The Indian mainland can be divided into
                                                  five physiographic units namely
   India stretches 3,214 km from
                                               i.    The    Great Mountains of the North
   north to south and 2,933 km
                                               ii.   The    North Indian Plains
   from east to west.
   The total length of the main-               iii.  The    Peninsular Plateau
   land coastline is nearly 6,100              iv.   The    Coastal Plains
   km and that of the land frontier            v.    The    Islands
   is about 15,200km. The total
   length of the coastline includ-     dence, the country was divided                       bicameral legislatures. Legis-
   ing that of the islands, is about   into hundreds of small states                        lative power is distributed be-
   7,500 km.                           and principalities.                                  tween Parliament and state leg-
   With an area of about 32,87,263     The princely states were reor-                       islatures., India is the seventh        ganized on the linguistic basis
   largest country in the world,       in 1956 to form 14 states and 6
                                                                                  Northern Mountains
   accounting for about 2.4% of        union territories.                                   The mountains of the north are
   total world area.                                                                        young fold mountains.
                                       Now, the Indian Union con-
   The northern most point of the      sists of 28 states, 6 union terri-                   The Himalayas are the most
   country lies in the state of        tories and one national capital                      prominent among these
   Jammu and Kashmir and it is         territory (Delhi).                                   mountain ranges. Besides
   known as Indira Col.                In 23 states, the legislature is                     this, the trans-Himalayan
                                       unicameral. Bihar, Jammu and                         ranges and the hill ranges of
 Administrative Divisions
                                       Kashmir, Karnataka, Maha                             Purvachal are the important
   At the time of Indian indepen-                                                           units.
                                       rashtra and Uttar Pradesh have
       The Himalayas                                       Neighbours of India
   It is one of the youngest         India shares her borders with China (Chinese Tibetan Autonomous
   mountain systems in the world        Region), Nepal and Bhutan in north, Pakistan and Afghanistan in
   and comprise mainly                  north-west and Myanmar in east.
   sedimentary rocks.                Bangladesh forms almost an enclave within India on the eastern side.
  The Indus valley in Kashmir        In the south, on the eastern side, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk
  and the Brahmaputra valley in         Strait separate India from Sri Lanka.
  Arunachal Pradesh are              The boundary between India (Arunachal Pradesh) and China is known
  accepted as the western and           as McMohan Line.
  the eastern limits of the          The boundary line between the imperial India and Afghanistan is
  Himalayas in India.                   known as Durand Line.
  The Himalayan region is            The boundary between India and Pakistan is known as Radcliff Line.
  considered the largest snow        India is surrounded by the Indian ocean on its three sides, thus it is
  field in the world outside the        a subcontinent. The Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are its two
  polar ice caps.                       northward extensions. India and its neighbours Pakistan, Nepal and
  The Himalayan chain measures          Bhutan are known as the Indian sub-continent.
  about 2,500 km from west to east   The northern most tip, where the boundaries of China, India, Paki-
  and width of this fold system         stan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan meet is known as ‘Wakh Corridor’.
  varies between 150 and 400km.
  According to the plate
                                        Kanchenjunga in Sikkim is the       The Himalayas is the high-
  tectonics theory, the Indian          highest peak of the Himalayas       est mountain range in the
  plate moved northwards and its        in India. (8598 m).                 world and also the young-
  forward edge penetrated below         Highest Mountain Peak in In-        est mountain range.
  the southern edge of the              dia is K2 (8611 m).                  Longest Mountain Range is
  Tibetan plate. This resulted in    It is in Pak occupied Kashmir.         Andes in South America.
  the folding and uplift of the      The northernmost Himalayan
  Himalayas.                           ranges are called the Great or
  The Himalayas consist of three       Inner or Central Himalayas
   parallel ranges.                    (Himadri). Beyond this range            To the south of the Central
   (i) The southernmost range,                                                 Himalayas lies the second
                                       lies another range called the
        called the Siwalik is the                                              major range, the Lesser or
                                       Tethys or the Tibetan
        lowest.                                                                Lower or Middle Himalayas or
                                       Himalayas beyond which lies
   (ii) The ranges lying north of                                              Himachal. It is separated from
                                       the structural zone called the
        the Siwalik are known as                                               the Great Himalayas by the
                                       Indo-Tsangpo Suture zone.
        the middle Himalayas or                                                structural zone called the Main
        the Himachal.                                                          Central Thrust Zone.
   (iii) The northernmost ranges                                               The Himalayan rivers have cut
                                            Mount Everest or
        of the Himalayas, known as                                             deep gorges in the Himachal.
                                        Sagarmatha, the highest
        the Himadri, are the high-                                             In the Lesser Himalayas, slate,
                                      mountain peak (8,850 m) in the
        est with an average height                                             limestones and quartzites are
                                     world belongs to Himadri. Other
        of more than 6,000 metres                                              the dominant rocks.
                                     important peaks of this range are
        above the sea level.                                                   The southernmost range of
                                      Kanchenjunga (8,598m),
  The Himadri contain some of                                                  the Himalayan system is called
                                        Makalu (8,481m) and
   the world's highest peaks.                                                  outer or sub-Himalayas or Si-
                                            Dhaulagiri (8,172m).
  Mt. Everest (8848 m) in Nepal
                                                                               waliks. In between the outer
   is the world's highest peak.
                                                                               Himalayas and the lower Hima-
    layas lies the main boundary
    thrust. This valley zone is                                     KARAKORAM RANGES
    known by the name of doons
                                                     The mountains extending between the Pamir plateau and
    and duars.                                          the Indus river in Kashmir are known as the Karakoram.
The abode of snow                                    The Karakoram mountains contain the Siachen, which is
  Mountains between the Indus                           the world's largest mountain glacier.
     and the Brahmaputra are called                  Extend from the Pamir, east of the Gilgit River, 600 km long
     'the Himalayas' meaning 'the                       and the average width - 120-140 km.
     abode of snow.'                                   Ancient name was Krishnagiri.
  Ladakh Range lies to the                             Trans Himalaya, originally a part of Eurasian plate.
     south of the Karakoram Range                      Abode of largest glaciers in India.
     between the Indus and its                         Siachin, Baltoro, Biafo, and Hisper glaciers.
                                                       World’s second highest peak (in India): K2 or Godwin
     tributary the Shyok River and
                                                        Austen (8611m).
     extends upto Mustang in
                                                     Other Important Peaks:Gasherbrum I or Hidden Peak, Broad
     Tibet, over a distance of about
                                                        Peak and Gasherbrum II.
     1,000km.            The Trans-
                                                     The Siachin Galcier occupying the Nubra valley is about
     Himalayan Kailas Range is an                       75 km long and it is considered the largest glacier outside
     offshoot of this range and                         the polar areas.
     Mount Kailas (6,500m) is the
     highest peak in it.                          is a classical example. It is right-    boundary of India are called
  Zaskar Range lies south of the                  ly described as 'paradise on the        Purvanchal.
     Ladakh Range and the Greater                 earth'.                                 Nanga Parbat in Kashmir and
     Himalayas lie to its south. It is            The other important valleys are         Nandadevi in U.P. are the other
     often considered the western                 Kulu and Kangra in Himachal             two important peaks of the Hi-
     part of the Greater Himalayan                Pradesh.                                malaya.
     Range. The Nanga Parbat                      The doons in the Kumayun Hi-
     (8,126m) marks it culmination                malaya of Uttar Pradesh are
     in the north-west. Kamet                     also well known.
     (7,756m) is the highest peak.                The Brahmaputra marks the
  The Himalayas are known for                     eastern-most geographical lim-
    some of the beautiful valleys of              it of the Himalaya.
    the world. The Kashmir valley                 Mountains along the eastern
         The Himalayas are regionally divided into Punjab
        Himalayas, Kumaon Himalayas, Nepal Himalayas,
                             Assam Himalayas.
          N AM E                        L O C AT I O N               D I S TA N C E
  P unja b H im a la ya       B e tw e e n Ind us a nd S a tluj     560 km
  K um a o n H im a la ya     B e tw e e n S a tluj a nd K a li     320 km
  N e p a l H im a la ya      B e tw e e n K a li a nd Tista        800 km
  A ssa m H im a la ya        B e tw e e n Tista a nd D iha ng      720 km
                                Important passes of Himalayas
    Kashmir : Burzil and Zoji-la                               The Eastern Ghats are irregular hill ranges that
    Himachal Pradesh : Bara Lacha-la, Shipki-la.                  stretch from northern Orissa to the Nilgiris in
    Uttaranchal : Thanga-la, Niti-la, Lipu-Lekhla                 Tamil Nadu across the coastal Andhra.
    Sikkim - Nathula, Jelepla
    Khybar pass is the most famous pass which leads            The Satpura range extends from the Narmada
    from Peshwar to Kabul.                                        valley in the north to the Tapti valley in the south.
    South of Khybar pass is the Gomal Pass (it is in           The 800 km range Aravallis stretching from the
    Pakistan).                                                    north-east to the south - west of India sepa-
    The Bolan Pass leads from Kandahar to Quetta.                 rates the semi-desert regions of Rajasthan from
    The Purvachal Hills in the north-east consist of              the fertile Udaipur and Jaipur regions.
    the Patkai-Bum, the Garo-Khasi-Jaintia and
    Lushai Hills.                                              Aravallis is the oldest mountain range in India.
    Vindhya mountains cut off the northern plain from          Sahyadri hills is a part of the Western Ghats.
    the south.                                                    Nilgiris is also a part of Western Ghats. Nilgiri is
    The Peninsular mountains include The Western                  known as the Blue Mountains.
    Ghats (The Sahyadris), The Eastern Ghats, The              The southern most tip of Eastern Ghats is called
    Satpura Range and The Aravallis.                              Cardamom Hills.
    The Western Ghats runs along the west coast
    from the south of Tapti river valley to                    The Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats meet at
    Kanyakumari.                                                  Nilgiri Hills.
    Peninsular Plateau                                                                The plateau region includes a
                                                                                      number of other minor
  (The Deccan Plateau)                                                                mountains besides the Aravalli
                                                 The Peninsular
    It extends over eight Indian             Plateau (also called the                 and the Eastern and Western
    states and encompasses a wide          The Deccan Plateau) is a                   Ghats. They include the
    range of habitats, covering          large plateau in India. Deccan               Vindhyas and Satpuras in
    most of central and southern         Plateau is divided into three                Central India.
    India.                               major units – the Western Ghats,             The Satpuras, which lie
    It is separated from the             the Eastern Ghats and the                    between the rivers Narmada
    Gangetic plain to the north by         Deccan Trap. The Deccan                    and Tapi, have several hills
    the Satpura and Vindhya                  Plateau lies south of the                including the Rajpipla Hills in
    Ranges, which form its                      I nd o-G a ng e ti c                  Maharashtra, and the Maikal
    northern boundary.                                 plain.                         Range and Pachmarhi Hills in
    The Eastern Ghats and the                                                         Madhya Pradesh.
    Western Ghats constitute its                                                      The Western Ghats separate
    eastern       and     western           Aravalli Ranges in the west,              the Deccan Trap region from
    boundaries, respectively.               Malwa region in the centre and            the Western Coastal Plain
    The river Narmada, which                the Chotta Nagpur Plateau in              while the Eastern Ghats lie
    flows through a rift valley,            the east.                                 between the Eastern Coastal
    divides the region into two             The Deccan Trap represents                Plain and the Deccan Trap.
    parts: the Malwa Plateau in the         the core of the plateau region            The Western Ghats form a
    north and the Deccan Plateau            and it is in this part that the           continuous range from south
    in the South.                           oldest rock systems of India              to north and the highest range
    The northern part of the                are found. This region is made            of this region is often called the
    plateau is occupied by the              up of crystalline rocks.                  Sahyadri.
