Prime Minister : Pravind Jugnauth (2017–present)
                   President – Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador (December, 2018 –
Mexico
                   present)
                   Monarch – Mohammed VI, King of Morocco (1999–present)
Morocco
                   Prime Minister – Saadeddine Othmani (2017–present)
                   President – Win Myint (2018–present)
Myanmar
                   Prime Minister – Aung San Suu Kyi (2016–present)
                   President – Hage Geingob (2015–present)
Namibia
                   Prime Minister – Saara Kuugongelwa (2015–present)
      
                    President – Bidhya Devi Bhandari (2015–present)
Nepal
                    Prime Minister – Khadga Prasad Oli (2018–present)
                    King : Willem-Alexander (2013–present)
Netherlands
                    Prime Minister : Mark Rutte (2010–present)
                    Monarch – Elizabeth II (1952–present)
New Zealand         Governor General : Dame Patsy Reddy (2016–present)
                    Prime Minister : Jacinda Ardern (2017–present)
                    Monarch – Qaboos bin Said al Said, Sultan of Oman (1970–
Oman                present)
                    Prime Minister – Qaboos bin Said al Said (1972–present)
                    President : Arif Alvi (2018–present)
Pakistan
                    Prime Minister : Imran Khan (2018–present)
Philippines         President – Rodrigo Duterte (2016–present)
                    President – Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa (2016–present)
Portugal
                    Prime Minister – António Costa (2015–present)
                    Monarch – Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani (2013–present)
Qatar               Prime Minister – Sheikh Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani
                    (2013–present)
                    President – Klaus Iohannis (2014–present)
Romania
                    Prime Minister – Viorica Dăncilă (2018–present)
                    President – Vladimir Putin (2012–present)
Russia
                    Prime Minister – Dmitry Medvedev (2012–present)
                    Monarch – Salman (2015–present)
Saudi Arabia
                    Prime Minister – Salman (2015–present)
Seychelles          President – Danny Faure (2016–present)
                    President – Halimah Yacob (2017–present)
Singapore
                    Prime Minister – Lee Hsien Loong (2004–present)
       
South Africa         President – Cyril Ramaphosa (2018–present)
                     Monarch – Felipe VI (2014–present)
Spain
                     Prime Minister – Pedro Sánchez (2018–present)
                     President – Maithripala Sirisena (2015–present)
Sri Lanka
                     Prime Minister – Ranil Wickremesinghe (2015–present)
Sudan                President – Moutaz Mousa Abdallah (Since 17th September)
South Sudan          President – Salva Kiir Mayardit (2005–present)
                     President – Bashar al-Assad (2000–present)
Syria
                     Prime Minister – Imad Khamis (2016–present)
                     President – Tsai Ing-wen (2016–present)
Taiwan
                     Premier – William Lai (2017–present)
                     Monarch – Maha Vajiralongkorn (2016–present)
Thailand
                     Prime Minister – Prayut Chan-o-cha (2014–present)
                     President – Petro Poroshenko (2014–present)
Ukraine
                     Prime Minister – Volodymyr Groysman (2016–present)
                     President – Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan (2004–present)
United Arab Emirates Prime Minister – Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
                     (2006–present)
United States of
                     President – Donald Trump (2017–present)
America
                     Monarch – Elizabeth II (1952–present)
United Kingdom
                     Prime Minister – Theresa May (2016–present)
                     President – Dang Thi Ngoc Thinh (acting president Since 21
Vietnam              September 2018)
                     Prime Minister – Nguyen Xuan Phuc (2016 – present)
Zimbabwe             President – Emmerson Mnangagwa (2017–present)
      
List of Indian Newspapers and founders
News Paper/Journal       Founder
Al-Hilal (Daily)
                         Abul Kalam Azad
Al-Balagh (Weekly)
New India (Daily)
                         Annie Besant
Commonweal
Sandhya                  B.B. Upadhyaya
Mooknayak
                         Dr. B.R Ambedkar
Bahishkrit Bharat
Kesari
                         Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Mahratta
Darpan                   Balshastri Jambhekar
Kavi Vachan Sudha        Bhartendu Harishchandra
Jugantar                 Bhupendranath Data and Barindra Kumar Ghosh
New India (Weekly)       Bipin Chandra Pal
Bande Mataram            Sri Aurobindo
      
List of Indian Newspapers and founders
Talvar                    Virendranath Chattopadhyaya
Rast Goftar               Dadabhai Naoroji and Kharshedji Cama
Voice of India            Dadabhai Naoroji
Indian Mirror             Devendra Nath Tagore
The Tribune               Dyal Singh Majithia
Bombay Chronicle          Sir Pherozeshah Mehta
The Hindu
                          G. Subramania Iyer
Swadesamitran
Sudharak                  Gopal Ganesh Agarkar
Pratap                    Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi
Inquilab                  Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah
Hindoo Patriot            Girish Chandra Ghosh & Harish Chandra Mukherjee
Somprakash                Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan
Bengal Gazette            James Augustus Hicky
Hindustan Times           Sunder Singh Lyallpuri
Vichar Lahiri             Krishnashastri Chiplunkar
Arya Gazette              Lala Lajpat Rai
Induprakash               Gopal Hari Deshmukh
The Leader
                          Madan Mohan Malaviya
Hindustan
Navjeevan
Indian Opinion
                          Mahatma Gandhi
Young India
Harijan
Kranti                    Mirajkar, Joglekar, Ghate
The Comrade               Maulana Mohammad Ali
       
List of Indian Newspapers and founders
The Independent (India)  Motilal Nehru
Din Mitra                Mukundarao Patil
Din Bandu                Bhaskar Rao Jadhav
Navyug                   Muzaffar Ahmed
Kudi Arasu               Periyar E. V. Ramasamy
Sambad Kaumudi
                         Ram Mohan Roy
Mirat-ul-Akbar
The Statesman            Robert Knight
Bombay Times             Robert Knight & Thomas Bennnet
The Indian Sociologist   Krishnavarma
Tehzeeb-ul-Akhlaq        Syed Ahmad Khan
Amrita Bazar Patrika     Sisir Kumar Ghose and Moti Lal Ghosh
Prabuddha Bharata
                         Swami Vivekananda
Udbodhan
Free Hindustan           Tarak Nath Das
Native Opinion           V.N. Mandlik
      
                                                                   
                List of International & National Important Days
                                              January
             Date      Day Observed
                       World Day of Peace
             Jan 1
                       Global Family Day
             Jan 6     World Day For War Orphans
                       Pravasi Bharatiya Divas
             Jan 9
                       NRI Day
             Jan 12    National Youth Day (Birth Day of Swami Vivekanand)
             Jan 14    International Kite Festival - Ahemdabad
             Jan 15    Army Day
             Jan 18    National Immunization Day(Polio Day)
             Jan 19    Idaho Human Rights Day/Martin Luther King Day
             Jan 21    Meghalaya Day
                       St. Agnes Day
                       World Hug Day
                       Tripura Day
                       118th Birth Anniversary of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose /National
             Jan 23
                       Day of Patriotism / Desh Prem Divas.
             Jan 24    Rashtriya Balika Diwas/National Girl Child Day
                       World Leprosy Day
                       Himachal Pradesh Day/ Statehood Day
             Jan 25
                       National Tourism Day
                       National Voter Day
                       Indian Republic day
             Jan 26
                       International Customs Day
                       International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of
             Jan 27
                       the Holocaust
             Jan 28    Data Protection Day
                       Death Anniversary Mahatma Gandhi(Martyrs/Sarvodaya
             Jan 30
                       Day),National Cleanliness Day
             Jan 31    World Leprosy Eradication Day
                                             February
             Date      Day Observed
             Feb 1     Indian Coast Guard Day
             Feb 2     World Wetlands Day
             Feb 4     World Cancer Day
             Feb 5     Kashmir Solidarity Day
             Feb 6     International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation
             Feb 7     Rose day
             Feb 8     World Marriage Day
             Feb 10    National Deworming Day
             Feb 11    World Day of the Sick
             Feb 13    World Radio Day
                                                                                         

                                                                        
                                                                  
            Feb 14   Saint Valentine’s Day
            Feb 20   World Day of Social Justice
            Feb 21   International Mother Language Day
            Feb 22   World Thinking day
            Feb 23   World Rotary Day
            Feb 24   Central Excise Day
            Feb 25   World Sustainable Energy Day
            Feb 27   International Polar Bear Day
                     National Science Day
            Feb 28
                     Rare Disease Day
                                             March
            Date    Day Observed
            Mar 1   Zero Discrimination Day
                    World Wildlife Day
            Mar 3   International Sex Worker Rights Day
                    National Defence Day
                    National Security Day
            Mar 4   Bus Day (Bengaluru)
                    World Maths Day
            Mar 8   International Women's Day
            Mar 9   Commonwealth Day
            Mar 10  Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) Raising Day
            Mar 12  World Kidney Day
                    World Sleep Day
            Mar 13
                    World Rotaract Day
            Mar 14  World Pie day
                    World Consumer Rights Day
            Mar 15
                    World Contact Day
            Mar 18  National Ordinance Factories Day
                    International Day of Happiness
            Mar 20  World Day of Theatre for Children and Young People
                    World sparrow day
                    International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
                    World Poetry Day
                    International Day of Nowruz
            Mar 21
                    World Down Syndrome Day
                    International Day of Forests
                    Sun-Earth Day
            Mar 22  World Water Day
            Mar 23  World Meteorological Day
                    World Tuberculosis Day
                    International Day for the Right to the Truth concerning Gross Human
            Mar 24  Rights Violations and for the Dignity of Victims
                    International Day for Achievers
                    World TB Day
                    International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Slavery and the
                    Transatlantic Slave Trade
            Mar 25
                    International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff
                    Members
            Mar 26  World Purple day
                                                                     
                                                                 
                    World Theatre Day
            Mar 27
                    World Drama day
                                             April
             Date    Day Observed
                     Prevention of Blindness Week
             Apr 1   April Fools' Day
                     Orissa Day
                     World Autism Awareness Day
             Apr 2
                     International Children's Book Day
                     International Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine
                     Action
             Apr 4
                     World Rat Day
                     International Pillow Fight Day
             Apr 6   International Day of Sport for Development and Peace
                     International Day of Reflection on the Genocide in Rwanda
             Apr 7
                     World Health Day
             Apr 8   World Romani Day
                     International Day of Human Space Flight
             Apr 12
                     World Aviation and Cosmonautics Day
                     Indian Women's Savings Day
             Apr 14
                     Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar-Birth Anniversary
             Apr 16  Emancipation Day
                     International Special Librarians Day - Information Ethics Day
             Apr 17
                     World Haemophilia Day
             Apr 18  World Heritage Day
             Apr 22  World Earth Day
                     World Book and Copyright Day
             Apr 23
                     English Language Day
                     World Day for Animals in Laboratories
             Apr 24
                     National Panchayati Day
             Apr 25  World Malaria Day
                     World Intellectual Property Day
             Apr 26
                     Worldwide Pinhole Photography Day
             Apr 28  World Day for Safety and Health at Work
                     Day of Remembrance for all Victims of Chemical Warfare
             Apr 29  International Dance Day
                     International Guide Dog Day
             Apr 30  International Jazz Day
                                              May
             Date    Day Observed
                     International Labour Day
             May 1
                     Maharashtra Day
             May 2   World Naked Gardening Day
                     World Press Freedom Day
             May 3   World Laughter Day
                     International Energy Day
                                                                     
                                                                       
                                                                
             May 4   International Firefighters' Day
                     International Midwives' Day
             May 5
                     World Asthma Day
                     World Red Cross Day
             May 8
                     World Thalassaemia Day
                     World Migratory Bird Day
             May 9
                     World Fair Trade Day
             May 10  Mother's Day
             May 11  National Technology Day
             May 12  International Nurses Day
             May 15  International Day of Families
                     World Telecommunication and Information Society Day
             May 17
                     World Hypertension Day
                     World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development
             May 21
                     Anti Terrorism Day
             May 22  International Day for Biological Diversity
                     International Day to End Obstetric Fistula
             May 23
                     World Turtle Day
             May 25  World Children’s Missing Day
             May 29  International Day of UN Peacekeepers
             May 31  World No-Tobacco Day
                                              June
             Date     Day Observed
                      Global Day of Parents
             June 1   "Vesak", the Day of the Full Moon
                      World Milk Day
             June 2   International Sex Workers Day
             June 4   International Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression
             June 5   World Environment Day
             June 7   Cancer Survivors Day
             June 8   World Oceans Day
             June 12  World Day Against Child Labour
                      International Albinism Awareness Day
             June 13
                      World Naked Bike Day
             June 14  World Blood Donor Day
             June 15  World Elder Abuse Awareness Day
                      World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought
             June 17
                      International Criminal Court Day
             June 20  World Refugee Day
                      International Day of Yoga
                     Father's Day
             June 21
                     World Music Day
                      T-Shirt Day
                      Public Service Day
             June 23  International Widows' Day
                      International Olympic Day
             June 25  Day of the Seafarer
                      International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking
             June 26
                      International Day in Support of Victims of Torture
             June 29  National Statistics Day
                                                                                   

                                                               
                                            July
           Date     Day Observed
                    International Joke Day
           July 1
                    National Doctor's Day
           July 2   World Sports Journalists Day
           July 4   International Day of Cooperatives(first Saturday in July)
                    World Zoonoses Day
           July 6
                    International Kissing Day
           July 7   Global Forgiveness Day
                    World Population Day
           July 11
                    State Bank Foundation Day
           July 12  World Malala day
                    World Youth Skills Day
           July 15
                    Pay Roll Savings Day
           July 17  International Justice Day
           July 18  Nelson Mandela International Day
           July 26  Kargil Vijay Diwas
                    World Hepatitis Day
           July 28
                    World Nature conservation day
           July 29  World Tiger Day
                    International Day of Friendship
           July 30
                    World Day against Trafficking in Persons
                                           August
           Date     Day Observed
           Aug 1    World Breastfeeding Day
                    International Forgiveness Day
           Aug 2
                    International Friendship Day(1st Sunday)
           Aug 6    Hiroshima Day
           Aug 7    National Handloom Day
           Aug 8    World Cat Day
                    International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples
           Aug 9    Nagasaki Peace Day
                    Kranti Diwas (Quit India Movement Day)
           Aug 12   International Youth Day
           Aug 13   International Lefthanders Day
           Aug 14   Pakistan Independence Day
           Aug 15   Indian Independence Day
                    World Humanitarian Day
           Aug 19
                    World Photography Day
                    World Mosquito Day
           Aug 20
                    Sadbhavana Diwas
                    International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and Its
           Aug 23
                    Abolition
           Aug 26   Women's Equality Day
                    International Day against Nuclear Tests
           Aug 29   Telugu Language Day
                    National Sports Day of India
                                                                                     

                                                                
                    Sanskrit Day
                    International Day of the Victims of Enforced Disappearances
           Aug 30
                    Small Industry Day
                                        September
           Date     Day Observed
           Sep 2    World Coconut Day
                    International Day of Charity
           Sep 5
                    National Teacher’s Day
           Sep 7    Forgiveness Day
           Sep 8    International Literacy Day
           Sep 12   United Nations Day for South-South Cooperation
           Sep 13   World Chocolate Day
                    Hindi Day
           Sep 14
                    World First Aid Day
           Sep 15   International Day of Democracy
           Sep 16   International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer
           Sep 19   International Red Panda Day
                    International Day of Peace
           Sep 21
                    World Alzheimer's Day
           Sep 22   World Car Free Day
                    World Maritime Day
           Sep 25
                    Social Justice Day
           Sep 26   International Day for the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons
                    World Tourism Day
           Sep 27
                    World Deaf Day
                    National Gunners Day
           Sep 28
                    World Rabies Day
           Sep 29   World Heart Day
           Sep 30   International Translation Day
                                         October
           Date     Day Observed
                    International Day of Older Persons
                    World Vegetarian Day
           Oct 1
                    International Music Day - IMC
                    National Voluntary Blood Donation Day
                    International Day of Non-Violence
                    World Farm Animals Day
           Oct 2
                    Mahatma Gandhi Jayanti
                    World Smile Day
           Oct 3    World Nature Day
           Oct 4    World Animal Day
                    World Teachers’ Day
           Oct 5    World Habitat Day(first Monday in October)
                    World Architecture Day
           Oct 8    National Air force Day
                                                                                      
                                                  
                                                               
                    World Sight Day
                    World Post Day
            Oct 9
                    World Egg Day
                    World Mental Health Day
            Oct 10
                    National Postal Day
            Oct 11  International Day of the Girl Child
            Oct 12  World Arthritis day
                    International Day for Disaster Reduction
            Oct 13
                    World Calamity Control Day
                    World Standards Day
            Oct 14
                    World Maths Day
                    International Day of Rural Women
            Oct 15  Global Handwashing Day
                    World White cane day
            Oct 16  World Food Day
            Oct 17  Anti Poverty Day
                    International Day for the Eradication of Poverty
            Oct 20  World Statistics Day
                    World Osteoporosis Day
                    United Nations Day
            Oct 24  World Development Information Day
                    Indo Tibetan Border Police Raising day
            Oct 25  World Mother-in-Law's Day
            Oct 27  World Day for Audiovisual Heritage
            Oct 30  World Thrift Day
                    World Cities Day
            Oct 31  World Savings Day
                    Rastriya Ekta Diwas (Sardar Patel)
                                        November
            Date    Day Observed
                    World Vegan Day
            Nov 1
                    Rajyotsava Day (Karnataka Formation Day)
            Nov 2   International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists
            Nov 5   World Radiography day
                    International Day for Preventing the Exploitation of the
            Nov 6
                    Environment in War and Armed Conflict
            Nov 7   Infant Protection day
            Nov 8   World services day
                    Legal Service Day
            Nov 9
                    World Orphans Day (Second Monday of Nov)
                    World Science Day for Peace and Development
            Nov 10
                    Transport Day
                    World Diabetes Day
            Nov 14  National Children's Day
                    International Girls Day (confidence coalition)
            Nov 15  World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims
            Nov 16  International Day for Tolerance
                    World Student day
            Nov 17
                    National Journalism day
                                                                                       
                                                   
                                                               
          Nov 18    World Adult day
                    World Toilet Day
                    World Philosophy Day
                    World Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Day
          Nov 19
                    International Men's Day
                    World Citizen day
                    National Integration Day - India (Indira Gandhi's birthday)
                    Universal Children’s Day
          Nov 20
                    World Philosophy Day
                    World Television Day
          Nov 21
                    World Hello Day
                    International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women
          Nov 25
                    World Non Veg Prevention Day
          Nov 26    National Law Day
          Nov 29    International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People
          Nov 30    Flag Day
                                        December
          Date      Day Observed
          Dec 1     World AIDS Day
                    International Day for the Abolition of Slavery
          Dec 2     World Pollution Prevention Day
                    World Computer literacy day
                    International Day of Persons with Disabilities
          Dec 3
                    World Disabled Day
          Dec 4     Indian Navy Day
                    International Volunteer Day for Economic and Social Development
          Dec 5
                    World Soil Day
          Dec 6     Orange Festival(Poland)
                    International Civil Aviation Day
          Dec 7     World Choral Day
                    National Armed Forces Flag Day
                    International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of
                    the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of this Crime
          Dec 9     International Anti-Corruption Day
                    Balika Divas
          Dec 10    Human Rights Day
          Dec 11    International Mountain Day
          Dec 14    National Energy Conservation Day
          Dec 15    International Tea Day
          Dec 17    International Day Against Violence Against Sex Workers
                    International Migrants Day
          Dec 18
                    National Minority Rights Day
          Dec 19    Goa’s Libration Day
          Dec 20    International Human Solidarity Day
                    Kisan Divas (Ch. Charan Singh's Birth Anniversary)
          Dec 23
                    (Farmer's Day)
          Dec 26    CRPF foundation day
          Dec 29     International Bio-diversity day
                                                                  
        List of Inventions and Discoveries
        Invention                   Inventor         Year      Country
Acetylene Gas            Edmund Davy                1836    England
Adding Machine           Pascal                     1642    France
Adhesive Tape, Scotch    Richard Drew               1930    USA
Aeroplane                Orville & Wilbur Wright    1903    USA
Aeroplane, Jet Engine    Hans von Ohain             1939    Germany
Aerosol Spray            Erik Rotheim               1926    Norway
Air Conditioning         Carrier                    1902    USA
Airship(Non-rigid)       Henri Giffard              1852    France
Artificial heart         William Kolff              1957    Netherlands
Atomic Numbers           Moseley                    1913    Britain
Atomic Theory            Dalton                     1803    Britain
Atomic Bomb              J Robert Oppenheimer       1945    USA
Automatic Rifle          John Browning              1918    USA
Bakelite                 Leo H Baekeland            1907    Belgium
                         Jacques & Joseph
Balloon                                             1783    France
                         Montgolfier
Ballpoint Pen            John J loud                1888    USA
Ballistic Missile        Wernher von Braun          1944    Germany
Barometer                Evangelista Torricelli     1644    Italy
Battery(Electric)        Alessandro Volta           1800    Italy
Bifocal Lens             Benjamin Franklin          1780    USA
                                                    1839-
Bicycle                  Kirkpatrick Macmillan              Britain
                                                    40
      