  The Western Ghats are                The Aravallis are one of                The Anai Mudi, the highest
  connected to the Eastern            the oldest fold mountains                peak, is 2,695 metres above the
  Ghats by the Nilgiri Hills (Blue                                             sea level. Udagamandalam is a
                                      in the world. The highest
  Mountains). South of these                                                   well known hill station of the
                                       peak of Aravalli range is
  are the Annamalai Hills                                                      south located in Tamil Nadu.
  (Annaimudi is the highest peak        Guru Shikhar near Mt.
  in the peninsular region) which            Abu (1,158m) in                      Plains of India
  are separated from the former                   Rajasthan.                   The vast plains of north India
  by the Palghat Pass.                                                         are alluvial in nature and the
  Two branches of the                     this part draining southeastern      western most portion is
  Annamalai Hills are known as            part of Rajasthan.                   occupied by the Thar Desert.
  the Palani Hills and the Yelagiri                                            The plains of south India i.e.,
                                          The Thar Desert merges into
  (Cardamom) Hills.                                                            coastal plains are also alluvial
                                          the Rann of Kutch. Much of
  The Sivasamudram Fall, the                                                   to a large extent.
                                          the Rann is a sandy area and
  Gokak Fall and the Mahatma                                                   The northern plain is known as
                                          parts of it are marshy.
  Gandhi Fall are important                                                    the Ganga-Brahmaputra plain
                                          The rocks of the Deccan Trap
  waterfalls in this area.                                                     and is divided into smaller
                                          are rich in deposits of a variety
                                                                               units like the western plain,
  The most important waterfall            of minerals. Granite, basalt,
                                                                               eastern plain, Bihar plain,
  formed by the Narmada is the            gneiss and quartzite are the
                                                                               Bengal plain and Brahmaputra
  Dhuandhar Falls near Jabalpur.          major rocks besides some
  The river flows through marble          limestone and sandstone.
  rocks in this region and hence          Some of the richest deposits             Northern Plain
  the Dhuandhar Fall is also              of manganese are found in            This plain lies to the south of
  called the Marble Falls.                Madhya Pradesh. Iron and             the northern mountain wall and
  The Aravallis due to erosion            gold are seen in Jharkhand and       stretches in the shape of an arc
  over a long period of time their        Karnataka respectively.              from the western most part of
  height has been reduced and             The Western Ghats mark the           the      country      to    the
  they can be considered relict           western boundary of the              Brahmaputra valley in the east.
  mountains.                              Deccan Plateau and they              Indo-Gangetic plain is one of
  River Chambal is the most               separate the plateau from the        the most extensive stretches of
  important river originating             coastal plain. The famous            the alluvium in the world.
  from the eastern slopes of the          Palghat, Borghat and Thalghat        The Indo-Gangetic Plains also
  Aravallis.                              are important gaps that              known as the Northern Plains
  The Luni and the Sabarmati are          facilitate passage over this         and The North Indian River
  the most important rivers rising        barrier.                             Plain encompassing most of
  from the Aravallis and flowing                                               northern and eastern India, the
                                                           are known by        most populous parts of
  in a westerly direction.           The Western Ghats
                                                            na m es . In       Pakistan, parts of southern
  The dry north-western part of      di ff er en t loca l
                                                           arnataka they       Nepal and virtually all of
  Rajasthan is part of the           Maharshtra and K
                                                             ri . Fu rt he r
  extensive Thar Desert that         ar e ca lle d Sa hyad                     Bangladesh.
                                                            d the Nilgiris
  extends into Pakistan.              south, they are calle                    The areas that are parts of the
                                                            further south,
  East of Aravalli range, the area    in Tamil Nadu. Still                     plains are as follows-
                                                            d Tamil Nadu
  is less dry and there are lower     along the Kerala an                      Bangladesh, Assam, Bihar,
                                                               kn ow n as
  hills like Bundi Hills. Chambal      bord er, th ey ar e                     Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab,
                                                             amom Hills.
  and its tributaries flow through     Anaimala and Card                       Rajasthan, Tripura, Uttar
  Pradesh, West Bengal, Nepal,                                          The foot hill zones of the
  Madhesh, Punjab, Sindh,                                               eastern plain in the northern
  Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya,                                            parts of West Bengal and still
  Jharkhand, Orissa, Balo                                               eastward are occupied by the
  chistan, North-West Frontier                                          Bengal Duars and Assam
  Province, Kashmir region.                                             Duars.
  The total length of the                                                   Coastal Plains
  northern plain is about 2,400km                                       The coastal plains separate the
  and the width varies from 145                                         peninsular plateau from the sea.
  to 480 km.                                                            The inner margins of the plains
       Western Plain                                                    are marked by the Eastern and
  The western part of the             and the delta plains of the       the Western Ghats that
  northern plain is also called the   Ganga and the Brahmaputra.        separate the Deccan plateau
  Indus plain or Punjab plain.        It is customary to divide this    region from the coastal low
  It slopes gently towards west       part into the Ganga plain and     lands.
  and extends into Pakistan           the Brahmaputra plain.            The Eastern and the Western
  through Punjab.                     An important division of the      Ghats that separate the Deccan
  The plain is drained by the         plain is made in terms of the     plateau region from the coastal
  Indus and its tributaries. That     khadar and the bangar zones.      lowlands.
  part of the plain that extends      The term khadar refers to the     The plain along the Bay of
  in India is drained into the        new alluvium and the bangar       Bengal coast is called the
  Arabian Sea by the rivers -         to the old alluvium.              Eastern Coastal Plain and the
  Sutlej, Beas and Ravi,              The lower part of the plain       one extending along the
  tributaries of the Indus that       adjacent to the rivers that is    Arabian Sea coast of India is
  join the main stream after          prone to frequent floods is       called the Western Coastal
  entering Pakistan. The Indian       called khadar.                    plain.
  part of the plain is also called    Bangar soils frequently have      The Eastern coastal plain of
  the Punjab and Haryana              beds of kanker or hard pans.      India stretches along the Bay
  Plain.                              The western part of the plain,    of Bengal from river
  Streams carrying water only         from Haridwar to Aligarh is       Subernarekha to Kanya
  during the rainy season and         called Upper Doab and from        Kumari.
  with their beds choked with         Aligarh to Allahabad is called    The northern part of this plain
  boulders are called chos in         the Middle Doab.                  is often called the Utkal plain,
  Punjab.                             The northern part of Ganga-       the middle one is the Andhra
  The water becoming sub-             Yamuna Doab and Uttar             Coastal Plain and the
  surface in this zone emerges on     Pradesh is covered by             southern most part is called the
  the surface in lower areas          Ruhelkhand Plain. This part       Tamil Nadu Coastal Plain
  down stream and produces            is drained by Ghaghra, Rapti      (also called the Coromandel
                                      and Gomti rivers.                 coastal plain).
  marshy conditions. Such
                                      The plain is characterized by     The rivers flowing into the Bay
  marsh areas in Punjab are
                                      streams that flow as sub-         of Bengal from the plateau
  called mand.
                                      surface channels in dry           region have contributed to the
  The only river that remains
                                      season. This area is called the   formation of this coastal plain.
  perennial in its upper course
                                      bhabhar or the ‘bhabar zone’.     Part of the plain that lies in the
  in Haryana is Ghaggar. This
                                      The marshy region at the foot     upper course of the rivers is
  stream is lost in the dry area in
                                      of the Himalayas is called the    called the upper plain and the
  Rajasthan.                                                            part in which lie the deltas of
                                      terai zone. Much of this zone
       Eastern plain                  has been drained out and          the rivers, is called the lower
  It comprises the flood plain        reclaimed for agriculture.        plain.
  The major rivers flowing                  this plain is called the     Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
  through the Eastern Coastal               Gujarat coastal plain        The southernmost tip of India,
  Plain are the Mahanadi, the               and the southernmost,        Indira point is in Great Nicobar
  Godavari, the Krishna and the             the Kerala coastal plain.    islands which is the biggest
  Kaveri. The delta regions of              In between these two         island in Nicobar group.
  these rivers are very fertile and         sections lie Konkan          The Lakshadweep in the Ara-
  support high densities of                 Coastal Plain in the         bian sea comprises of a group
  agricultural population.                  north and the Malabar        of 36 islands, about 300km to
  The western coastal plain                 Coastal Plain to the         the west of Kerala coast.
  forms a narrow strip of land              South.                       Only 10 of the islands are in-
  along the western coast of                                             habited.
  India. It stretches from Gujarat        The Islands                    Kavarathi is the capital of
  to Kerala.                                                             Lakshadweep.
                                      Besides the mainland, India has
       The Western Ghats                                                 New Moore Island lies in Bay
                                      two groups of Islands namely
       forming the inner margin                                          of Bengal near West Bengal
                                      the Andaman and Nicobar Is-
       of this plain are a much                                          also belongs to India.
                                      lands in the Bay of Bengal and
       higher mountain range                                             Coco Islands North of
                                      the Lakshadweep Islands in the
       than the Eastern Ghats                                            Andaman belong to Myanmar.
                                      Arabian Sea.
       that are more of a series                                         The Andaman and Nicobar Is-
                                      Andamans consists of a north-
       of discontinuous hills.                                           lands are close to the Indo-
                                      ern cluster of 204 small islands
       The rivers flowing down                                           Australian Plate Boundary.
                                      and Nicobar islands consists
       the escarpment like slope                                         Barren Island became active in
                                      of a southern cluster of 19 Is-
       of the Western Ghats are                                          1991 after being (inactive) for
       rapid streams and they do                                         over two centuries.
                                      Ten degree channel separates
       not form any deltas.                                              Minicoy islands is separated
                                      Andaman from Nicobar.
       The northernmost part of                                          from Maldives by 8o channel.
                                      Port Blair is the capital of
                                          RIVER SYSTEM OF INDIA
    The river system of the country can be classified on the basis of their origin in to two categories:
                                 i. The Himalayan Rivers and ii. The Peninsular rivers
The Himalayan rivers                                 Kulu hills of Himachal
The Himalayan rivers has three                       Pradesh.
principal systems                                    The Chenab is the largest of                  In Hindu tradi-
1. the Indus system                                  Indus  tributaries. It has a total         tion Triveni Sangam
2. the Ganga system and                              length  of 1,800 km  in India.          is  the  "confluence" of
3. the Brahmaputra system                           The    Jhelum,    an  important         three   rivers,  two physical
                                                    tributary of the Indus flowing         rivers Ganga, Yamuna, and
1. Indus system                                                                           the invisible or mythic
                                                    through the state of Jammu and
   It is one of the largest river                   Kashmir    (Srinagar  Valley is the   Saraswati River. The site is
   systems in the world. River                      valley  of the Jhelum)   rises in a    nearAllahabad, India. A place
                                                    spring  at Verinag.                     of religious importance
   Indus rises from Kailas
                                                  The Beas rises at Beas Kund                and the site for historic
   Range in the Tibetan Plateau
                                                    near the Rohtang Pass in                     Kumbh Mela held ev-
   region and is joined by a
                                                    Himachal Pradesh.                               ery 12 years.
   number of tributaries in
   Jammu and Kashmir.                           2. Ganga System
                                                   It is the largest drainage                 and Bangladesh and finally en-
     The most important tributaries
                                                   system of India carrying the               ters into the Bay of Bengal.
     of Indus include the Sutlej, the
                                                   run off of about 25 percent of             Ganga is known by the name
     Chenab, the Ravi and the Beas                 the total land area of the
     that join it after entering into                                                         ‘Padma’ in Bangladesh.
     Pakistan.                                                                                The river has been declared as
                                                     The River Ganga is the long-             India's National River.
  Sutlej is the largest amongst
                                                     est river (2640 km) in India. Its        It has been considered the ho-
     the tributaries of Indus.
                                                     source is at Gangotri glacier in         liest of all rivers by Hindus.
  After flowing through Pakistan,
                                                     the Himalayas.                           Some of the most important
     Indus falls into Arabian Sea.