Bicycle tyres
                        John Boyd Dunlop             1888  Britain
(Pneumatic)
Bleaching Powder        Tennant                      1798  Britain
Burglar Alarms          Edwin T. Holmes              1858  USA
Bunsen Burner           Robert Wilhelm Bunsen        1855  Germany
Car(Steam)              Nicolas Cugnot               1769  France
Car(Petrol)             Karl Benz                    1888  Germany
Carburetor              Gottlieb Daimler             1876  Germany
Canned Vood             Nicolas Appert               1804  France
Calculus                Isaac Newton                 1670  Britain
Camera, Kodak           Walker Eastman               1888  USA
Cassette Videotape      Sony                         1969  Japan
Cassette, Audio         Philips company              1963  Holland
Celluloid               Alexander Parkes             1861  Britain
Cement (Portland)       Joseph Aspdin                1824  Britain
Chronometer             John Harrison                1735  Britain
Chemotherapy            Ehrlich                      1909  Germany
Cinema                  Nicolas and Jean Lumiere     1895  France
Clock (Mechanical)      I Hsing & Liang Ling Tsan    1725  China
Cloning, Mammal         Ian Wilmut's                 1996  UK
                        Herbert W. Boyer, Stanley N.
Cloning, DNA                                         1973  USA
                        Cohen, and Paul Berg
                                                           Japan,
Compact Disc player     Sony, Philips co             1979
                                                           Netherlands
Compact Disc            RCA                          1972  USA
Crossword puzzle        Arthur Wynne                 1913  USA
     
CT Scan                 Godfrey Hounsfield           1973  Britain
Disc, Video             Phillips company             1972  Holland
Diesel Engine           Rudolf Diesel                1895  Germany
Disc Brakes             Dr. F Lanchester             1902  Britain
Electroplating          Luigi Brugnatelli            1805  Italy
Electromagnet           William Sturgeon             1824  Britain
Electron                Thomson J                    1897  Britain
Electronic Computer     Dr Alan M turning            1824  Britain
Electric Flat iron      H.W. Seeley                  1882  USA
Electric Iron           Henry W.Seely                1882  USA
Electric Lamp           Thomas Alva Edison           1879  USA
Electric Motor (AC)     Nikola Tesla                 1888  USA
Electric Motor (DC)     Zenobe Gramme                1873  Belgium
Electric Washing
                        Alva J Fisher                1906  USA
machine
Facsimile Machine       Alexander Bain               1843  Britain
Film (Talking)          J. Engl, J.Mussolle & H Vogt 1922  Germany
Film (Moving Outlines)  Louise Prince                1885  France
Fibre-Optics            Narinder Singh Kapany        1955  Britain
Film (Musical Sound)    Dr Le de forest              1923  USA
Floppy Disk             IBM                          1970  USA
Fountain Pen            Lewis E. Waterman            1884  USA
Frequency Modulation    EH Armstrong                 1933  USA
Frisbee                 Walter Frederick Morrison    1948  USA
Galvanometer            Andre-Marie Ampere           1834  France
     
Glider                   Sir George Cayley          1853    Britain
Gramophone               Thomas Alva Edison         1878    USA
Holography               Dennis Gabor               1947    Britain
Hydrogen bomb            Edward Teller              1952    USA
Intelligence testing     Alfred Binet               1905    France
Jet engine               Sir Frank Whittle          1937    Britain
Laser                    Theodore Maiman            1960    USA
Lift (Mechanical)        Elisha G Otis              1852    USA
Lightning Conductor      Benjamin Franklin          1752    USA
Logarithms               John Napier                1614    Britain
Loom, Power              Edmund Cartwright          1785    Britain
Machine Gun              Richard Jordan Gatling     1718    Britain
Microphone               Alexander Graham Bell      1876    USA
                         Robert Noyce & Gordon
Microprocessor                                      1971    USA
                         Moore
Microwave Oven           Percy LeBaron Spencer      1947    USA
Movie Projector          Thomas Alva Edison         1593    USA
Microscope               Z.Janssen                  1590    Netherlands
Microscopes, Elect       Ernst Ruska, Max Knoll     1931    Germany
Motorcycle               Gottlieb Daimler           1885    Germany
MRI                      Raymond Damadian           1971    USA
Neutron                  James Chadwick,            1932    Britain
Neon lamp                George Claude              1910    France
Neutron bomb             Samuel Cohan               1958    USA
Nylon                    Dr Wallace H Carothers     1937    USA
      
Optical fiber           Narinder Singh Kapany        1955  Germany
Pasteurization          Lewis Pasteur                1867  France
Periodic Table          Mendeleyev                   1869  Russia
Photocopier             Chester Carlson              1938  USA
Photo Film, Celluloid   Reichenbach                  1893  USA
Photo Film,
                        George Eastman               1884  USA
Transparent
Photography (on Film)   John Carbutt                 1888  USA
Photography (on Metal) J.N. Niepce                   1826  France
Photography (on
                        W.H. Fox Talbot              1835  Britain
Paper)
Photoelectric cell      Julius Elster, Hans F Geitel 1893  Germany
Piano                   Cristofori                   1709  Italy
Pistol, revolver        Samuel Colt                  1836  USA
                        Kennedy,
Plutonium fission                                    1940  USA
                        whal,Seaborg,Segre
Pop-up toaster          Charles Strite               1927  USA
Printing (rotary)       Richard Hoe                  1846  USA
Printing (Web)          William Bullock              1865  USA
Proton                  Rutherford                   1919  New Zealand
Printing press          Johann Gutenberg             1455  Germany
Quantum theory          Max Planck                   1900  Germany
Radar                   AH Taylor and Leo C Young    1922  USA
Radio Telegraphy
                        G Marconi                    1901  Italy
(Trans Atlantic)
Radiocarbon Dating      Willard Libby                1947  USA
     
Radio Telegraphy        Dr Mohlon Loomis           1864    USA
Rayon                   Sir Joseph Swan            1883    Britain
Razor (Electric)        Col Jacob Schick           1931    USA
Razor (Safety)          King C Gillette            1895    USA
                        James Harrison, Alexandre
Refrigerator                                       1850    USA
                        catlin
Relativity Theory       Einstein                   1905    Germany
Rubber (Vulcanised)     Charles Goodyear           1841    USA
Rubber (Latex foam)     Dunlop Rubber Co.          1928    Britain
Rubber (Tyres)          Thomas Hancock             1846    Britain
Rubber (Waterproof)     Charles Macintosh          1823    Britain
Safety Pin              Walter Hunt                1849    USA
Safety Razor            King camp Gillette         1903    USA
Self-Starter            Charles F Kettering        1911    USA
Seatbelt                Volvo engineer Nils Bohlin 1959    Sweden
Ship (Steam)            IC Perier                  1775    France
Ship (Turbine)          Hon Sir C Parson           1894    Britain
Slide Rule              William Oughtred           1621    Britain
Spinning Frame          Sir Richard Arkwright      1769    Britain
Spinning Jenny          James Hargreaves           1764    Britain
Spinning Mule           Samuel Crompton            1779    Britain
Skyscraper              W Le Baron Jenny           1882    USA
Steam Engine            Thomas Savery              1698    Britain
Steam Engine(Piston)    Thomas Newcomen            1712    Britain
Steam                   James Watt                 1765    Britain
     
Engine(Condenser)
Steel(Stainless)        Harry Brealey                1913  Britain
Stethoscope             Laennec                      1819  French
Submarine               David Bushnell               1776  USA
Super Computer          J.H Van Tassel               1976  USA
Synthesiser             Moog                         1964  USA
Telegraph code          Samuel FB Morse              1837  USA
Telephone, cellular     Bell Labs                    1947  USA
Telephone (perfected)   Alexander Graham Bell        1876  USA
Television (electronic) P.T Farnsworth               1927  USA
Tank                    Sir Emest D Swington         1914  Britain
Tape Recorder           Fessenden Poulsen            1899  Denmark
Telescope               Hans Lippershey              1608  Netherlands
Telegraph               M Lammond                    1787  France
Television (mechanical) John Logie Baird             1926  Britain
Television, Colour      John Logie Baird             1928  Britain
Transformer             Michael Faraday              1831  Britain
Transistor              Bardeen, Shockley & Brattain 1948  USA
Uranium fission, atomic
                        Szilard Fermi                1942  USA
reactor
Vacuum cleaner          Spangler                     1907  USA
Velcro(hook-and-loop-
                        Geprges de Mestral           1948  Switzerland
fastner)
Videotape               Charles Ginsberg             1956  USA
Washing machine(elec) Hurley Machine co              1907  USA
     
Watch                   Bartholomew Manfredi       1462    Italy
Welder (electric)       Elisha Thomson             1877    USA
Wireless (telegraph
                        G Marconi                  1896    Italy
the)
X-ray                   W.K Roentgen               1895    Geremany
Zip Fastener            W.L Judson                 1891    USA
     
List of Malayalam literary awards
Jnanapeedam Award
 Year                     Recipient                         Work(s)
1965      G. Sankara Kurup                       Odakkuzhal
1980      S. K. Pottekkatt                       Oru Desathinte Katha
1984      Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai            Kayar
1995      M. T. Vasudevan Nair                   Overall Contribution
2007      O. N. V. Kurup                         Overall Contribution
Moorthidevi Award from Kerala
    Year                                     Name
2009           Akkitham Achuthan Namboothiri
2013           C. Radhakrishnan
2016           M. P. Veerendra Kumar
     
Kerala Sahitya Akademi Awards for Novels
Year                    Name of Book              Name of Author
1993   Ohari                                   K. L. Mohana Verma
1994   Mavelimannan                            K. J. Baby
1995   Sufi Paranja Katha                      K. P. Ramanunni
1996   Vridhasadanam                           T. V. Kochubava
1997   Janithakam                              M. Sukumaran
1998   Innalathe Mazha                         M. Sukumaran
1999   Kocherathethi                           Narayan
2000   Athmavinu sariyennu Thonnunna Karyangal C. V. Balakrishnan
2001   Alahayude Penmakkal                     Sara Joseph
2002   Aghorasivam                             U. A. Khader
2003   Vadakkuninnoru Kudumbavrithantham       Akbar Kakkattil
2004   Lanthan Batheriyile Luthiniyakal        N. S. Madhavan
2005   Kannadiyile Mazha                       Jose Panachippuram
2006   Kalapangalkkoru Grihapadam              Babu Bharadwaj
2007   Pathira Vankara                         K. Reghunathan
2008   Chavoli                                 P. A. Uthaman
2009   Aadujeevitham                           Benyamin
2010   Barsa Khadeeja                          Mumthaz
2011   Manushyanu Oramukham                    Subhash Chandran
2012   Andhakaranazhi                          E. Santhoshkumar
2013   Aarachaar                               K. R. Meera
2014   KTN Kotoor Ezhuthum Jeevithavum         T. P. Rajeevan
     
2015   Thakshankunnu Swaroopam                       U. K. Kumaran
2016   Sugandhi Enna Andal Devanayaki                T. D. Ramakrishnan
Kerala Sahitya Akademi Awards for Short Stories
Year                   Name of Book                  Name of Author
1966   Naalalu Naaluvazhi                      Parappurathu
1967   Achingayum Kochuramanum                 E. M. Kovur
1968   Thanuppu                                Madhavikutty
1969   Mothiram Karur                          Neelakanda Pillai
1970   Presidentinte Adyathe Maranam           N. P. Muhammed
1971   Jalam                                   K. P. Nirmal Kumar
1972   Payasam Tatapuram                       Sukumaran
1973   Muni Pattathuvila                       Karunakaran
1974   Sakshi                                  T. Padmanabhan
1975   Malamukalile Abdullah                   Punathil Kunjabdullah
1976   Marichittillathavarude Smarakam         M. Sukumaran
1977   Sakunam                                 Kovilan
1978   Pediswapnangal                          Sethu
1979   Oridathu                                Zacharia
1980   Aswathamavinte                          Chiri Kakkanadan
1981   Veedum Thadavum                         Anand
1982   Neeruravakalkku Oru Geetham             G. N. Panicker
1983   Vasthuhara                              C. V. Sreeraman
1984   Thrikkottur Peruma                      U. A. Khader
1985   Hridayavathiyaya Penkutty               M. Mukundan
     
1986   Swargam Thurakkunna Samayam          M. T. Vasudevan Nair
1987   Puzha Vettur                         Raman Nair
1988   Dinosarinte Kutty                    E. Harikumar
1989   Noolpalam Kadakkunnavar              Vaishakhan
1990   Bhoomiputhrante Vazhi                S. V. Venugopalan Nair
1991   Kulambocha                           Jayanarayanan
1992   Veeduvittu Pokunnu                   K. V. Ashta Murthy
1993   Manjilapakshi                        Maanasi
1994   Samantharangal                       Shatrughnan
1995   Higuita                              N. S. Madhavan
1996   Rathrimozhi                          N. Prabhakaran
1997   Aswasathinte Manthra Charadu Mundoor Krishnan Kutty
1998   Oru Rathrikkoru Pakal                Asokan Charuvil
1999   Reindeer                             Chandramathi
2000   Randu Swapna                         Darshikal Gracy
2001   Khadikaarangal Nilaykkunna Samayam   Subhash Chandran
2002   Karkkidakathile Kokkukal             K. V. Sebastian
2003   Jalasandhi                           P. Surendran
2004   Jagarooka                            A. S. Priya
2005   Thaapam                              T. N. Prakash
2006   Chavoli                              E. Santhosh Kumar
2007   Selected Stories                     Shihabudeen Poythumkara
2008   Komala                               Santhosh Echikkanam
2009   Aave Maria                           K. R. Meera
2010   Parasya Sareeram                     E. P. Sreekumar
2011   Polisukarante Penmakkal              U.K. Kumaran
     
2012   Peramaram                           Sathishbabu Payyannur
2013   Marichavar Cinema Kaanukayanu       Thomas Joseph
2014   Bhavana Bhedhanam                   V. R. Sudheesh
2015   Ashithayude Kathakal                Ashitha
2016   Adam                                S. Hareesh
Vayalar Ramavarma Award
Year                   Name of Book                      Author
1977  Agnisakshi                             Lalithambika Antharjanam
1978  Ini jnan Urangatte                     P. K. Balakrishnan
1979  Yanthram                               Malayattoor Ramakrishnan
1980  Kayar                                  Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai
1981  Makarakoithu                           Vailoppilli Sreedhara Menon
1982  Uppu                                   O. N. V. Kurup
1983  Avakasikal                             M. K. Menon (Vilasini)
1984  Ambalamani                             Sugathakumari
1985  Randamoozham                           M. T. Vasudevan Nair
1986  Sabhalameeyathra                       N. N. Kakkadu
1987  Prathipathram Bhashanabhedam           Prof. N. Krishna Pillai
1988  Thirunellur Karunakarante Kavithakal   Thirunellur Karunakaran
1989  Thathwamasi                            Sukumar Azhikkod
1990  Munpe Parakkunna Pakshikal             C. Radhakrishnan
1991  Gurusagaram                            O. V. Vijayan
      Changambuzha-Nakshathrangalude
1992                                         Prof. M. K. Sanu
      Snehabhajanam
1993  Marubhoomikal Undakunnathu             Anand
     
1994   Guru                                   K.Surendran
1995   Arangau Kanatha Nadan                  Thikkodiyan
1996   Oru Sangheerthanam Pole                Perumbadavam Sridharan
1997   Neermathalam Pootha Kalam              Madhavikutty
1998   Srishtiyum Srashtavum                  S.Guptan Nair
1999   Thattakam                              Kovilan
2000   Puzha Kadannu Marangalude Idayilekku   T.Padmanabhan
2001   Devaspandanam                          M. V. Devan
2002   Ayyappapanickerude Krithikal           Dr. K. Ayyappapanicker
2003   Kesavante Vilapangal                   M. Mukundan
2004   Alahayude Penmakkal                    Sara Joseph
2005   Sakshyangal                            K. Sachidanadan
2006   Adayalangal                            Sethu
2007   Appuvinte Anweshanam                   M. Leelavathy
2008   Haimavathabhuvil                       M. P. Veerendrakumar
2009   Marar Lavanyabhavathinte Yukthi Silpam Thomas Mathew
                                              Vishnu Narayanan
2010   Charulatha
                                              Namboodiri
2011   Jeevithathinte Pusthakam               K. P. Ramanunni
2012   Anthimahakalam                         A Achuthan Namboothiri
2013   Shyamamadhavam                         Prabha Varma
2014   Aarachaar                              K. R. Meera
2015   Manushyanu Oru Aamukham                Subhash Chandran
2016   Thakshankunnu Swaroopam                U. K. Kumaran
2017   Sugandhi Enna Andal Devanayaki         T. D. Ramakrishnan
Vallathol Award
     
  Year                                Name
1991    Pala Narayanan Nair
1992    Sooranadu Kunhan Pillai
1993    Balamaniyamma, Vaikom Muhammad Basheer
1994    Ponkunnam Varkey
1995    M. P. Appan
1996    Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai
1997    Akkitham Achuthan Namboothiri
1998    Dr. K. M. George
1999    S. Guptan Nair
2000    P. Bhaskaran
2001    T. Padmanabhan
2002    Dr. M. Leelavathy
2003    Sugathakumari
2004    K. Ayyappapanicker
2005    M. T. Vasudevan Nair
2006    O. N. V. Kurup
2007    Sukumar Azhikode
2008    Puthussery Ramachandran
2009    Kavalam Narayana Panicker
2010    Vishnu Narayanan Namboodiri
2011    C. Radhakrishnan
2012    Yusuf Ali Kechery
2013    Perumbadavam Sreedharan
2014    P. Narayana Kurup
2015    Anand
     
2016     Sreekumaran Thampi
2017     Prabha Varma
Ezhuthachan Award
  Year                                    Name
1993       Sooranadu Kunhan Pillai
1994       Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai
1995       Balamaniamma
1996       Dr. K. M. George
1997       Ponkunnam Varkey
1998       M. P. Appan
1999       K. P. Narayana Pisharadi
2000       Pala Narayanan Nair
2001       O. V. Vijayan
2002       Kamala Surayya (Madhavikkutty)
2003       T. Padmanabhan
2004       Sukumar Azhikkode
2005       S. Gupthan Nair
2006       V. V. Ayyappan (Kovilan)
2007       O. N. V. Kurup
2008       Akkitham Achuthanandan Namboodiri
2009       Sugathakumari
2010       M. Leelavathi
2011       M. T. Vasudevan Nair
2012       Attoor Ravi Varma
     
2013         M. K. Sanu
2014         Vishnu Narayanan Namboodiri
2015         Dr. Puthussery Ramachandran
2016         C. Radhakrishnan
2017         K. Sachidanandan
Kendra Sahitya Academy Awards (Malayalam)
Year                Name                                 Book
1955  R. Narayanappanikkar             Bhashacharitram
1956  I. C. Chacko                     Paananeeya Pradyoditham
1957  Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai      Chemmeen
1958  K. P. Kesava Menon               Kazhinjakalam
1960  P. C. Kuttikrishnan              Sundarikalum Sundaranmarum
1963  G. Sankara Kurup                 Viswadarshanam
1964  P. Kesava Dev                    Ayalkkar
1965  Balamaniamma                     Muthassi
1966  Kuttikrishna Marar               Kala Jeevitham Thanne
1967  P. Kunhiraman Nair               Thamarathoni
1969  Idasseri Govindan Nair           Kavile Pattu
1970  M. T. Vasudevan Nair
1971  V Sreedhara Menon                Vida
1972  S. K. Pottakkad                  Oru Desathinte Kadha
1973  A Achuthan Namboothiri           Balidarsanam
1974  Vennikkulam Gopala Kurup         Kaamasurabhi
1975  O. N. V. Kurup                   Aksharam
     
1976 Cherukaadu                  Jeevithapatha
1977 Lalithambika Antharjanam    Agnisaakshi
1978 Sugathakumari               Raatrimazha
1979 N. V. Krishna Warrier       Vallatholinte Kavyasilpam
1980 Dr. Punathil Kunjabdulla    Smarakasilakal
1981 Vilasini                    Avakasikal
1982 V. K. N                     Payyankathakal
1983 Prof. S. Guptan Nair        Theranjedutha Prabandhangal
1984 Dr. K. Ayyappa Panikkar     Ayyappapanikkarude Kavithakal
1985 Dr. Sukumar Azhikkod        Thathwamasi
1985 Kamaladas                   Theranjedutha Kavithakal (Eng.)
1986 Dr. M. Leelavathi           Kavithadhwani
1987 Prof. N. Krishna Pillai     Prathipaathram Bhashana Bhedam
1988 C. Radhakrishnan            Spandamapinikale Nandi
1989 Olappamanna                 Nizhalana
1990 O. V. Vijayan               Gurusaagaram
1991 M. P. Sankunni Nair         Chathravum Chamaravum
1992 M. Mukundan                 Daivathinte Vikrithikal
1993 N. P. Muhammad              Daivathinte Kannu
1994 Vishnu Narayanan Namboodiri Raappakalukal
1995 Thikkodiyan                 Arangukanaatha Nadan
1996 T. Padmanabhan              Gowri
1997 Anand                       Govardhanante Yaathrakal
1998 Kovilan                     Thattakam
1999 C. V. Sreeraman             Sreeramante Kadhakal
2000 R. Ramachandran             R. Ramachandrante Kavithakal
   