                                                     Ganga, the main stream, is               Hindu festivals and religious
  River Indus is an antecedent
                                                     constituted by two major head            congregation (worship) such
     river as it is considered as older              streams, the Alakananda and
     than the Himalayas.                                                                      as the Kumbh Mela every
                                                     Bhagirathi.         These two            twelve           years         at
  River Sutlej rises beyond the                      headstreams of the Ganga join            Media:Allahabad and the
     Himalayas and has cut a gorge                   at Devprayag.                            Chhath Puja.
     through the Central Himalayan                   The source of the Alakananda             The Ganges Basin drains
     Range.                                          is near the Tibetan border and           1,000,000-square-kilometre
  The Ravi is the smallest river                     that of the Bhagirathi near              (390,000 sq mi) and supports
      of Punjab and is well-known as                 Gangotri.                                one of the world's highest den-
      the 'River of Lahore.' It rises                The Ganga is joined by the
                                                                                              sity of humans.
      near the Rohtang pass in the                   Yamuna near Allahabad.
                                                                                              Only two rivers, the Amazon
                                                     Yamuna, Gomti, Ghagra,
                                           d                                                  and the Congo, have greater
                      avi, Chenab an                 Gandak, Ramganga, Son,
  Sutlej, Beas, R             ibut ar ies of         Chambal, Betwa and Ken are
                                                                                              discharge than the combined
                      five tr
  Jhelum are the                            is                                                flow of the Ganges, the
                  nt K ailash in Tibet               the main tributaries of Ganga.
   Indus. Mou                    r. It  fa ll s      Ganga flows through Uttar
                                                                                              Brahmaputra and the Surma-
                       dus rive
   the source of In                                  Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal
                                                                                              Meghna river system.
    into the Arabian
3. Brahmaputra system                      dia. The source of the river lies   peninsular India. It rises from
                                           in the Nasik district of Maha-      Trambak in Nasik district in the
    Brahmaputra is the third
    major antecedent river of              rashtra and it traverses over a     Western Ghats.
    India flowing from the                 course of more than 1,400km.        Rajahmundry, is the largest
    Himalayan region towards               It is commonly known as ‘Vrid-      city on the banks of Godavari.
    the northern plains.                   dha Ganga’.                         The Peninsular rivers are gen-
                                       Krishna System                          erally rain-fed and, therefore,
     The 2,688 km Brahmaputra is                                               fluctuate greatly in volume. A
                                           It is the second largest east
     longer than the Ganges, but                                               very large number of them are
                                           flowing system of the penin-
     only one third of the river                                               non-perennial.
     passes through India.                 sular region.
                                                                               Peninsular rivers contribute 30
     Brahmaputra originates from           The river rises in Western
                                                                               percent of the total outflow in
     the Manasarovar lake in               Ghats near Mahabaleshwar
     Western Tibet. It flows for a         and flows in a north-easterly
                                                                               The major Deccan rivers are
     long distance parallel to the         direction to Divi in Andhra
                                                                               the Godavari, Krishna, Cau-
     Himalayan ranges in an                Pradesh. It is commonly
                                                                               very, Pennar, Mahanadi, Damo-
     easterly direction. Here, it is       known as ‘Dakshina Ganga’.
                                                                               dar, Sharavati, Netravati, Bhar-
     known as the Tsangpo.             Kaveri system                           athapuzha, Periyar, Pamba,
     It takes a southward turn and         The river Kaveri is the most        Narmada and Tapti.
     enters India in eastern               southerly among the major riv-      There are three major rivers –
     Arunachal Pradesh under the           ers of the peninsular region        Narmada, Tapti and Sabarmati
     name Dihang.
                                           flowing into the Bay of Ben-        flowing into the Arabain sea
     When it enters Bangladesh, it
                                           gal.                                from the Peninsular region.
     is named as 'Meghna.'
                                           It rises in the Brahmagiri Hills    Narmada and Tapti are the
     The Ganga and the
                                           in Coorg district and flows to-     major west flowing rivers of
     Brahmaputra          join      in
     Bangladesh and form the               wards the coast.                    India. They drain into the Gulf
     extensive delta of Sunderbans.        It descends from South Karna-       of Cambay in the Arabian Sea.
     It derives the name from the          taka Plateau to the Tamil Nadu      The river Narmada rises in the
     Sundri tree that grows widely         Plains through the famous           Amarkantak plateau, flows
     in this region.                       Sivasamudram waterfalls.            through a rift valley and makes
                                                                               a number of waterfalls. The
Mahanadi system                           Peninsular rivers                    Marble Falls near Jabalpur is
It drains a large part of Orissa.                                              a famous fall on this river.
      The Mahanadi is one of the           It is a river that flows
                                                                               The Tapti (Tapi) rises near
      major rivers of peninsular pla-      through the peninsular
                                                                               Betul district. The Parna,
      teau region flowing into Bay         part of a country.( a penin-
                                                                               flowing from the Gawilgarh
      of Bengal.                           sula is a patch of land cov-
                                                                               Hills, is the most important
      The Seonath, the Hasdeo and          ered by water on three sides        tributary joining the Tapti near
      the Mand join it from the north      and connected to a land on          Bhusawal.
      and the Jonk joins from south.       the fourth side)                    Satpura Mountain range lies
      The river forms its delta in the     Peninsular rivers (The Deccan       between Narmada and Tapti.
      Cuttack district of Orissa be-       rivers) are generally rainfed       The Sabarmati rises in the
      fore flowing into the Bay of         and comprises the rivers of         Aravallis in Rajasthan and
      Bengal.                              peninsular India. They are          flows into the Gulf of Cambay
Godavari System                            shorter and seasonal in nature.     in Gujarat.
      Godavari is the largest among        River Godavari is the largest       River Krishna rises from the
      the rivers of the Peninsular In-     river system (1465 km long) of      north of Mahabaleswar in the
                                      The Main Rivers in India
Name                    Length    Originates                      Ends in                   Passes through
                        (km)       from
Ganga (Bhagirati)        2,507     Gaumukh                        Bay of Bengal             Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and W.Bengal
Yamuna (Jamuna)         1370      Garhwal in Yamunotri            Bay of Bengal             Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh
Brahmaputra             2,850     Chemayung-Dung glacier,         Bay of Bengal             North Eastern states of India
                                  between lake Manasarovar
                                  and Mount Kailash
(Dakshina Ganga" or      765      Hills of Coorg, Karnataka       Bay of Bengal             Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
Ganges of the south)
Godavari                1,465     Trimbakeshwar near Nasik         Bay of Bengal            South-easterly direction, through
                                  Hills in Maharashtra                                      Maharastra and Andhra Pradesh
Krishna                  900      Near Mahabaleshwar in            Bay of Bengal            Maharastra, Karnataka and Andhra
Narmada                 1,300      Amarkantak hill in              Arabian Sea              Maharastra, Madhya Pradesh and
                                  Madhya Pradesh                                            Gujarat
Tapti                    724      Pachmari, Madhya Pradesh         Arabian Sea              Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat
Gomti                   805       Himalaya Range of Nepal         Bay of Bengal             Uttar Pradesh
Ghaghara                          Shivalik mountain range of      Disappears into            Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan
                                  Himachal Pradesh                the Thar Desert
Mahanadi                860       Satpura Range                   Bay of Bengal             Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa and
     Western Ghats. It enters into           quent flood.                                      sandy areas of Rajasthan.
     the Bay of Bengal. Krishna              Sabarmati rises from the Jai                      Some of Peninsular rivers such
     basin forms the third largest           Samand lake of Udaipur,                           as Narmada and Tapti form es-
     river basin in India.                   Rajasthan.                                        tuaries. Other rivers such as
     River Cauvery rises from the            The Luni originates from                          Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna,
     Brahmagiri hills in the Coorg           Annasagar in the Aravallis and                    Cauvery form deltas.
     district of Tamilnadu. It is            ends on the Sahni marshes,                 Drainage of the Thar
     known as Dakshina Ganga.                North of Rann of Kutch.                    Desert Region
     About 55 percent of the                 The Third river system is also                    The greater part of Rajasthan
     Cauvery basin          lies in          called the ‘Rivers of Inland                      and Gujarat is dry land, which
     Tamilnadu, 41 percent in                Drainage Basins’ which con-                       forms a part of the Thar desert.
     Karnataka and three percent in          sists of small rivers in the
                                                                           Sunderban                                 Ganges
     The Cauvery water Dispute
                                                                   t de lta , Su  nd  er ba ns is formed by the
     Tribunal gave its final verdict         The world’s larges                                        ladesh, in the Bay of
     in 2006. It ordered Karnataka                        ap utra in   W  est Bengal and Bang                        al halo-
                                              and  Br ah m
                                                                      ba ns   is th e la rg es t single block of tid
     to release 192 TMCFT water to            Bengal. The Sundar                                                     the vast
                                                                      re st in  th e  wo  rld . The forest lies in
     Tamil Nadu every year.                   phytic mangrove     fo                                                   of the
     River Pennar rises in the Kolar                                    Be  ng  al  fo rm  ed    by the confluence
                                                                    of                                                     rn
                                               delta on the Bay                                        er s across sout he
     district of Karnataka.
                                                    ge s, Br ah m ap  ut ra an d Meghna riv                    as a UN ES CO
                                               Gan                                                e inscribed
     River Damodar is called as                                      est Bengal. It becam
     "Sorrow of Bengal and                     Bangladesh and W
                                                                      in 1997.
     Jharkhand", because of fre-               world heritage site
            Difference between the Himalayan                                  (Andhra Pradesh). Wular is the
                                                                              second largest fresh water lake.
                      and the Peninsular Rivers                               The largest saltwater lake :
       Rivers such as Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra etc., are antecedent         Lake Chilka (Orissa)
       rivers i.e., they are older than the landforms over which the          The second largest salt water
       Himalayan rivers flow.                                                 lake is Sambhar in Rajasthan.
       Due to their sources in the snowfields, the Himalayan rivers           It is the largest inland salt lake
       are perennial and carry large amounts of water. Their erosional        in India.
       capacity is immense and they carry large amounts of silt.              Dal Lake is famous for house
       Most of the rivers of the peninsular plateau are consequent            boats.
       streams and they follow the general slope of the plateau region.       The lakes of India generally
       Their valleys are well developed and they do not change their          classified as fresh water and
       course frequently.                                                     brakish lakes.
       Further, the peninsular rivers are seasonal in character as they
       are rainfed.                                                           Important lakes in India
       Due to a lesser amount of flow, the hydroelectricity generation        Chilka (Orissa)
       potential of the peninsular rivers is much lower than the              Sambar (Rajasthan)
       Himalayan rivers.                                                      Pulicat (Andhra Pradesh)
                                                                              Vembanad (Kerala)
    The Thar Desert (also known              is the river Luni.
                                                                              Wular (J & K)
    as the Great Indian Desert), is          The river Luni rises in the
    a large, arid region in the              Aravalli Ranges and enters the   Dal (J & K)
    northwestern part of the Indian          Arabian Sea through the Rann     Uday Sagar (Rajasthan)
    subcontinent.                            of Kutch.                        Pushkar (Rajasthan)
    The Cholistan Desert adjoins             For most of the year, Luni is    Loktak (Manipur Hills)
    the Thar desert spreading into           dry.                             Bhimtal Lake (Nainital)
    Pakistani Punjab province.                        Lakes                   Roopkund Lake
    It is an area of internal drainage                                        (Uttaranchal)
    and the only river rising or             The largest fresh water lake     Osman sagar lake
    flowing through this territory           in India: Lake Kolleru           (Andhra)
  India stands fifth in the world       Pradesh.                              Falls, the highest in India.
  after Congo, Russia, Canada           The Nagarjunasagar project            Its total capacity is 891 MW. It
  and the United States in po-          is built on the river Krishna in      feeds Bangalore industrial re-
  tential of water power re-            Andhra Pradesh irrigates              gion and is also taken to the
  sources.                              8,67,000 hectares of land.            states of Goa and Tamil Nadu.
  Damodar River Valley project          The dam has been named after          The Sabarigiri project in Kerala
  was the first multi-purpose river     the      Buddhist       scholar       has an installed capacity of 300
  valley project in Free India.         Nagarjuna.                            MW while the Idukki project
  The project-irrigates half a mil-     The Chambal project helps ir-         has a capacity of 390 MW.
  lion hectares of land in West         rigate parts of Madhya                The Balimela project in Orissa
  Bengal and parts of south-east        Pradesh and Rajasthan.                has an installed capacity of 360
  Bihar.                                The project consists of Gandhi        MW and in Gujarat Ukai
  The Bhakra Nangal Project is          Sagar Dam in Madhya                   Project has a capacity of 300
  an example of water manage-           Pradesh, and Kota Barrage and         MW.
  ment on scientific lines on the       Jawahar Sagar Dam in                  In Jammu and Kashmir Salal
  largest scale.                        Rajasthan.                            Hydel Power project provide
  The project serves the states     Hydel power projects                      over a thousand MW of power.
  of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab,          In the year 1902 the first water      Tehri Hydel Power project is a
  Haryana, Rajasthan and the            power house was set up on the         joint project of the Govt of In-
  National Capital Territory of         river Kaveri at Sivasamudram          dia and Uttaranchal. Tehri Hy-
  Delhi.                                in Karnataka.                         dro Development Corporation
  Indira Gandhi or Rajasthan            Tata Hydro electric scheme was        was set up in 1988.
  Canal is the longest irrigation       introduced in the western ghats       Narmada Valley Development
  canal in the world                    of Maharashtra to furnish             Authority (NVDA), is an or-
  Indira Gandhi Canal Project in        power to the city of Mumbai.          ganization of Govt. of M.P.
  Rajasthan utilized water of           In Tamil Nadu, Pykara was the         constituted for planning wa-
  Satluj, Beas and Ravi to irrigate     first water power station.            ter resources development in
  north-western parts of the            In the north, Mandi power             Narmada basin
  country                               house was the first to be de-         Narmada is the fifth largest
  The Kosi project in Bihar has         veloped in the Himalayan re-          river in India and largest west
  been taken up in cooperation          gion. The next one to be taken        flowing river of Indian penin-
  with Nepal.                           up was the Upper Ganga Ca-            sula originating from Maikala
  Its main aim has been to con-         nal Hydroelectric Grid System.        ranges at Amarkantak in
  trol floods brought by the river      The Rihand project is the larg-       Madhya Pradesh
  Kosi, known as the 'River of          est manmade lake in India on
  Sorrow' for north Bihar.              the borders of Madhya
  The main canal is taken off           Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.             DAM and RIVER
  from Hanumannagar barrage             The Koyna project in
  on the Kosi.                          Maharashtra is on the east       Bhakranangal Dam ............. Sutlej
  Another important joint ven-          flowing tributary of the         Hirakud ...................... Mahanadi
  ture of India and Nepal is the        Krishna. Its capacity is 880     Tehri Dam ................ Bhageerathi
  Gandak Project.                       MW. It feeds power to            Uri Power Project ............. Jhelum
  The Hirakud dam in Orissa is          Mumbai-Pune industrial re-
                                                                         Nagarjunasagar Dam ....... Krishna
  the longest dam in the world.         gion.
  The Tungabhadra Project               The Sharavathy project in        Kosi Project ......................... Kosi
  serves Karnataka and Andhra           Karnataka is located at the Jog  Koyna Project ................. Krishna
 •    Garland Canal Project linked Peninsular rivers of South India and Himalayan rivers through Canals.
 •    The Farakka Barrage Project is designed to serve the need of preservation and maintenance of the
      Kolkata Port by improving the regime and navigability of the Bhagirathi-Hoogly river system.
 •    The Grand Anicut also known as the Kallanai, was built by the Chola king Karikala Cholan in AD
      26. It is considered as one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world,
      which is still in use.
 •    Uttar Pradesh occupies the First place with the total length of rivers and canals as 31.2 thousand
      km, which is about 17 percent of the total length of rivers and canals in the country. Other states
      following Uttar Pradesh are Jammu & Kashmir and Madhya Pradesh.
                                MULTI-PURPOSE PROJECTS
PROJECT                           RIVER                          STATE                    PURPOSE
Bhakra Nangal Multipurpose Sutlej                                Joint venture of Punjab, Irrigation, hydro electricity
Project                           (A tributary of Indus)         Haryana and Rajasthan.
Bhakra dam: One of the highest
gravity dam in the world.
Govind Sagar Lake (H.P.) is a
Thein Dam project                 Ravi (A tributary of Indus).   Punjab                   Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
Dulhasti project                  Chenab (A tributary of Indus)  Jammu and Kashmir        Part of the programme of
                                                                                          cascade development for
Salal project                     Chenab (A tributary of Indus). Jammu and Kashmir        Irrigation
Beas project                      Beas (A tributary of Indus).   Joint venture of Punab, Hydro electricity
                                                                 Haryana and Rajasthan.
Sharda Sahayak Project            Ghagra (left bank tributary of Uttar Pradesh            Irrigation
Ramganga multipurpose project     Chuisot stream near Kalabagh Uttar Pradesh              Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
Banasagar project                 Son                            M.P., Bihar and U.P.     Irrigation
Rihand S che me Re se r vo ir : Rihand                           Uttar Pradesh            Hydroelectricity for the
Govind Ballabh Sagar (U.P.).                                                              d evelo p ment o f so uth
                                                                                          eastern industrial region of
Upper Krishna Project         Krishna                        Karnataka                Irrigation (Almatti dam is
                                                                                      being constructed).
Tungabhadra multipurpose Tungbhadra (A tributary of Joint venture of Andhra Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
project.                      Krishna)                       Pradesh and Karnataka.
Ghatprabha project            Ghatprabha (A tributary of Andhra Pradesh and Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
                              Krishna).                      Karnataka
Malprabha project             Malprabha (A tributary of Karnataka                     Irrigation
Bhima project                 Bhima                          Maharashtra              Irrigation
Mettur project                Cauvery                        Tamil Nadu               Hydroelectricity
Shivasamudram scheme          Cauvery                        Karnataka                Hydroelectricity
Kundah project                Kundah                         Tamil Nadu               Hydroelectricity
Sharavati Project             Sharavati (near Jog falls)     Karnataka                Hydroelectricity
Chambal project               Chambal (a tributary of Raja sthan, Ma dhya Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
(Gandhi Sagar Dam (M.P., Yamuna).                            Pradesh.
Rana Pratap Sagar and Jawahar
Sagar Dam or Kota Dam.
Kakrapara Project             Tapi                           Gujarat                  Irrigation
Ukai project                  Tapi                           Gujarat                  Irrigation
Sardar Sarovar Project        Narmada                        Gujarat, M.P., Rajasthan Irrigation, hydroelectricity
Tawa project                  Ta w a ( A t r ib ut a r y o f Madhya Pradesh           Irrigation
Mahi project (Jamnalal Bajaj Mahi                            Gujarat                  Irrigation
Matatila project              Betwa                          Uttal Pradesh, Madhya Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
   The nation has four seasons:        Indian climate is greatly influ-   Thunder storms cause upto 25
   winter (January and February),      enced by the presence of           cm of rainfall along the Kerala
   summer (March to May), a            Himalayas in the north and         and Karnataka coasts and
   monsoon (rainy) season (June        the Indian Ocean in the south.     about 10 cm. in the interior of
   to September), and a post-          The climate of India is mon-       South India. Such rains are
   monsoon period (October to          soonal type, fed up by two rain    called 'Cherry Blossoms' in
   December).                          bearing winds.                     Karnataka where they prove
   The climatic conditions in In-      Latitude and the monsoon           immensely beneficial to coffee
   dia are affected the most by the    winds are the major factors af-    plantation. They are called as
   tropical monsoon. Due to the        fecting the Indian climate.        'Mango Showers' in South
   overwhelming influence of the       The Tropic of Cancer divides       India, due to their salutary ef-
   tropical monsoon on Indian          India into two almost equal cli-   fect on mango crop.
   climate, India is called a tropi-   matic zones namely the north-      The normal date of the onset
   cal country.                        ern zone and the southern zone.    of the rains is 20th May in
  Andaman & Nicobar Islands           The North East Monsoon (Oc-       Hot Dry Season : It is marked
  and by the end of June, it is       tober - November) brings rain     by the rising temperature
  usually established over most       mainly to Tamil Nadu.             during the latter half of the
  of the country.                     The North - East Monsoons         month of March. The highest
  Normal duration of the mon-         are comparitively minor mon-      temperatures in the south are
  soon varies from 2 to 4 months.     soons confined to a smaller       experienced in April and in the
  The Trans-Himalayan and             area of the country. They are     northern plains in May and
  Greater-Himalayan regions,          the winds blowing out from the    June.
  Drass and Kargil of Ladakh re-      landmass of north-western In-     This part of the year is marked
  gion are the coldest regions in     dia towards the Indian Ocean.     by a dry spell and the north-
  the country.                        Monsoon is a wind system of       western parts of the country
  Mawsynram in Meghalaya              the tropical regions under
  (1141         cm)     is    the                                       experience hot, dry winds
                                      which the direction of the        called loo.
  rainiest place in the world.        winds is reversed seasonably
  Jaisalmer in western                                                  Hot Wet Season : The trough
                                      and it results in summer
  Rajasthan is the driest place in    rainfall and dry winters.         of low pressure over the Indo-
  India which receives the low-       During the summer season, the     Gangetic plain causes the
  est rainfall.                       winds blow from sea to the        equatorial winds of oceanic
  El-Nino is a complex weather        continents so that the moist      origin to move over to India.
  system that appears once in         winds cause rainfall in this      This is the onset of southwest
  every 3 to 7 years bringing         season.                           monsoon and also the
  drought, floods and other           During winter, the direction of   beginning of the hot wet
  weather extremes to different       the winds is reversed so that     season.
  parts of the world. El-Nino is      they blow from continents         The peninsular landmass of
  used in India for forecasting       towards the sea.                  India divides the southwest
  long range monsoon rainfall.        The onset of monsoon in India     monsoon winds into two
          Monsoon                     implies the onset of the          branches, one each blowing
  India receives 90% of the total     southeast monsoon (winds          from the Arabian Sea and the
  rainfall from monsoons. Mon-        blowing from the Indian Ocean     Bay of Bengal.
                                      to the Indian subcontinent) in
  soons are the seasonal winds                                          The Arabian Sea branch first
                                      the beginning of the summer
  which blow during six months                                          strikes the Western Ghats and
                                      season so that the months
  of summer from ocean to land                                          causes heavy rainfall in the
                                      from June to mid-September are
  and for the six months of win-                                        Western Coastal Plains.
  ter from land to sea.                                                 On the eastern side of the
                                      The south-west monsoon
  On the basis of monsoonal           winds are replaced from           Ghats, the rainfall is much lower
  variations there are four sea-      October onwards by the            due to the rain-shadow effects
  sons in India namely the cold       north-east monsoon blowing        of the Ghats and interior Tamil
  (winter) season (December to        from the continental area         Nadu remains dry during this
  February), the hot (summer)         towards the sea to the south.     season.
  season (March to May), the          Hence the winter season           The direction of the winds
  south west monsoon (the rainy       remains by and large dry.         during this season over the
  season) (June to September)                                           Bay of Bengal is modified by
  and the season of retreating     Seasons
                                                                        the presence of the low
  monsoon (October to Novem-          The climatic year of India can    pressure over the Ganga Valley
  ber).                               be divided into four seasons:     and the physical barrier of the
  The South West Monsoon              the hot dry season, the hot wet   Arakan mountains. Hence their
  forms the main monsoon sea-         season, the cool dry season       direction over this region
  son in India (June to August).      and the cool wet season.          becomes south-easterly.