2001  Attoor Ravi Varma            Attoor Ravi Varmayude Kavithakal
2002  K. G. Sankara Pillai         K.G. Sankara Pillayude Kavitakal (Poems)
2003  Sara Joseph                  Alahayude Penmakkal (Novel)
2004  Paul Zachariah               Zachariyayute Kathakal (Short Stories)
2005  G. V. Kakkanadan             Jappana Pukayila (Short Stories)
2006  M. Sukumaran                 Chuvanna Chinnangal (Short Stories)
2007  Sethu (A. Sethumadhavan)     Adayalangal (Novel)
2008  K. P. Appan (posthumously)   Madhuram Ninte Jeevitham
2009  U. A. Khader                 Thrikottoor Peruma
2010  M. P. Veerendra Kumar        Haimavatha Bhoovil
2011  M. K. Sanu                   Ekanthaveedhiyile Avadhuthan (Biography)
2012  K. Satchidanandan            Marannu Vecha Vasthukkal (Poems)
2013  M. N. Paloor                 Kadhayillathavante Kadha (Autobiography)
2014  Subhash Chandran             Manushyanu Oru Aamukham (Novel)
2015  K. R. Meera                  Aarachar (Novel)
2016  Prabha Varma                 Shyamamadhavam (Poetry)
2017  K. P. Ramanunni              Daivathinte Pusthakam
P. Kunhiraman Nair Award
Year           Recipient                            Work(s)
1997  K. Satchidanandan          Malayalam
1998  Prabha Varma               Chandana Nazhi
1999  Puthussery Ramachandran    Utsava Bali
2000  Desamangalam Ramakrishnan  Maravi Ezhuthunnathu
2001  Vijayalakshmi              Mazhathan Mattetho Mukham
   
2002  O. N. V. Kurup                Ee Purathana Kinnaram
2003  D. Vinayachandran             Samasthakeralam P. O.
2004  Chemmanam Chacko              Ottayal Pattalam
2005  Attoor Ravi Varma             Attoor Ravi Varmayude Kavithakal – Bhaagam 2
2006  K. Ayyappa Paniker            K. Ayyappa Panikerude Kavithakal
2007  Sugathakumari                 Manalezhuthu
2008  Vishnunarayanan Namboothiri   Uttarayanam
2009  P. K. Gopi                    Sushumnayile Sangeetham
2010  Ettumanoor Somadasan          Jalasamadhi
2011  C. Radhakrishnan              NA
2012  Attoor Ravi Varma             NA
2013  P. P. Ramachandran            Katte Kadale
Basheer Award
 Year          Recipient                             Work(s)
2008    N. Prabhakaran          Thiranhedutha Kathakal (Stories)
2009    Rafeeq Ahammed          Aalmara (Poetry)
2010    Sarah Joseph            Ooru Kaaval (Novel)
2011    B. Rajeevan             Vakkukalum Vasthukkalum (Criticism)
2012    N. S. Madhavan          Ente Priyapetta Kathakal (Stories)
2013    Attoor Ravi Varma       Attoor Kavithakal (Poetry)
2014    Subhash Chandran        Manushyanu Oru Aamukham (Novel)
2015    Kalpatta Narayanan      Kavithayude Jeevacharithram (Criticism)
2016    Ashitha                 Ashithayude Kathakal (Short stories)
2017    Sebastian               Prethi Shareeram (Poetry)
   
2018  V. J. James       Nireeshwaran (Novel)
   

Kerala PSC - List of Joint Military Exercises of India 2019
     Name of Exercise         Participating Nations          Conducted at
'Exercise-SINDU
                       Indian Army                  Pokharan, Rajasthan
SUDARSHAN-VII'
KAZIND-2019            India and Kazakhstan         Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand
Dharma Guardian        India and Japan              Mizoram
                                                    Rajashtan
'Exercise Shakti-2019' India and France
2nd Edition of Samudra
                       India and Indonesia          Bay of Bengal
Shakti
Combat Exercise ‘Him   India and China              Arunachal Pradesh
       

Vijay’
Nomadic Elephant-XIV  India and Mangolia            Bakloh
                                                    Visakhapatnam and
“Tiger Triumph” 2019  India and the United States
                                                    Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh
‘Chang Thang’ 2019    India and China               Eastern Ladakh, China
SITMEX 2019           India, Thailand and Singapore Port Blair
Ekuverin 2019         India and Maldives            Pune, Maharashtra
Yudh Abhyas 2019      India and the US              Washington
MAITREE-2019          India and Thailand            Meghalaya
MALABAR Exercise
                      India, Japan and the USA      Japan
2019
Indo-Thai CORPAT 2019 India and Thailand            Thailand
KAZIND-2019           India and Kazakhstan          Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand
Yudh Abhyas – 2019    India and United States       Washington, US
                      China, Tajikistan, India,
"TSENTR 2019"         Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan,       Russia
                      Pakistan and Uzbekistan
                                                    Will conducted in december
"Hand in Hand"        India and China
                                                    2019 at Umroi, Meghalaya
       

Warfare Exercise                                   Andaman Island in the Bay
                      India
"IndSpaceEx"                                       of Bengal
Garuda-VI 2019        Indian Army and French Army  Mont de Marsan in France
                      Indian Army and Royal Oman   Jabel AI Akhdar training
AL NAGAH III 2019
                      Army                         camp, Oman
                      Indo-Bangladesh Military
SAMPRITI - 2019                                    Tangail, Bangladesh
                      Exercise
INDIA AFRICA FIELD                                 Aundh Military Station and
                      India and Africa Military
TRAINING EXERCISE                                  College of Military
                      Exercise
(IAFTX)- 2019                                      Engineering, Pune
                                                   Babina Military Station in
                      India and Singapore Military
Bold Kurukshetra 2019                              Jhansi district of Uttar
                      Exercise
                                                   Pradesh.
SIMBEX 2019 Naval     India, Singapore Naval
                                                   South China Sea.
Exercises             Exercise
Varuna 2019           India-France Naval Exercise  Goa Coast
AUSINDEX 2019         India and Australia          Vishakhapatnam
                                                   Chandimandir Military
IMBEX 2018-19         India and Myanmar
                                                   Station
Disaster Control
                      India and Japan              Yokohama in Japan
Exercise
      

                        Indian Border Security Force
Mainamati Maitree
                        (BSF) and Border Guards           Sipahijala, Bangladesh
Exercise 2019
                        Bangladesh (BGB)
Mitra Shakti VI         India- Sri Lanka                  Sri Lanka
2018
    Name of Exercise   Participating Nations                 Conducted at
VINBAX 1             India - Vietnam         Jabalpur ,Madhya Pradesh
                     India – United
Vajra Prahar                                 Joint base Lewis mc chord, Seattle Us
                     States of America
Shakrti - IV         India - France          Mailly be camp, France
Lamitye VIII         India - Seychelles      Mahe, Seychelles
Khanjar V            India - Krygyzstan      VAIRENGTE INDIA
Harimau Shakti       India - Malaysia        Hulu Langat, Malaysia
Surya Kiran XIII     India - Nepal           Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand
Maitree              India - Thailand        Chachoengsao Thailand
KAZIND 2018          India – Kazakhstan      Otar Region, Kazakhstan
Yudh Abhyas 2018     India – United          Chaubattia, Uttarakhand
      

                   states
Nomadic Elephant
                   India – Mongolia    Ulaanbaatar
2018
Dharma Guardian    India – Japan       Vairengte(Mizoram)
Indra 2018         India – Russia      Jhansi, UP
Vajra Prahar       India – USA         Bikaner, Rajasthan
Hand in Hand       India - China       Chengdu, China
INDRA NAVY
                   India - Russia      Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh
maritime
Konkan 18 Naval    India- United
                                       Goa
Exercise           Kingdom
Samudra Shakti     India- Indonesia    Surabaya, Indonesia
INDO CORPAT        India- Indonesia    Indonesia
JIMEX-18           India- Japan        Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh
SLINEX-2018        India and Sri Lanka Trincomalee, Sri Lanka
Mainamati Maitree                      Srimantapur in Sipahijala district,
                   Indian BSF and BGB
Exercise 2019                          bordering Comilla district in Bangladesh.
MALABAR Naval
                   Japan India U.S     Guam (pacific ocean )
Exercise
      

Sahyog HOP TAC
                    India-Vietnam     Bay of Bengal
2018 Naval Exercise
Sea Vigil Naval     Indian Navy and
                                      Kochi
Exercise            Coast Guard
      
      List of Nicknames of Eminent Persons
Photo              Person                            Nickname
      Benito Mussolini                  2nd Duce
      Dr. Rajendra Prasad               Ajatshatru
      Zainul Abdin                      Akbar of Kashmir
      Tanguturi Prakasam                Andhra Kesari
      C.N. Annadurai                    Anna
      Jagjeevan Ram                     Babuji
      Sheikh Mujibul Rahman             Bangabandhu
      Mahatma Gandhi                    Bapu
      William Shakespeare               Bard of Avon
      Ashutosh Mukherji                 Bengal Kesari
      Dr. Srikrishna Singh              Bihar Kesari
      Dr. Anugrah Narayan Singh         Bihar Vibhuti
      Jawaharlal Nehru                  Chacha
    
  C.F. Andrews                      Deenbandhu
  Gen Ervin Rommel                  Desert Fox
  Dr. Rajendra Prasad               Desh Ratna
  Chitta Ranjan Das                 Deshbandhu
  Yatindra Mohan Sengupta           Deshpriya
  Geoffrey Chaucer                  Father of English Poetry
  Ravi Shankar Maharaj              Father of Gujarat
  Mahatma Gandhi                    Father of the Nation
  Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan            Frontier Gandhi, Bad shah Khan
  Adolf Hitler                      Fuehrer
  George Bernard Shaw               G.B.S
  William E. Gladstone              Grand Old man of Britain
  Dadabhai Naoroji                  Grand Old man of India
  Dhundiraj Govind Phalke           Grandfather of Indian Films

  Rabindranath Tagore               Gurudev
  M.S. Golvalkar                    Guruji
  Kapil Dev                         Haryana Hurricane
  Karpuri Thakur                    Jana Nayak
  Rabindranath Tagore               Kaviguru
  Earl of Warwick                   King Maker
  Sayyed Bandhu                     King Maker of Indian History
  K.V. Puttappa                     Kuvempu
  Florence Nightingale              Lady with the lamp
  Napoleon Bonaparte                Little Corporal
  Sunil Gavaskar                    Little Master
  Bal Gangadhar Tilak               Lokmanya
  Jayaprakash Narayan               Loknayak
  Chanakya                          Machiavelli of India

  Dhyan Chand                       Magician of Hockey
  Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya          Mahamana
  Joan of Arc                       Maid of Orleans
  Queen Elizabeth I                 Maiden Queen
  Otto Van Bismarck                 Man of Blood and Iron
  Napoleon Bonaparte                Man of Destiny
  Lal Bahadur Shastri               Man of Peace
  Raja Ram Mohan Roy                Morning Star of India Renaissance
  Mother Teresa                     Mother
  Samudra Gupta                     Napoleon of India
  Subhash Chandra Bose              Netaji
  Sarojini Naidu                    Nightingale of India
  Lala Lajpat Rai                   Punjab Kesari
  Md. Ali Jinnah                    Quaid-i-Azam

  Chakravarti Rajagopalachari Rajaji/C.R.
  Purushottam Das Tandon            Rajarshee
  Bhagat Singh                      Sahid-e-Azam
  Vallabhbhai Patel                 Sardar
  Mahakavi Kalidas                  Shakespeare of India
  Sheikh Abdullah                   Sher-e-Kashmir
  Major General Rajinder Singh Sparrow
  Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel          Strong (Iron) Man of India
  Lata Mangeshkar                   Swar Kokila
  Amir Khushro                      Tota-e-Hind
  Ho Chi Min                        Uncle Ho
  Rabindranath Tagore               Vishwa Kavi
  Chandra Shekhar                   Young Turk

PSC - List of Nicknames of Indian Cities
 Name of the City                Nicknames                  State
                  1. City of Taj
Agra                                                Uttar Pradesh
                  2. Petha Nagari
                  1. Boston of India
Ahmedabad                                           Gujarat
                  2. Manchester of India
Amritsar          Golden City of India              Punjab
Asansol           Land of Black Diamond             West Bengal
Auroville         City of Dawn                      Pondicherry
Alappuzha         Venice of the East                Kerala
                  1. Electronic City of India
                  2. Garden City of India
                  3. IT Capital of India
Bengaluru                                           Karnataka
                  4. Science City of India
                  5. Silicon Valley of India
                  6. Space City
Bhagalpur         The Silk City of India            Bihar
Bhopal            City of Lakes                     Madhya Pradesh
     

                1. City of Prawns
Bhimavaram                                          Andhra Pradesh
                2. Second Bardoli of India
Bhubaneswar     Temple City of India                Odisha
Bardoli         Butter City                         Gujarat
Bhilai          Steel City of India                 Chhattisgarh
Chandigarh      The City Beautiful                  Chandigarh
                1. Auto Hub of India
                2. Detroit of Asia
                3. Gateway of South India
Chennai                                             Tamil Nadu
                4. Health Capital of India
                5. Banking Capital of India
                6. Motor city of India
                1. Textile City of India
                2. Manchester of South India
Coimbatore                                          Tamil Nadu
                3. Capital of Kongunadu
                4. Engineering City of India
Coorg           Scotland of India                   Karnataka
Cuttack         Silver City                         Odisha
Darjeeling      Queen of the Hills                  West Bengal
Dhanbad         The Coal Capital of India           Jharkhand
Dibrugarh       Tea city of India                   Assam
Dispur          City of Temples                     Assam
Durgapur        Rur of India                        West Bengal
Dharmavaram     Silk City of Andhra Pradesh         Andhra Pradesh
Gandhinagar     Green City                          Gujarat
                1. City of Chillies
Guntur                                              Andhra Pradesh
                2. City of Spices
Guwahati        Gateway of North East India         Assam
     

Gurgaon          Millennium City                     Haryana
                 1. City of Pearls
                 2. City of Nizams
Hyderabad        3. Hightech City                    Telangana
                 4. World Capital of Biryani
                 5. Bangle City
Indore           Mini Mumbai                         Madhya Pradesh
Ichalkaranji     Manchester of Maharashtra           Maharashtra
Itanagar         Land of Rising Sun                  Arunachal Pradesh
                 1. City of Palaces
Jaipur           2. Paris of India                   Rajasthan
                 3. Pink City
Jaisalmer        Golden City of India                Rajasthan
                 1. Pittsburgh of India
Jamshedpur                                           Jharkhand
                 2. Steel City of India
                 1. Blue City
Jodhpur                                              Rajasthan
                 2. Sun City
Jagdalpur        Tourism capital of Chhattisgarh     Chhattisgarh
                 1. City of Kaja
Kakinada                                             Andhra Pradesh
                 2. Pensioners Paradise
                 1. Leather city of the world
Kanpur                                               Uttar Pradesh
                 2. Manchester of North India
                                                     Jammu and
Kashmir          Switzerland of India
                                                     Kashmir
                 1. Gateway to Kerala
Kochi            2. Queen of the Arabian Sea         Kerala
                 3. Garden of Spices
                 1. City of Joy
                 2. City of Palaces
Kolkata                                              West Bengal
                 3. Cultural Capital of India
                 4. Gateway of Eastern India
      

                5. Heaven of the Aged
                6. City of Castles
                7. City of Buildings
Kolhapur        City of Wrestlers                   Maharashtra
                1. Cashew Capital of the world
Kollam          2. Gateway to Backwaters            Kerala
                3. Prince of Arabian Sea
Korba           Power Hub of India                  Chhattisgarh
Kanker          Gateway of Bastar                   Chhattisgarh
Kozhikode       City of Spices                      Kerala
                1. City of Letters(Aksharanagiri)
                2. City of Murals
Kottayam                                            Kerala
                3. City of Latex
                4. City of Lakes
                1. Land of Palm Trees
Kasaragod                                           Kerala
                2. Rice bowl of Kerala
                1. City of Nawabs
                2. Constantinople of the East
Lucknow                                             Uttar Pradesh
                3. Shraz-e-Hind
                4. The Golden City of India
                1. Athens of the East
                2. City of Festivals
Madurai         3. City of four junctions           Tamil Nadu
                4. Sleepless City
                5. Temple city
Malda           Mango city                          West Bengal
                1. Cradle of Indian Banking
Mangalore       2. Gateway of Karnataka             Karnataka
                3. Rome of the east
Muzzaffarpur    Lychee City                         Bihar
                1. Sports Capital of India
Meerut                                              Uttar Pradesh
                2. Scissor City
     

Madanapalli      Andhra Ooty                         Andhra Pradesh
                 1. City of Dreams
                 2. City of seven Islands
                 3. Financial Capital of India
Mumbai           4. Gateway of India                 Maharashtra
                 5. Hollywood of India
                 6. Maximum city
                 7. Maya Nagari
Mundi            Power Hub city                      Madhya Pradesh
                 1. Queen of the Mountains
Mussoorie                                            Uttarakhand
                 2. Hill Queen city
                 1. Green city
Mysore           2. Heritage City                    Karnataka
                 3. Sandal Wood city
Nagpur           Orange City                         Maharashtra
Nainital         City of Lakes                       Uttarakhand
                 1. California of India
Nasik            2. Grape city of India              Maharashtra
                 3. Wine capital of India
New Delhi        City of Rallies                     Delhi
Nilgiri          Blue Mountains                      Tamil Nadu
Namakkal         Egg city                            Tamil Nadu
Noida            IT Capital of NCR                   Tamil Nadu
Nalanda          Land of Knowledge                   Bihar
Patiala          Royal City                          Punjab
                 1. City of Handloom
Panipat                                              Haryana
                 2. City of Weaers
                 1. City of Diamonds
Palanpur                                             Gujarat
                 2. Flower city
Pondicherry      City of the East                    Puducherry
      

                 1. Abode of the God
Prayagraj        2. City of Prime Ministers          Uttar Pradesh
                 3. Sangam City
Pune             Queen of Deccan                     Maharashtra
Piduguralla      Lime city                           Andhra Pradesh
Purulia          Manbhum City                        West Bengal
Rajahmundry      Cultural city                       Andhra Pradesh
                 1. City of Sages
Rishikesh                                            Uttrakhand
                 2. Yoga City
                 1. City of Hospitality
Siliguri                                             West Bengal
                 2. Gateway to the doors
Shillong         Scotland of East                    Meghalaya
                                                     Jammu and
Srinagar         City of Lakes
                                                     Kashmir
                 1. City of Diamonds
Surat            2. Diamond city of India            Gujarat
                 3. Textile City of India
Tenali           Andhra Paris                        Andhra Pradesh
Tezpur           City of Blood                       Assam
Thane            City of Lakes                       Maharashtra
                 1. Rock Fort City
Tiruchirappalli                                      Tamil Nadu
                 2. Tucker Trichy
                 1. City of Paddy fields
Tirunelveli      2. Halwa city of India              Tamil Nadu
                 3. Oxford city of South India
                 1. Pearl City
Tuticorin                                            Tamil Nadu
                 2. Pearl Harbor of India
                 1. City of Statues
Trivandrum                                           Kerala
                 2. Evergreen City of India
      

                 1. Spiritual Capital of India
Tirupati         2. Spiritual Capital of Andhra      Andhra Pradesh
                 Pradesh
                 1. The Cultural Capital of Kerala
                 2. Land of Poorams
Thrissur                                             Kerala
                 3. The Land of Vadakkumnathan
                 4. Gold Capital of India
                 1. City of Lakes
Udaipur          2. Venice of the East               Rajasthan
                 3. White City
Ujjain           City of Temples                     Madhya Pradesh
                 1. Banyan City
                 2. Cultural city of India
Vadodara                                             Gujarat
                 3. Sayaji Nagari
                 4. World Capital of Garba
Vaniyambadi      Leather City of South India         Tamil Nadu
                 1. City of Lights
                 2. City of Temples
                 3. City of Learning
Varanasi         4. Holy City                        Uttar Pradesh
                 5. Oldest living city on Earth
                 6. Religious Capital of India
                 7. Spiritual Capital of India
Vijayawada       The Place of Victory                Andhra Pradesh
Visakhapatnam City of Destiny                        Andhra Pradesh
                 1. City of Lakes
Warangal         2. City of Temples                  Telangana
                 3. Second city of Nizam
Yavatmal         Cotton City                         Maharashtra
Yercaud          Poor Man's Ooty                     Tamil Nadu
Zunheboto        Land of Warriors                    Nagaland
      
Kerala PSC - List of Satellites Launched by ISRO
          Name                                      Keynotes
                                     2019
                         It is an earth observation spy satellite. It is dubbed as an
RISAT-2B                 all-weather 'spy' satellite because it can take pictures of
                         earth in day, night and cloudy weather.
                         It was launched In 2012. Radar Satellite-1 (RISAT-1)
                         enables imaging of the surface features during both day
RISAT-1
                         and night under all weather conditions.
                         It is used for Electromagnetic spectrum measurement. It
                         is the country’s first electronic surveillance satellite. It
EMISAT (436 kg)
                         also has a special altimeter called ‘AltiKa’ that works in
                         the Ka-band microwave region of the spectrum.
                         India’s telecommunication satellite. It will provide
GSAT-31 (2536 kg)        continuity to operational services on some of the in-orbit
                         satellites.
Microsat-R               It is an imaging satellite, is meant for military purposes.
Kalamsat-V2 (1.26 kg)    It is world's lightest satellite, made by Indian students,
      