  Cool Dry Season : This season         Rajasthan and Gujarat regions         and parts of Maharashtra.
  lasts from mid-September to           remain dry during this season         Temperature remains between
  mid-December. It is the period        also.                                 200C and 23.80C.
  of retreating south-west                                                    Parts of Kutch and the western
  monsoon in India.                Climatic Regions
                                                                              parts of Rajasthan are included
  The period is characterized by        The wettest areas in the              in the category of tropical
  low temperature, low northerly        western coastal plain and parts       deserts. It receives a rainfall of
  winds, clear skies and low            of Assam fall under the               less than 25cm and the
  humidity.                             category of tropical rainforest       temperature may rise up to
  Although the season is                climate. This region receives         500C.
  dominated by subsistent               more than 400 cm of rainfall          A humid subtropical climate
  easterly or northeasterly winds       and Mawsynram near                    with dry winters covers most
  over the peninsula, winds             Chirapunji, which receives the        of the northern plains from
  generally blow from a westerly        highest average annual                Punjab to Assam along the
  direction in the northern part        rainfall in the world, lies here.     Himalayas.
  of the country.                       The tropical savanna climate
  Cool Wet Season : By October,                                               The Himalayas and the
                                        covers most of the peninsular         Karakoram Range are included
  the southwest monsoon                 region except for the semi- arid
  withdraws from most parts of                                                in areas identified as having a
                                        zone east of the Sahyadris. In        mountain climate. Here, the
  India and the northeast
                                        this region, the temperature          temperature and rainfall vary
  monsoon establishes itself
                                        remains above 18.20C and the          according to altitude and the
  over the entire area from which
                                        range of temperature is also          aspect of the slopes.
  the southwest monsoon has
                                        high. It is seasonal in character.
  The western remains dry up to         Tropical and sub-tropical            SOILS IN INDIA
  the end of November in most           steppe climate extends over
  parts.                                large areas in Punjab, Haryana,             Alluvial Soil
  The western disturbances are          Kutch, parts of the Gangetic
  cyclonic systems that develop         plains and some parts of the          Alluvial soil contributing the
  in the belt of the westerly           Peninsular region. Temperature        largest share, is formed by the
  winds and they bring unsettled        in this region falls below 180C       deposition of sediments by riv-
  weather in their wake. These          in the winter season but may          ers in the interior parts of India
  disturbances cause rain or            rise above 300C in summer.            and by the sea waves in the
  snowfall in Jammu and Kashmir         Tropical semi-arid steppe             coastal areas of the country.
  and north Indian Plains and           climate covers the rain-              Alluvial soil is the best agri-
  break the dry spell. This period      shadow area of the Sahyadris          cultural soil because
  of the year is called the cold-
  wet season.
  The winds blowing towards                          The Indian Council of Agricultural
  Tamil Nadu from the northeast
                                            Research has divided the Indian soils into 8
  pick up some moisture as they
  blow over the Bay of Bengal           categories. Alluvial soil, Black soil, Red soil, Later-
  and they cause rainfall in Tamil    ite soil, Forest soil, Arid and Desert soil, Saline and
  Nadu and parts of Andhra               Alkaline soils, Peaty and organic soils. Black soils
  Pradesh due to the obstruction              (29.69%), Alluvial soils (22.16%), Red and
  posed by the Eastern Ghats                              yellow soils (28%).
  and the eastern face of the
  Western Ghats.
  (i) They contain a variety of          Red soils are poor in nitrogen,       conditions in the north -west-
       salts derived from Hima-          phosphorus, potassium and             ern parts of the country. They
       layan rocks.                      organic matter.                       are rich in phosphate though
  (ii) They are light and porous,        They are more suitable for the        poor in nitrogen.
       therefore easily tillable.        cultivation of rice, ragi, to-        These soils often have a high
  (iii) They are good for canal          bacco and vegetable.                  soluble salt content and very
       irrigation because of high        The colour is red because of          low humus content.
       water table and an easily         the presence of iron oxides.          These soils are made fertile by
       penetrable stratum.               Mainly found in the Peninsu-          adding gypsum.
  Alluvial soils are suitable for        lar India and hilly states of
  cultivation of almost all kinds        North East India.                   Saline and Alkaline Soils
  of cereals, pulses, oil seeds,
  cotton, sugarcane and veg-                  Laterite Soil                    Saline and Alkaline soils are
  etables.                                                                     salt impregnated and infertile.
  Alluvial soils are rich in pot-        Laterite soils are formed by the      These soils are found espe-
  ash and poor in nitrogen and           weathering of laterite rocks.         cially in the dry tracts of the
  organic matter.                        Laterite soils are deficient in       north.
  Immature soils with weak pro-          nitrogen. They are chiefly
  files – Azonal                         found in Karnataka, Kerala,                  Peaty soils
  Alluvial soils are devoted to          Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and
                                         Malabar areas.                        Peaty soils are developed un-
  the cultivation of wheat rice,                                               der humid conditions as a re-
  pulses, sugarcane, jute, oil-          These soils are agriculturally
                                                                               sult of the accumulation of
  seeds, fodder etc.                     unimportant because of inten-
                                                                               large amounts of organic mat-
                                         sive leaching, low base ex-
                                                                               ter. These soils are highly sa-
          Black Soil                     change capacity and their
                                                                               line and rich in organic matter.
                                         acidic nature.
  Black soil is found largely in                                               This soil is found in Kottayam
                                         These are the typical soil of the
  the Deccan plateau.                                                          and Alappuzha districts of
                                         tropical regions with heavy
  Black soil is suitable for the                                               Kerala, where they are called
                                         seasonal rainfall and alterna-
  cultivation of cotton and there-                                             kari.
                                         tive dry season.
  fore it is called black cotton soil.                                         When the rain cease they are
                                         These soils provide valuable
  Also known as regur soils.                                                   put under paddy cultivation.
                                         building materials.
  Regur soils varies in colour                                                 It also occurs in the northern
  from black to chestnut brown.                Forest Soil                     Bihar, Southern Uttaranchal
  Black soils are rich in iron, lime     Forest soils are formed by the        (Almora district) and coastal
  and aluminium content.                 deposition of organic matter          areas of West Bengal, Orissa
  Black soils have high moisture         derived from forests. They are        and Tamil Nadu.
  retention capacity.                    rich in organic matter and hu-          Soil erosion and
                                         mus. They are found mainly in
            Red Soil                     Punjab, Karnataka, Manipur
  Red soil is formed by the              and Jammu & Kashmir.                  Soil erosion by water, wind and
  weathering of ancient meta-            These soils are used for plan-        tillage affects both agriculture
  morphic and crystalline rocks.         tations of tea, coffee, spices        and the natural environment.
  They are airy and need irriga-         and fruits.                           Soil erosion is just one form of
  tion support for cultivation.                                                soil degradation. Other kinds
  Red soil is suitable for the cul-
                                         Arid and Desert Soils                 of soil degradation include
  tivation of pulses and coarse          Arid and Desert soils are             salinisation, nutrient loss, and
  grains.                                formed under arid and semi arid       compaction.
  Soil erosion means removal of       Tropical Evergreen forests are      Sunderbans after the sundari
  the top layers of the soil at a     dense forests of luxuriant          trees in these forests.
  rate higher than the rate of ac-    growth found in areas where         Evergreen forests (Tropical)
  crual of new fertile top part of    rainfall ranges between 200 to      are found in the Western ghats
  the soil is removed.                300 cm. eg; Western Ghats and       and Sub-Himalayan region.
                                      sub-Himalayan regions.              They provide hardwood like
  Soil conservation is a set of       Dry Tropical forests are mostly     teak, rosewood, ebony etc.
  management strategies for pre-      prevalent in regions with an        Social forestry aims at not
  vention of soil being eroded        annual rainfall of 90 to 130 cm.    only providing fuelwood,
  from the earth’s surface.           Swamps or Littoral forests are      fodder and other forest prod-
  The most common methods of          also called tidal forests which     ucts, but also to meet the re-
  soil conservation include affor-    occur in and around the tidal       quirement of ecological bal-
  estation, contour cultivation,      creeks and along the deltas of      ance through large scale affor-
  keeping land covered by crops       river Ganges, Mahanadi,             estation on community lands
  and other plants, mulching,         Krishna and Godavari.               and waste lands.
                                      Alpine forests cover the alpine
  construction of embankments                                             Energy plantations are plan-
                                      areas in the Himalayas, at a
  and flood channels and scien-                                           tations of softwood and grass
                                      height of 2880 m to 3700m.
  tific methods of cultivation                                            to meet the energy needs of
                                      Siwaliks are covered with tropi-
  keeping in view landform char-                                          households.
                                      cal moist deciduous flora such
  acteristics.                        as sal and bamboo.                  World Environment Day :
                                      Planting of trees is known as       June 5.
  Cultivation on the steep slopes
  and excessive grazing should        afforestation.                      Government of India adopted
  also be avoided.                    Deforestation is the destruc-       a forest policy in 1952 and fur-
                                      tion of trees.                      ther modified it in 1988. Ac-
                                      Forests also help to prevent        cording to new forest policy,
NATURAL VEGETA-                       soil erosion and land slides. It    the Government                will
  TION (Forests)                      maintains the ecological bal-       emphasise sustainable forest
                                      ance and provides forest prod-      management.
  Natural vegetation in India var-    ucts such as timber and indus-      Forest policy aimed at 1. bring-
  ies from region to region due       trial raw materials. Forests        ing 33% of geographical areas
  to variations in climatic condi-    helps to protect wild life and      under forest cover, 2. maintain-
  tions, soil types and relief fea-   rare species of trees and plants.   ing environmental stability, 3.
  tures.                              Madhya Pradesh has the larg-        conserving natural heritage of
                                      est area under forest among         the country, 4. checks soil ero-
  Some major types of                 the Indian states.                  sion, 5 increasing forest cover
  vegetation found in India           Haryana has the least area          etc.
  are Evergreen forests,              under forest.
                                                                          Out of a total of 593 districts,
  Deciduous forests, Dry              Arunachal Pradesh has the
                                                                          187 have been identified as
                                      largest percentage of area un-
  forests, Hill forests and           der forest.
                                                                          tribal districts. The tribal dis-
  Tidal forests.                                                          tricts account for about 59.8%
                                       India provides about 8% of the
                                                                          of total forest cover of the coun-
                                      world’s hardwood and ranks
  Nearly 19.39% of the total                                              try.
                                      third after Brazil and Indone-
  land area in India is under for-    sia.                                The National Commission on
  est. The National Forest policy     Mangrove forests are found in       Agriculture (1976) classified
  has laid down a target of rais-     the coastal plains.                 social forestry into 3 catego-
  ing the area under forest to        The forests on the Ganges           ries - Urban forestry, Rural for-
  nearly 33.3%.                       delta in Bengal are called          estry, Farm forestry.
                                                                          National Parks
                                                                                                              otected area) was
    India,a country of diverse wild-                                l pa  rk  (a n IUCN category II pr
                                          India’s first   na tiona                                            w kn own as Jim
    life & it is the second largest                                   as  H  ai le y National Park, no
                                         established in      19  35                                              national parks.
    country on the planet to have                                         . By   19 70  , India only had five
                                          Corbett Nationa       l Pa  rk                                         d Project Tiger
    such diverse life forms.                                              th e W  ild lif e Protection Act an
                                          In 1972, India en      acted                                               ies. Further
    India is home to several well                                        ta ts of  co  ns er vation reliant spec
                                          to safeguard the ha
                                                                      bi                                              ildlife wa s
    known large mammals includ-                                             en gt he  ni ng    prot ections for w
                                           federa l legisla tion
                                                                       str                                                  tional
    ing the Asian Elephant, Ben-                                           s.  Th  er e ar e  96 na  tiona l pa rks. All na
                                                                       80                                                      a’s
                                           introduced in the 19                                          km2, 1.16% of Indi
    gal Tiger, Asiatic Lion, Leop-
                                                        s enco  m pa   ss  a co mbined 38,029.18
    ard, Sloth Bear and Indian Rhi-         park land
    noceros.                                tota l surface ar ea.
    Other well known large Indian
                                                                                           Biosphere Reserves
                                            tional Trade in Endangered
    mammals include ungulates               Species (CITES) of wild flora                        Biosphere reserves are multi
    such as the rare Wild Asian             and fauna, to which India is a                       purpose protected area to
    Water buffalo, common Do-               signatory.                                           preserve the genetic diversity
    mestic Asian Water buffalo,             Some of the endangered spe-                          in representative eco system.