                                        2018
                            It is India’s 35th satellite built to provide communication
GSAT-7A
                            capability to the users in Ku-band over the Indian region.
                            It is the heaviest satellite built by ISRO. It is India’s
GSAT-11 Mission (5854 kg)
                            next generation high throughput communication satellite
                            It is an earth observation satellite. The primary goal of
                            HysIS is to study the earth’s surface in the visible, near
HysIS (380 kg)
                            infrared and shortwave infrared regions of the
                            electromagnetic spectrum.
                            It is a multi-beam, multiband communication satellite of
GSAT-29 (3423 kg)
                            India
                            Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS)
IRNSS-1A to 1I              constitues 7 satellites launched from 2013 to 2018. All
                            the seven satellites serve the navigation purpose.
                            It is also a series of earth observation satellites that were
                            launched between 2016 to 2018. The satellelites provide
Cartosat-2 Series Satellite
                            regular remote sensing services using Panchromatic and
                            Multi-spectral cameras.
                                        2016
                            It third in the series of RESOURCESAT satllites for
RESOURCESAT-2A
                            intended for resource monitoring
                            Launched in 2011, It is a Remote Sensing satellite
RESOURCESAT-2,
                            intended for resource monitoring
                            Launched in 2003. It is a Remote Sensing satellite
RESOURCESAT-1
                            intended for resource monitoring
                            It aims to provide wind vector data products for weather
SCATSAT-1 (371 kg)          forecasting, cyclone detection and tracking services to
                            the users.
                            is an advanced meteorological satellite of India
INSAT-3DR                   configured with an imaging System and an Atmospheric
                            Sounder
      

                         It is predecessor of INSAT-3DR. It was launched in
                         2013. It is an advanced weather satellite of India
INSAT-3D
                         configured with improved Imaging System and
                         Atmospheric Sounder.
                                     2015
                         It is India’s first dedicated multi wavelength space
                         observatory. It endeavours for a more detailed
Astrosat                 understanding of our universe.It also enables the
                         simultaneous multi-wavelength observations of various
                         astronomical objects with a single satellite.
                                     2013
                         The Satellite with ARGOS and ALTIKA (SARAL) is a
                         joint Indo-French satellite mission for oceanographic
SARAL                    studies. SARAL performs altimetric measurements
                         designed to study ocean circulation and sea surface
                         elevation.
                                     2009
                         It is envisaged to provide continuity of operational
Oceansat-2 (960 kg)      services of Oceansat-1(IRS-P4) with enhanced
                         application potential.
                                     2008
                         India's first mission to Moon. The orbit initially was 100
Chandrayaan-1 (1380 kg)  km which now has been raised to 200 km during May
                         2009.
                                     2005
                         HAMSAT is a Micro-satellite for providing satellite
                         based Amateur Radio services to the national as well as
HAMSAT
                         the international community of Amateur Radio Operators
                         (HAM).
                                     2004
EDUSAT                   GSAT-3, known as EDUSAT is meant for distant class
      

                           room education from school level to higher education.
                           This was the first dedicated "Educational Satellite" that
                           provide the country with satellite based two way
                           communication to class room for delivering educational
                           materials.
                                       2002
                           It was earlier known as METSAT. It was renamed as
                           Kalpana - 1 on February 5, 2003 after the Indian born
                           American Astronaut Dr. Kalpana Chawla, who died on
KALPANA-1
                           February 1, 2003 in the US Space Shuttle Columbia
                           disaster. It is the first in the series of exclusive
                           meteorological satellites built by ISRO.
                                       1981
                           It was an experimental spin stabilized satellite designed
Rohini Satellite RS-D1
                           with a power handling capability of 16W.
                                 1979-1981
                           The First Experimental Remote Sensing Satellite built in
Bhaskara-I and Bhaskara II India to conduct earth observation experiments for
                           applications related to hydrology, forestry, and geology
                                       1975
                           The Aryabhata spacecraft, named after the famous Indian
                           astronomer, was India's first satellite; it was completely
Aryabhata                  designed and fabricated in India and launched by a
                           Soviet Kosmos-3M rocket from Kapustin Yar on April
                           19, 1975.
      
List of Tiger reserves in India


S.No.       Tiger Reserve         State      Total Area (km2)
1.    Bandipur            Karnataka         1456
2.    Jim Corbett         Uttarakhand       1288
3.    Kanha               Madhya Pradesh    2052
4.    Manas               Assam             3151
5.    Melghat             Maharashtra       2769
6.    Palamau             Jharkhand         1130
7.    Rathambore          Rajasthan         1411
8.    Similipal           Odisha            2750
9.    Sunderbans          West Bengal       2585
10.   Periyar             Kerala            925
11.   Sariska             Rajasthan         1213
12.   Buxa                West Bengal       758
13.   Indravati           Chhattisgarh      2799
14.   Namdapha            Arunachal Pradesh 2053
    
15.   Dudhwa                Uttar Pradesh     2202
16.   Kalakkad-Mundanthurai Tamil Nadu        1602
17.   Valmiki               Bihar             899
18.   Pench                 Madhya Pradesh    1180
19.   Tadoba                Maharashtra       1728
20.   Bandhagarh            Madhya Pradesh    1598
21.   Panna                 Madhya Pradesh    1579
22.   Dampa                 Mizoram           988
23.   Bhadra                Karnataka         1064
24.   Pakhui                Arunachal Pradesh 1198
26.   Nameri                Assam             344
27.   Satpura               Madhya Pradesh    2133
28.   Anamalai              Tamil Nadu        1480
29.   Udanti-Sitanadi       Chattisgarh       1843
30.   Stakosia              Odisha            964
31.   Kaziranga             Assam             1174
32.   Achanakmar            Chhattisgarh      914
33.   Kali                  Karnataka         1098
34.   Sanjay-Dubri          Madhya Pradesh    1675
35.   Mudumalai             Tamil Nadu        689
36.   Nagarahole            Karnataka         1206
37.   Parambikulam          Kerala            644
38.   Sahyadri              Maharashtra       1166
39.   Biligiriranga         Karnataka         575
40.   Kawal                 Telangana         2019
41.   Sathyamangalam        Tamil Nadu        1408
    
42.   Mukandra Hills          Rajasthan         760
43.   Nawegaon-Nagzira        Maharashtra       1895
44.   Magarjunsagar-Srisailam Andhra Pradesh    3296
45.   Amrabad                 Telangana         2611
46.   Pilibhit                Uttar Pradesh     730
47.   Bor                     Maharashtra       816
48.   Rajaji                  Uttarakhand       1075
49.   Orang                   Assam             492
50.   Kamlang                 Arunachal Pradesh 783
    
              List of Unique Phobias
        Name                               Phobia
Achluophobia               Fear of darkness
Acrophobia                 Fear of heights
Aerophobia                 Fear of flying
Algophobia                 Fear of pain
Alektorophobia             Fear of chickens
Agoraphobia                Fear of public spaces or crowds
Aichmophobia               Fear of needles or pointed objects
Amaxophobia                Fear of riding in a car
Androphobia                Fear of men
Anginophobia               Fear of angina or choking
Anthophobia                Fear of flowers
Anthropophobia             Fear of people or society
Aphenphosmphobia           Fear of being touched
Arachnophobia              Fear of spiders
Arithmophobia              Fear of numbers
Astraphobia                Fear of thunder and lightning
Ataxophobia                Fear of disorder or untidiness
Atelophobia                Fear of imperfection
Atychiphobia               Fear of failure
Autophobia                 Fear of being alone
                                B
Bacteriophobia             Fear of bacteria
    
Barophobia                 Fear of gravity
Bathmophobia               Fear of stairs or steep slopes
Batrachophobia             Fear of amphibians
Belonephobia               Fear of pins and needles
Bibliophobia               Fear of books
Botanophobia               Fear of plants
                                C
Cacophobia                 Fear of ugliness
Catagelophobia             Fear of being ridiculed
Catoptrophobia             Fear of mirrors
Chionophobia               Fear of snow
Chromophobia               Fear of colors
Chronomentrophobia         Fear of clocks
Claustrophobia             Fear of confined spaces
Coulrophobia               Fear of clowns
Cyberphobia                Fear of computers
Cynophobia                 Fear of dogs
                                D
Dendrophobia               Fear of trees
Dentophobia                Fear of dentists
Domatophobia               Fear of houses
Dystychiphobia             Fear of accidents
                                E
Ecophobia                  Fear of the home
  
Elurophobia                Fear of cats
Entomophobia               Fear of insects
Ephebiphobia               Fear of teenagers
Equinophobia               Fear of horses
                              F, G
Gamophobia                 Fear of marriage
Genuphobia                 Fear of knees
Glossophobia               Fear of speaking in public
Gynophobia                 Fear of women
                                H
Heliophobia                Fear of the sun
Hemophobia                 Fear of blood
Herpetophobia              Fear of reptiles
Hydrophobia                Fear of water
Hypochondria               Fear of illness
                              I-K
Iatrophobia                Fear of doctors
Insectophobia              Fear of insects
Koinoniphobia              Fear of rooms full of people
                                L
Leukophobia                Fear of the color white
Lilapsophobia              Fear of tornadoes and hurricanes
Lockiophobia               Fear of childbirth
                                N
    
Mageirocophobia            Fear of cooking
Megalophobia               Fear of large things
Melanophobia               Fear of the color black
Microphobia                Fear of small things
Mysophobia                 Fear of dirt and germs
                                N
Necrophobia                Fear of death or dead things
Noctiphobia                Fear of the night
Nosocomephobia             Fear of hospitals
Nyctophobia                Fear of the dark
                                O
Obesophobia                Fear of gaining weight
Octophobia                 Fear of the figure 8
Ombrophobia                Fear of rain
Ophidiophobia              Fear of snakes
Ornithophobia              Fear of birds
                                P
Papyrophobia               Fear of paper
Pathophobia                Fear of disease
Pedophobia                 Fear of children
Philophobia                Fear of love
Phobophobia                Fear of phobias
Podophobia                 Fear of feet
Pogonophobia               Fear of beards
   
Porphyrophobia             Fear of the color purple
Pteridophobia              Fear of ferns
Pteromerhanophobia         Fear of flying
Pyrophobia                 Fear of fire
                             Q-S
Samhainophobia             Fear of Halloween
Scolionophobia             Fear of school
Selenophobia               Fear of the moon
Sociophobia                Fear of social evaluation
Somniphobia                Fear of sleep
                                T
Tachophobia                Fear of speed
Technophobia               Fear of technology
Tonitrophobia              Fear of thunder
Trypanophobia              Fear of needles or injections
                              U-Z
Venustraphobia             Fear of beautiful women
Verminophobia              Fear of germs
Wiccaphobia                Fear of witches and witchcraft
Xenophobia                 Fear of strangers or foreigners
Zoophobia                  Fear of animals
  
Natural Acids of Fruits and Vegetables
Fruits
         Name                       Acid Present
            Apples                     Malic
            Apricots                   Malic and Citric
            Avocados                   Tartaric Acid
            Banana                     Malic
            Blackberries               Isocitric
            Cranberries                Citric
            Figs                       Citric
     
           Gooseberries     Citric
           Grapes           Malic and Tartaric
           Kumquat          Citric
           Lemons           Citric
           Orange           Citric
           Passion Fruit    Malic
           Pears            Malic
           Pineapples       Citric
           Raspberry        Citric
           Rosehip          Malic
           Strawberries     Citric
Vegetables
         Name            Acid Present
            Beans            Citric
            Broccoli         Malic
            Mushrooms        Lactarimic
            Potatoes         Malic
    
      Rhubarb         Malic
      Tomatoes        Malic

Office Holders in India


Portrait                     Office                           Name
         President of India                       Ramnath Kovind
         Vice President of India                  Venkaiah Naidu
         Prime Minister of India                  Narendra Modi
         Chief Justice of India                   Sharad Arvind Bobde
         Speaker of the Lok Sabha                 Om Birla
         Chief Election Commissioner              Sunil Arora
         Comptroller and Auditor General of India Rajiv Mehrishi
      
  Chairman of UPSC                          Arvind Saxena
  Attorney General of India                 K. K. Venugopal
  Chairman Public Accounts Committee        Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury
  Cabinet Secretary of India                Rajiv Gauba
  Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister Pramod Kumar Misra
  Secretary General of the Lok Sabha        Snehlata Shrivastava
  Secretary-General of the Rajya Sabha      Desh Deepak Verma
  National Security Adviser                 Ajit Doval
  Home Secretary                            Ajay Kumar Bhalla
  Finance Secretary                         Rajiv Kumar
  Defence Secretary                         Ajay Kumar
  Foreign Secretary                         Vijay Keshav Gokhale
  Solicitor General of India                Tushar Mehta

  Principal Scientific Adviser               K. VijayRaghavan
  Chief Economic Adviser                     Krishnamurthy Subramanian
  Chairman, NHRC of India                    H. L. Dattu
  Chairman, Department of Space              K Sivan
  Chairman, University Grants Commission     D. P. Singh
  Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission         K. N. Vyas
  Chairperson, CBSE                          Anita Karwal
  Chairman, 15th Finance Commission of India N. K. Singh
  Governor, Reserve Bank of India            Shaktikanta Das
  Chairman, SEBI                             Ajay Tyagi, IAS
  Chairman, IRDA of India                    Subhash Chandra Khuntia
  Chairman, National Stock Exchange          Ashok Chawla
  Chairman, Bombay Stock Exchange            Sethuratnam Ravi

  Chief of the Army Staff                   General Bipin Rawat
  Chief of the Naval Staff                  Admiral Karambir Singh
                                            Air Chief Marshal RKS
  Chief of the Air Staff
                                            Bhadauria
  Director, Intelligence Bureau             Arvind Kumar, IPS
  Director, Central Bureau of Investigation Rishi Kumar Shukla, IPS
  Secretary, Research and Analysis Wing     Samant Goel, IPS
  Director General, Border Security Force   Rajni Kant Mishra, IPS
  Director General, Central Reserve Police
    Force                                          Rajiv Rai Bhatnagar, IPS


Scientific Instruments and their uses


01.   Accumulator             It is used to store electrical energy
                                                                                       
02.   Altimeter               It measures altitudes and is used in aircraft.
                                                                                       
03.   Ammeter                 It measures strength of electric current (in amperes).
                                                                                       
04.   Anemometer              It measures force and velocity of the wind.
05.   Audiometer              It measures the intensity of sound.
                                                                                       
06.   Audiphones              It is used for improving the imperfect sense of hearing.
                                                                                       
07.   Barograph               It is used for continuous recording of atmospheric pressu
                                                                                       
08.   Barometer               It measures atmospheric pressure.
                                                                                       
09.   Binocular               It is used to view distant objects
10.   Bolometer               It measures heat radiation                               
11.   Calorimeter             It measures the quantity of heat.                        
12.   Carburettor             It is used in an internal combustion engine for charging 
                              with petrol vapor.
13.   Cardiogram              It traces movements of the heart, recorded on a cardiogra
                                                                                       
14.   Chronometer             It determines the longitude of a place kept the onboard s
                                                                                       
                              It is an instrument used in cinema making to throw on scr
15.   Cinematography
                              and enlarged image of the photograph.                    
                                                                                       
16.   Colorimeter             An instrument for comparing intensities of color.        
                                                                                       
                              An instrument to change or remove the direction of an ele
17.   Commutator              current, in dynamo used to convert alternating current in
                                                                                       
                              direct current.

                                                                                       
18.   Cresco graph     It measures the growth in plants.                               
19.   Cyclotron        A charged particle accelerator which can accelerate charged
                       particles to high energies.
20.   Dynamo           It converts mechanical energy into electrical energy<           
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
21.   Dynamometer      It measures force, torque, and power
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
22.   Electroscope     It detects the presence of an electric charge.
23.   Endoscope        It examines internal parts of the body.                         
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
                       A glass tube for measuring volume changes in chemical           
24.   Eudiometer       reactions between gases.                                        
                                                                                       
25.   Fathometer       It measures the depth of the ocean.
                                                                                       
26.   Galvanometer     It measures the electric current of low magnitude.              
                                                                                       
27.   Hydrometer       It measures the speci c gravity of liquids.                     
                                                                                       
28.   Hydrophone       It measures sound under water.
                                                                                       
29.   Hygrometer       It measures humidity in the air.                                
                                                                                       
30.   Kymograph        It graphically records physiological movements (Blood pressure  
                       and heartbeat).                                                 
31.   Lactometer       It determines the purity of milk.                               
                                                                                       
32.   Manometer        It measures the pressure of gases.                              
                                                                                       
33.   Mariner’s        It is an instrument used by the sailors to determine the
      compass          direction.
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
34.   Microphone       It converts the sound waves into electrical vibrations and to
                       magnify the sound.                                              
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
35.   Microscope       It is used to obtain the magni ed view of small objects.
                                                                                       
                       An instrument by which the distance covered by wheeled
36.   Odometer         vehicles is measured.
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
37.   Periscope        It is used to view objects above sea level (used in submarines) 
                                                                                       
38.   Phonograph       An instrument for producing sound.                              
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
                       The instrument compares the luminous intensity of the source
39.   Photometer       of light
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
40.   Potentiometer    It is used for comparing electromotive force of cells.
                                                                                       
41.   Pyrometer        It measures very high temperature.                              
                                                                                       
                       A highly accurate clock used in astronomical observations and
42.   Quartz Clock     other precision work
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
                       Radio, angle, detection, and range is used to detect the        
                                                                                       
43.   Radar            direction and range of an approaching airplane by means of      
                       radio microwaves                                                
                                                                                       
44.   Radiometer       It measures the emission of radiant energy.                     
45.   Rain Gauge       An apparatus for recording rainfall at a particular place.      
                                                                                       
46.   Recti er         An instrument used for the conversion of AC into DC.            
                                                                                       
47.   Refractometer    It measures refractive index.                                   
48.   Saccharimeter    It measures the amount of sugar in the solution.                
                                                                                       
49.   Salinometer      It determines the salinity of solution.                         
                                                                                       
50.   Seismograph      It measures the intensity of earthquake shocks.                 
                       This is used by navigators to nd the latitude of a place by     
51.   Sextant          measuring the elevation above the horizon of the sun or         
                       another star.                                                   


            Gallantry Awards in Indian


                                                                                                 
Param Vir Chakra :
It is the highest decoration of valour, that is awarded for the most conspicuous                 
bravery, some daring, prominent act of valour or self-sacri ce in the presence of the
                                                                                                 
enemy on land, sea or air. It is the highest Award to be conferred in War.                       
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
The decoration of Param Veer Chakra is worn on left breast with plain purple coloured            
riband of given width. The decoration of PVC is made of circular bronze structure with           
                                                                                                 
different details embossed on both sides.                                                        

                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
So far, since its inception, 21 Param Vir Chakra Award has been conferred upon the
Brave Sons of the nation. 14 of them have been awarded posthumously.
                                                                                                 
Maha Vir Chakra :                                                                                
Mahavir Chakra is the second highest decoration in India. It is awarded for acts of              
                                                                                                 
conspicuous gallantry in the presence of the enemy, weather on land, sea or air.
                                                                                                 
The decoration is made of standard silver in circular shape. It has “Mahavir Chakra”             
                                                                                                 
embossed in Hindi and English. It is worn on left breast with a half white and half              
orange riband with orange being near the left shoulder.                                          
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
So far, 155 Mahavir Chakra Award have been conferred.                                            
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
Vir Chakra :
Vir Chakra is third highest decoration awarded for acts of gallantry in the face of the          
                                                                                                 
enemy on land, sea or air.                                                                       
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
The decoration of “Veer Chakra” is made of standard silver with circular shape with its
                                                                                                 
name embossed in Hindi and English. It is worn on left breast with half blue and half            
orange riband, where orange is nearer the left shoulder.                                         
                                                                                                 
Peace-time Gallantry Awards:                                                                     
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
The following awards are given for services rendered during peace time.                          
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
Ashok Chakra :                                                                                   
                                                                                                 
Ashok Chakra is the highest Peacetime gallantry award, equivalent to Param Veer                  
                                                                                                 
Chakra. It is awarded for the most conspicuous bravery, daring act of valour, or self-           
                                                                                                 
sacri ce on land, sea, or air.
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
Apart from members of armed forces, paramilitary forces, police forces, civilians from           
all walks of life are also eligible for this award.                                              
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
It is worn on the left breast with a green silk riband with orange vertical line in middle.      
                                                                                                 
The Ashoka Chakra is made of gilt gold and circular shape with Ashoka Chakra                     
                                                                                                 
embossed on one side and a replica of Ashok Chakra on obverse.                                   
                                                                                                 
Till date, 63 people have been awarded with Ashoka Chakra by the President of India.             
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                 
Kirti Chakra :                                                                                   
The Kirti Chakra is awarded for conspicuous gallantry. It is made up of standard silver          
                                                                                                 
in circular shape. It is worn on the left breast with green silk riband divided into equal       
                                                                                                 
segments by two orange vertical lines.                                                           
Earlier it was known as Ashoka Chakra class II, before 1967.
Shaurya Chakra :
The Shaurya Chakra is awarded for an act of gallantry. It is exactly like the Ashok
Chakra, except that it is made of bronze. Even civilians are also eligible for this award.
Earlier it was known as Ashok Chakra Class III.