    Nilgai, Gaur.                           cies are Asiatic Lion, One                           So far fourteen biosphere
    India displays significant              Horned Rhinocerous, Hangul,                          reserves have been set up.
    biodiversity. One of eighteen           Royal Bengal Tiger, Wild Ass                         They are:
    megadiverse countries, it is            etc.                                                 Nilgiri, Nanda Devi, Nokrek,
    home to 7.6% of all mammalian,          The Animal Welfare Board of                          Great Nicobar, Gulf of
    12.6% of all avian, 6.2% of all         India was established in 1962.                       Mannar, Manas, Sunderbans,
    reptilian, 4.4% of all amphibian,       Research programmes in wild-                         Similipal, Dibru Saikhowa,
    11.7% of all fish, and 6.0% of          life are carried out by the Wild                     Dehong Debang,
    all flowering plant species.            life Institute of India, Dehradun                    Panchmarhi, Kanchenjunga
    The wild life reserves of India         and the Salim Ali Centre for                         and Agasthyamala and
    are of two types - the Wild life        Ornithology and Natural His-                         Achanakmar Amarkantak.
    sanctuaries and National                tory, Coimbatore.
                                            Project Tiger is the centrally                 National animal
    Presently, the country has 490
                                            sponsored scheme launched
    Wildlife Sanctuaries, 96 Na-                                                           Royal Bengal Tiger
                                            on April 1, 1973 to save the ti-
    tional Parks and 27 Tiger Re-
                                                                                           National aquatic animal
    Wild life protection in India
    was given statutory status                                                             National bird
    with the adoption of the Wild-                                                         Indian Peacock
    life (Protection) Act, 1972 by                                                         National tree
    all the Indian states except                                                           Banyan tree
    Jammu and Kashmir.
    Keibul Lamjo is the only float-
    ing National Park in the coun-                                                         Wildlife Institute of India (WII) is
    try, is located in Manipur in                                                          established in 1982. It is an interna-
    Loktak Lake.                                                                           tionally acclaimed Institution, which
    Trade in endangered species         World's rarest monkey, the golden
                                                                                           offers training program, academic
    is subject to strict rules under  langur typifies the precarious survival              courses and advisory in wildlife re-
    the Convention on Interna-            of much of India's megafauna.                    search and management.
                                                                     the world
                                    s of  fi sh es  (about 11% of                        the first week of October ev-
                   t 2546 spec   ie                                   phibians
  There are abou                      s. A bo  ut  19 7 species of am                    ery year.
                  in Indian w   at er                                ies (6% of
  species) found                     m or e  th an  408 reptile spec                Flora of India
                     ld total) an d                                   species of
  (4.4% of the wor                    di a.  T he re are about 1250                      The Flora of India is one of the
                    are found   in In                               e about 410
   the world total)                      or ld sp  ecies). There ar                      richest of the world due to a
                    a (12% of    th e w                            8.86% of the
   birds from Indi               n fr om  In  di a which is about                        wide range of climate, topog-
                    mals know
    species of mam                                                                       raphy and environments in the
    world species.                                                                       country. There are over 15000
     gers from extinction on India.                 in 1992.                             species of flowers in India.
     It has become the most suc-                    Today, there are 39 Project Ti-
     cessful conservation ventures                  ger wildlife reserves in India.
     in modern history.                             Project Elephant was
     At present Madhya Pradesh                      launched to protect the wild
     with 912 tigers tops the state                 life and elephant population.
     with greater number of Tigers.   Most of India's rhinos today
     Madhya Pradesh is known as                     survive in the Kaziranga Na-
     the tiger state of India. M.P                  tional Park.
     was followed by Uttar Pradesh   A wild life week is observed in
                                                                                      Lotus, National Flower of India
                                                                                                       shew nuts, coco-
   AGRICULTURE                                          e wo  rld ’s  la rg est producer of milk, ca
                                           India is th                                       pper.
                                                                    rmeric and black pe
          IN INDIA                         nuts, tea, ginger, tu                                     (281 million).
                                                                         la rg est cattle population
                                            It also has  th e wo  rld 's                               sugar, groundnut
    Crops in India can be classi-      
                                                         co nd  la rg es t pr od ucer of wheat, rice,
    fied into subsistence crops,            It is the se
    commercial crops, plantation             and inland fish                                    o.
                                                                       t producer of tobacc             uction with first
    crops and horticulture crops.            It is the third larges           of  the world it prod
                                                          un  ts fo r  10  %
     India's total geographical area         India acco                                       sapota.
                                                                      tion of banana and
     is 328.7 million hectares of             rank in the produc
     which 140.8 million hectares is
                                                          Crop season in India can be classified into three
     the net sown area, while 192.80
                                                                       such as Kharif, Rabi and Zaid.
     million hectares is the gross
     cropped area.                                Kharif (rainy) crops are sown in June/July and harvested in
     Agriculture contributes about                September / October. Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Ragi, Maize, Cotton
     17.8% to national Gross Do-                  and Jute are the important Kharif crops.
     mestic Product (GDP) and                     Rabi (winter) crops are sown in October/ December and har-
     nearly 16% to export earnings.               vested in April/ May. Wheat , Barley , Peas, Rape-seed, Mustard
    Types of Cultivation                          and Grams are the important Rabi crops.
                                                  Zaid (Summer) crops : Zaid crops are grown in the short peri-
    1. Sedentary Cultivation
                                                  ods after the harvest of the Kharif and Rabi crops. Sown in
    2. Crop rotation
    3. Shifting cultivation                       April, May and June. Products are mostly fruits and vegetables.
    4. Mixed cropping                                                                        Green Revolution
                                          Areas of Cultivation
    5. Relay cropping
                                     Temperate Himalayan Region                            To increase yield per hectare
    6. Terrace cultivation
                                     Eastern Himalayan Region &                            government of India intro-
    7. Mixed farming
                                     Western Himalayan Region.                             duced a programme called
    Operation flood I was
                                     The Eastern Himalayan Region                          Green Revolution.
    launched in 1970, which aimed    Assam, Sikkim and Mishmi Hills                        The Green Revolution (first)
    at capturing a commanding        The Western Himalayan Region                          was launched in 1967-68.
    share of the liquid milk mar-    Kulu, Kangra and Kashmir Valleys,                     The second Green Revolution
    ket.                             Garhwal, Kumaon and Simla Hills
                                                                                           was launched in 1983-84.
    A centrally sponsored Com-       Northern Dry Region
                                     Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Gujarat,                      Father of Green Revolution -
                                     Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West-                    Dr. Norman Borlaug
               ICAR                  ern Madhya Pradesh                                    Father of Green Revolution in
                                     Eastern West Region                                   India - Dr. M.S. Swaminathan
         Indian Council of Agri-     West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar,                           Green Revolution focused the
    cultural Research (ICAR) is      Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil                      development of high-yielding
   an autonomous body under          Nadu, Chattisgarh, Assam,                             varieties of cereal grains, ex-
  the Ministry of Agriculture.       Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura and                       pansion of irrigation infrastruc-
  Headquarters: New Delhi. The       Mizoram.
                                                                                           ture, and distribution of hybrid-
  council is the apex body for co-   Western Wet Region
                                     Kerala, Karnataka                                     ized seeds, synthetic fertilizers,
   ordinating, guiding and man-
     aging research and educa-       Southern Region                                       and pesticides to farmers.
       tion in agriculture in-       Parts of Madhya Pradesh, Andhra                       Punjab pioneered green revo-
          cluding horticul-          Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra,                     lution among the other states
                ture.                Gujarat, Karnataka and Uttar                          transforming India into a food-
                                     Pradesh                                               surplus country.
Crop        Areas of Production                         Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
Barley      Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh                  To achieve 4% annual growth during the
Cotton      Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya                    11th Five Year Plan a new scheme namely
            Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana,             Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) was
            Tamil Nadu, Karnataka.
Jute        West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa,                 launched during 2007-08. The funds under the
            Tripura                                            scheme are provided to the states as 100%
Groundnut   Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh                grant by the Central Government. The broad
Mustard &                                                      objectives of RKVY is to incentives the state
rape seed   Rajasthan                                          to increase public investment to achieve 4%
Sunflower   Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh,                       growth rate in agriculture and allied sectors in
            Karnataka                                          the 11th Five Year Plan. The States have been
Pulses      Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,
                                                               provided flexibility and autonomy in the proc-
            Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Karnataka,
            Andhra Pradesh.                                    ess of selection, planning, approval and ex-
Coffee      Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra              ecution of schemes.
Rubber      Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka                           States first in production
Silk        Karnataka, Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra
                                                     Saffron .......................................... Jammu Kashmir
            Pradesh, Assam, Bihar (tassar)
Tobacco     Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,      Tea ............................................... Andhra Pradesh
            Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Bihar.               Spices Garden ............................................. Kerala
Cardamom Karnataka, Sikkim, Kerala, Tamil Nadu       Coffee ................................................... Karnataka
Cashewnut Kerala, Andhra Pradesh                     Sandalwood .......................................... Karnataka
Castor seed Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh                  Cotton ...................................................... Gujarath
Chillies    Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa      Tobacco ....................................... Andhra Pradesh
Cloves      Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka            Plantain ............................................. Maharashtra
Cocoa       Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu            Wheat .............................................. Uttar Pradesh
Ginger      Kerala, Meghalaya                        Sugar cane ....................................... Uttar Pradesh
Pepper      Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
                                                     Paddy Crop (Rice) .............. West Bengal & Andhra
Poppy       Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab
Ragi        Karnataka, Tamil Nadu                    Coriander ............................................... Rajasthan
Saffron     Jammu and Kashmir
Banana      Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala
Pineapples Assam, Meghalaya, West Bengal,               White Revolution
Mango       Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh,         The White Revolution
            Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.                       in the country has been
Apple       Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir,           achieved by means of
            Uttaranchal                                    Operation Flood. It was
Arecanut    Kerala, Karnataka, Assam, Meghalaya,           carried out in three
            Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.                    phases.
Coconut     Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra          Operation Flood I .... 1970 - 1981
            Pradesh, Goa.                                  Operation Flood II ... 1981 - 1985
Grapes      Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh,
                                                           Operation Flood III ... 1985 - 1996.
            Karnataka, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh,
            Himachal Pradesh                              White revolution launched to increase the quality
Orange      Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu,            and quanity of milk and dairy products.
            Meghalaya, Sikkim.                            The Father of the White Revolution in India is
Turmeric    Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar,             Dr. Varghese Kurien. He is also known as
            Orissa, Maharashtra.                           Milkman of India.
   mand Area Development
   Programme was launched in                          National Food Security                               ed from 2007-08
   1974-75 with the main objective                                       ssion', has been launch
                                         'National Food Security Mi                                            s, wheat by 8
   of improving utilization of irri-                                      of rice by 10 million ton
                                         to increase the production                                            d  of the Elev-
                                                                           2 million tons by the en
   gation potential and optimizing        million tons and pulses by                                          ssi on will have
                                                                        National Food Security Mi
   agricultural productivity.             enth Plan (2011-12). The                                           Th   e Mission is
                                                                           Wheat & (iii) Pulses.
   Irrigation in India can be clas-       3 components (i) Rice (ii)                                          ult ure  .
                                                                          trol of Ministry of Agric
   sified into Wells, Tanks and           functioning under the con
   Wells account for about 48%
   of the total irrigated area in the
   country.                                                Punjab is known as the Granary of
   Tanks account for about 10%                                India or India’s bread-basket.
   of the total irrigated area, are              Punjab (Land of the five rivers) is one of the most fertile
                                              regions on earth. The region is ideal for wheat-growing.
   used in Central and Southern
                                              Rice, sugar cane, fruits and vegetables are also grown.It pro-
                                                duces 14% of India’s cotton, 20% of India’s wheat, and
          NABARD                                   9% of India’s rice. The Firozpur District is the largest
    NABARD (National Bank for                           producer of wheat and rice in the state.
    Agriculture and Rural Devel-
    opment) is set up as an apex
    Development Bank with a           Green Revolution .................................. High Yielding Variety of Seeds
    mandate for facilitating credit   White Revolution ............................................ Milk & Dairy products
    flow for promotion and devel-     Silver Revolution ....................................................... Egg and Poultry
    opment of agriculture, small-     Silver Fibre Revolution ............................................................ Cotton
    scale industries, cottage and     Yellow Revolution ................................................................ Edible Oil
    village industries, handicrafts
                                      Blue Revolution .................................................................... Fisheries
    and other rural crafts. It is an
                                      Pink Revolution ...................................................................... Prawns
    apex development bank
    based         in      Mumbai,     Golden Revolution ................................................................... Honey
    Maharashtra. It was estab-        Golden Fibre Revolution .............................................................. Jute
    lished on 1982.                   Brown Revolution ..................................................................... Cocoa
    Animal Resources                                                   Sericulture
. India has the largest number           Natural silk is produced from the cocoons of the silk worms. Rearing
   of livestock in the world.              of silkworms and production of silk from them is called sericulture.
. The rearing of various animals         Sericulture is the biggest village industry in India after handloom and
   and obtaining different prod-           khadi.
   ucts from them is called ani-          India is the second largest silk producer in the world.
   mal husbandry.                         Karnataka is the leading producer of silk in India.
 The Central Semen Production            Bihar and Jharkhand are the leading producers of tasar silk.
   and Training Institute at              India has the unique distinction of being the only country producing
   Hessarghatta is one of the              all the five kinds of silk – Mulberry, Eri, Muga, Tropical Tasar and
   premier organisation in the             Temperate Tasar.
   country         engaged         in     Mulberry silk is the most popular variety in India, contributing more
   multiplying high pedigree               than 87% of the Country’s silk production.
   animals.                               Cultivation of mulberry plants is referred to as Moriculture.
      MINERAL                         of coal & lignite, 2nd in bar-                   ONGC
                                      ites, 4th in iron ore, 5th in baux-   Oil and Natural Gas Corpora-
    RESOURCES                         ite and crude steel, 7th in man-      tion Limited (ONGC) (incorpo-
  India's major mineral resources     ganese ore and 8th in alu-            rated on 23 June 1993) is a
  include Coal (third-largest re-     minium.                               state-owned oil and gas
  serves in the world), Iron ore,     Iron Ore is the backbone of           company in India. It was set
  Manganese, Mica, Bauxite, Ti-       modern civilisation. Varieties of     up as a commission on 14
  tanium ore, Chromite, Natural       iron ore:                             August 1956. It contributes
  gas, Diamonds, Petroleum,           Magnetite - the best quality          77% of India's crude oil
  Limestone and Thorium               of iron ore and contains 72%          production and 81% of India's
  (world's largest along Kerala's     pure iron.                            natural gas production. Indian
  shores).                            Haematite - contains 60 to 70%        government holds 74.14%
  India's minerals range from         pure iron.                            equity stake in this company.
  both metallic and non-metallic      Limonite - contains 40 to 60%
  types. The metallic minerals        pure iron.                               from where iron ore is exported
  comprise ferrous and non-fer-       Jharkhand has the largest re-            to Japan through Vishakha
  rous minerals while the non         serves accounting for about              patnam.
  metallic minerals comprise min-     25% of the total reserves of             Japan is the biggest buyer of
  eral fuels, precious stones,        iron ore in India.                       Indian iron ore.
  among others.                       India’s richest haematite de-            India has the second largest
  India produces 89 minerals out      posits are located in                    manganese ore reserves in the
  of which 4 are fuel minerals, 11    Barabilkoira valley in Orissa.           world after Zimbabwe.
  metallic, 52 non-metallic and 22    The Bailadila mine is the larg-          India is the fifth largest pro-
  minor minerals.                     est mechanised mine in Asia              ducer in the world after
  India also exports iron ore, ti-
                                     India has the world’s largest reserves of Iron.
  tanium, manganese, bauxite,
  granite, and imports cobalt,       India is the largest producer of mica in the world.
  mercury, graphite etc.             India possesses the largest reserves of monazite known in the world.
  India ranks 3rd in production      India ranks third in the world in the production of manganese.
    Minerals                              Areas of Production
    Antimony            Punjab, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Bihar
    Asbestos            Karnataka, Rajasthan
    Beryllium           Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh
    Barytes             Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra
    Diamonds            Madhya Pradesh (Panna mines)
    Graphite            Orissa, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh
    Granite             Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
    Magnesite           Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal
    Marble              Rajasthan (Makrana)
    Nickel              Orissa, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu
    Rock Salt           Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh
    Sea Salt            Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh
    Sulphur             Tamil Nadu
    Tin                 Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan
    Coal                Jharkhand, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa
    Lignite             Neyveli
    Gold                Andhra Pradesh (Ramagiri), Karnataka (Kolar, Hutti)
    Gypsum              Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat
    Silver              Karnataka (Kolar), Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu
    Chromite            Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Manipur, Orissa, Tamil
    Dolomite            Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Orissa, Gujarat, Karnataka, West Bengal, Uttar
                        Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Maharashtra
    Thorium             Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh
    Uranium             Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh.
    Ilmenite            Tamil Nadu, Kerala
    Rock phosphate Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh.
  Brazil,Gabon, South Africa and          Leading salt producer in India
  Australia.                              is Gujarat. It produces 60% of    Geological Survey of India
  The main reserves are found             salt of the country.                  GSI, established in 1851 is a
  in Karnataka, followed by               State with the largest mineral    government organization in In-
  Orissa, Madhya Pradesh,                 deposit is Jharkhand.             dia for conducting geological
  Maharashtra and Goa.                    Jharkhand is the state with       surveys and studies. It is one of
  Orissa is the leading producer          highest mineral output in India.  the oldest of such organizations
  of manganese in the state.              Chottanagpur plateau is the       in the world. There are two geo-
  Raniganj (West Bengal), Jharia          richest mineral belt of India.    logical parks maintained by GSI.
  (Bihar), Singrauli (Madhya              India’s contribution to gold      Saketi Fossil Park, Saketi,
  Pradesh)        and      Korba          production across the world is    Himachal Pradesh and Nehru
  (Chhattisgarh) are the major            less than one percent (0.75%).    Park, Hyderabad, Andhra
  coal fields in India.                   Karnataka is the largest pro-     Pradesh. The park displays life
  Marble is found largely in              ducer of gold followed by         size figures of dinosaurs like T-
  Rajasthan.                              Andhra Pradesh.                   Rex.
  There are mainly three gold       Major Cement companies                 duce mica.
  fields in India:                   Ambuja cement, Aditya Cement,         Japan (19%) and USA (17%)
  Kolar gold field in Karnataka       JK Cement and L & T Cement.          are the major buyers of our
  Hutti gold field in Karnataka     Steel Companies                        mica.
  Ramgiri gold field in Ananta      Steel Authority of India (SAIL),       Limestone with more than 10%
  pur district of Andhra Pradesh    Bbilai Steel Plant, Durgapur Steel     magnesium is called dolomite,
  Silver is mainly produced from    Plant, Rourkela Steel Plant, Bokaro    when the percentage rises to
  Zawar mines of Udaipur            Steel Plant.                           45, it becomes true dolomite.
  district in Rajasthan.                                                   Iron and Steel industry is the
  Orissa has the largest                 India has the world's largest     chief consumer of dolomite.
  deposits of Nickel.                    deposits of coal. Bituminous      About 90% dolomite reserves
  Lignite also known as brown            coal is found in Jharkhand and    are concentrated in Madhya
  coal. It is a lower grade coal         Bihar and Ranigunj in West        Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Orissa,
  and contains about 40 to 55%           Bengal. Lignite coals are found   Gujarat, Karnataka, West
  carbon.                                in Neyveli in Tamilnadu.          Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and
  It is found in Rajasthan,              Coal has been described as the    Maharashtra.
  Neyveli of Tamil Nadu, Assam           bridge into the future.           Rajasthan is the largest
  and Jammu and Kashmir.                 India ranks third in the world    producer of Asbestos
  Jharia in Jharkhand has been           after China and USA in coal       followed by Andhra Pradesh
  recognised as the store house          production.                       and Karnataka.
  of the best metallurgical coal         The Panna diamond belt is the     Gypsum is mainly used in
  in the country.                        only diamond producing area       making ammonia sulphate
  Coal India Ltd produces the            in the country, which covers      fertilizer and in cement
  largest quantity of coal in In-        the districts of Panna,           industry. Rajasthan is the
  dia followed by Singareni              Chatarpur and Satna in Madya      main producer followed by
  Collieries Comp Ltd.                   Pradesh, as well as some parts    Jammu and Kashmir.
  Assam is the oldest oil produc-        of Banda in Uttar Pradesh.        Major deposite of magnesite
  ing state in India.                    Bauxite deposits are found in     are found in Uttranchal, Tamil
  Digboi in Assam is the oldest          western Bihar, southwest          Nadu and Rajasthan.
  oil well of India.                     Kashmir, Central Tamilnadu,       Jharkhand is the largest
  Natural gas fields are                 and parts of Kerala, U.P,         producer of Kyanite in India
  Ankleshwar and Cambay in               Maharastra and Karnataka.         followed by Maharashtra and
  Gujarat, Bombay high and               With the recent spurt in world    Karnataka.
  Assam.                                 demand for chromite, India has    In Sillimanite production,
  The first successful oil well was      stepped up its production to      Orissa contributes 55.87% of
  sunk at Digboi in 1889.                reach the third rank among the    the total production, followed
  Bombay High is the offshore            chromite producers of the         by Kerala and Maharashtra.
  oil field located in the coast of      world.                            Diamond is found at Panna in
  Maharashtra.                           Recent discoveries of Krishna-    Madhya Pradesh.
  Oil Refineries with the largest        Godawari off-shore basin and      In salt production, rock salt is
  refining capacity-                     Rava field will have big          taken out in Mandi district of
  Reliance Petroleum Ltd,                constribution in the field of     Himachal Pradesh. Sambhar
  Jamnagar                               gas production in India.          lake in Rajasthan produces
  Indian Oil Corp Ltd, Koyali       Non - Metallic Minerals                about 10% of annual produ
  Bauxite is exported to countries       Jharkhand is the leading pro-     ction. And Gujarat coast
  such as China, Korea, Ukraine,         ducer of mica. Bihar, Rajasthan   produces nearly half of our
  Saudi Arabia.                          and Andhra Pradesh also pro-      salt.
                                  List of Public Sector Undertakings of India
Air India Limited, Airports Authority of India                   Lubrizol India Limited (LIL)
Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation of India (ALIMCO)     Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL)
Bengal Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals Limited (BPCL)              Manganese Ore (India) Limited (MOIL)
Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL), Jharkhand                     Mazagon Dock Limited, Mumbai
Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL), Andhra Pradesh                    MECON Limited
Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML)                               Metro Railway, Kolkata
Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Bangalore                      Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited (MECL)
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL)                          Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation Limited (MMTC)
Bharat Refractories Limited (BRL)                                Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI)
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL)                              MSTC Limited
Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Limited (BHAVINI)               Mumbai Railway Vikas Corporation Limited (MRVC)
Biecco Lawrie Limited                                            National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO), Orissa
Bramhaputra Valley Fertilizer Corporation Limited (BVFCL), Assam National Buildings Construction Corporation Limited (NBCC)
Broadcasting Engineering Corporation of India Limited (BECIL)    National Fertilizers Limited (NFL), Noida, Uttarpradesh
Cement Corporation of India Limited (CCI)                        National Film Development Corporation (NFDC), Mumbai
Central Coalfields Limited (CCL)                                 National Handloom Development Corporation Limited (NHDC)
Central Cottage Industries Corporation of India Limited          National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Limited (NHPC)
Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Limited (CMPDI)       National Insurance Company Limited (NICL)
Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC)                            National Mineral Development Corporation Limited (NMDC)
Centre for Railway Information Systems (CRIS)                    National Minorities Development and Finance Corporation (NMDFC)
Coal India Limited (CIL), Kolkata                                National Projects Construction Corporation Limited (NPCC)
Cochin Shipyard Limited, Kerala                                  National Research Development Corporation (NRDC)
Container Corporation of India Limited (CONCOR)                  National Scheduled Castes Finance and Development Corporatioin
Cotton Corporation of India Limited (CCI), Maharashtra           National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation
Dredging Corporation of India                                    (NSTFDC)
Educational Consultants India Limited (EDCIL)                    National Small Industries Corporation Limited (NSIC)
Engineers India Limited (EIL)                                    National Textile Corporation Limited (NTC)
Ennore Port Limited, Tamil Nadu                                  National Thermal Power Corporation Limited (NTPC)
Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Limited (ECGC)      Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited (NLC), Tamil Nadu
FCI Aravali Gypsum and Minerals India Limited (FAGMIL)           North Eastern Electric Power Corporation (NEEPCO)
Ferro Scrap Nigam Limited (FSNL)                                 Northern Coalfields Limited (NCL)
Fertilisers and Chemicals Travancore Limited (FACT), Kochi       Nuclear Fuel Complex
Food Corporation of India (FCI)                                  Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL)
Garden Reach Ship Builders and Engineers Limited (GRSE)          Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC), Dehradun
Gas Authority of India limited (GAIL)                            Oil India Limited (OIL), New Delhi
Goa Shipyard Limited                                             Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited (PHHL)
Handicrafts and Handlooms Export Corporation (HHEC)              Power Finance Corporation Limited
Heavy Engineering Corporation Limited (HEC)                      Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID)
Heavy Water Board (HWB)                                          Power Trading Corporation of India Limited (PTC)
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bangalore                   Praga Tools Limited
Hindustan Antibiotics Limited (HAL), Maharashtra                 Projects and Development India Limited (PDIL)
Hindustan Copper Limited (HCL), Kolkata                          Pyrites, Phosphates and Chemicals Limited (PPCL)
Hindustan Insecticides Limited (HIL)                             RailTel Corporation of India Limited
Hindustan Latex Limited (HLL), Trivandrum                        Railway Electrification Project Circle (REPC)
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL)                   Rajasthan Atomic Power Station / Project
Hindustan Newsprint Limited, Kerala                              Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers Limited (RCF), Mumbai
Hindustan Machine Tools Limited (HMT), Bangalore                 Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited (RINL)
Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, Vishakhapattanam                         RITES Limited, Gurgaon, Haryana
Hospital Services Consultancy Corporation (I) Limited (HSCC)     Rural Electrification Corporation Limited
Housing and Urban Development Corporation Limited (HUDCO)        Semiconductor Complex Limited (SCL)
India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO)                        Shipping Corporation of India Limited (SCI), Mumbai
Indian Airlines Limited (IA)                                     South Eastern Coalfields Limited (SECL)
Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL), New Delhi                 Sponge Iron India Limited (SIIL)
Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Limited (IRCTC)  State Trading Corporation of India Limited (STCI)
Indian Rare Earths Limited, Mumbai                               Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL)
Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA)       Telecom Factory, BSNL
Indian Telephone Industries Limited (ITI)                        Telecom Stores Organisation
Instrumentation Limited, Kota, Rajasthan                         Telecommunications Consultants India Limited (TCIL)
IRCON International Limited                                      Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL)
Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd, Navi Mumbai                      Water and Power Consultancy Services (India) Limited (WAPCOS)
Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited (KIOCL)                       Western Coalfields Limited (WCL), Nagpur,Maharashtra
       Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is a quasi governmental institu-          woolens in India and is also
       tion for drawing up standards for the products of Indian industry.         Known as the Manchester of
       It was established in 1947.                                                India.
       National Productivity Council (NPC) is an autonomous body                  Tirupur has gained universal
       formed to inculcate productivity in industries, established in 1958.       recognition as the leading
                                                                                  source of hosiery, knitted gar-
    Uranium deposits occur in                microwave ovens, and wash-           ments, casual wear and sports-
    Jadugoda of Singhbhum and                ing machines.                        wear.
    Hazaribagh districts of                 Industry accounts for 28% of          India is the only country pro-
    Jharkhand.                               the GDP and employ 14% of            ducing all the five known com-
    Thorium, a likely future substi-         the total workforce.                 mercial varieties of silk, viz.
    tute for Uranium as a fission            The Industrial policy adopted        Mulberry, Tasar (Tropical),
    material in atomic reactors, oc-         by the Government of India           Oak Tasar, Eri and Muga.
    curs in considerable quantities          envisages a mixed economy,           Karnataka is the largest pro-
    as ThO2, in the beach sands of           i.e., the co-existence of public     ducer of silk. Second position
    Kerala coast.                            and private sectors.                 goes to West Bengal.
    Monazite deposits of commer-             Textile Industries includes cot-     First modern silk factory - was
                                                                                  set up at Howrah in 1832.
    cial value are found in about 160        ton, jute, wool, silk and syn-
                                                                                  India is fifteenth in services
    kms between Cape Comorin                 thetic fibre textiles. It accounts
                                                                                  output. It provides employ-
    and Kollam in Kerala.                    for 24.6% in total exports.
                                                                                  ment to 23% of work force, and
    Thorium is also derived from             Cotton textiles is the oldest
                                                                                  it is growing fast.
    monazite. Zirconium is also              industry in India. It has the
                                                                                  In 2009, seven Indian IT firms
    found in Kerala coast.                   largest number of workers            were listed among the top 15
    Uranium compounds occurs in              employed in an industry.             technology outsourcing com-
    Singhbhum - copper belt of               Kanpur is famous for textiles        panies in the world.
    Jharkhand, Aravalli's and cen-           and clothing, large modern           In 1870, the first steel
    tral Himalaya.                           tanneries, leather works and         industry,‘Bengal Iron Com-
                                             shoe manufacturing.                  pany’ was set up at Kulti, West
    MAJOR INDUS-                             Sholapur is famous for impor-        Bengal.
   TRIES IN INDIA                            tant textiles based on cotton        Three integrated steel plants
                                             grown in local regur soils.          were set up at Bhilai, Durgapur
    The first Industrial Policy was         The first modern cotton textile       and Rourkela. Later two more
    brought in 1948.                         mill was established in Bombay       steel plants, at Bokaro and
    Major industries include tele-           in 1851.                             Vishakhapatnam, were set up.
    communications, textiles, jute           Dharwar Belgaum are known            Private sector plants, of which
    and sugar industries, chemi-             for cotton textiles, railway and     the Tata Iron and Steel Com-
    cals, food processing, steel,            general engineering goods.           pany (TISCO), Jamshedpur is
    transportation equipment, ce-            The first modern cotton mill         the biggest.
    ment, mining, petroleum, ma-             was established in 1818 at           Bhilai plant was set up in col-
    chinery, information technol-            Ghoosury (West Bengal).              laboration with Russia on the
    ogy enabled services and phar-           The first jute mill was started      Kolkata - Nagpur Railway
    maceuticals.                             in 1855 at Rishra near Kolkata.      line in the Durg district
    Some of the major items manu-            The modern woollen textile in-       (Chhatisgarh).
    factured in India are comput-            dustry was started with the          Rourkela steel plant in Orissa
    ers, communication equipment,            establishment of Lal Imli at         was set up under the second
    broadcasting and strategic               Kanpur in 1876.                      five year plan in association
    electronics, television sets,            Ludhiana produces 90% of             with Germany.
   Industry                                       Area of Production
Woollen textiles          :  Punjab, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Jammu and Kashmir
Copper smelting           :  (Khetri) Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra
Heavy machinery           :  Ranchi,Visakhapatanam, Durgapur
Machine tools             :  Bangalore, Pinjore, Kalamassery, Hyderabad, Srinagar
Heavy electricals         :  Bhopal, Hyderabad, Tiruchirapalli, Haridwar.
Railway equipment         :  Chittaranjan (electric engines), Varanasi (diesel engines), Jamshedpur and Bhopal
                             (electric engines), Integral Coach Factory Perambur (Tamil Nadu), Rail Coach
                             Factory, Kapurthala (Punjab)
Shipbuilding              :  Visakhapatnam, Mumbai
Cars                      :  Mumbai (Fiat), Calcutta (Ambassador), Gurgaon (Maruthi)
Buses, trucks             :  Chennai, Mumbai
Jeeps, tempos, trucks     :   Mumbai, Pune, Gurgaon
Two-wheelers              :  Pune, Mumbai, Faridabad, Chennai, Mysore, Ludhiana, Tirupati
Cycles                    :  Mumbai, Asansol, Sonipat, Delhi, Chennai, Jalandhar, Ludhiana
Tractors                  :  Faridabad, Pinjore, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai
Fertilisers               :  Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh
Pharmaceuticals           :  Hyderabad, Rishikesh, Gurgaon, Chennai, Muzaffarpur
Pesticides                :  Delhi, Alwaye
Cement                    :  Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan,
                             Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand.
Leather goods             :  Agra, Kanpur, Mumbai, Calcutta, Delhi.
Glass                     :  Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal
Paper                     :  West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashstra, Karnataka, Madhya
                             Pradesh, Bihar.
      Bokaro, the biggest plant in            Indian Copper Corporation              Kirloskar Brother Ltd is the
      Asia was set up under the               was set up in 1924 which was           pioneer company in the
      fourth five year plan in asso-          taken over by Hindustan Cop-           maufacturing of machine tools.
      ciation with the Russian Gov-           per Ltd (established in 1967),         Hindustan Machine Tools
      ernment. It is located in               in 1972.                               (HMT) is the largest manufac-
      Jharkhand.                              Presently, there are four zinc         turer of machine tools in the
      The public sector steel plants          smelters in the country -              country.
      are managed by the Steel Au-            Alwaye (Kerala), Debari and            Locomotives: Chittaranjan Lo-
      thority of India (SAIL). SAIL           Chanderi (Rajasthan) and               comotive Works, Diesel Loco-
      was established in 1973.                Vishakha patnam (Andhra                motive Works (Varanasi), Tata
      India is now the eighth largest         Pradesh).                              Engineering and Locomotive
      producer of steel in the world.         Among the Third-World coun-            Works (Jamshedpur).
      The first on-shore steel plant          tries, India is a major exporter       The Integral Coach Factory at
      in India was setup at                   of heavy and light engineering         Perampur near Chennai was
      Vishakhapatnam.                         goods. The engineering indus-
                                                                                     set up in 1955 with Swiss col-
      Indian Aluminium Coporation             try has shown its capacity to
      Ltd was formed in 1937.                 manufacture large-size plants
                                                                                     Top four automobile compa-
      BALCO came into being in                and equipment for various sec-
                                                                                     nies with the highest sales:
      1965, NALCO in 1981.                    tors like power, fertilizer, and
      Aluminium companies with the            cement.                                Tata Motors
      highest sales in descending             Heavy Engineering Corpora-             Maruti Udyog Ltd.
      order - HINDALCO, NALCO,                tion Ltd was set up at Ranchi          Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.
      INDAL, MALCO.                           (Jharkhand) in 1958.                   Ashok Leyland Ltd.
  In medium and heavy commer-        brass utensils with engraving       Firozabad in Agra district is
  cial vehicles, Tata Engineering    and polishing.                      the largest producer of glass.
  and Locomotive Company             Indian Explosives factory is        The first synthetic rubber fac-
  (TELCO) is the leading pro-        located at Gomia in Hazaribagh      tory was started in Bareilly in
  ducer.                             (Jharkhand).                        1955.
  There are four main centres of     First fertilizer plant was set up   The first successful effort was
  ship building industry at          at Ranipet of Tamil Nadu in         made in 1870 with the setting
  Vishakhapatnam, Kolkata,           1906.                               up of the Royal Bengal Paper
  Kochi and Mumbai.                  First public sector fertilizer      Mills at Ballyganj near Kolkata.
  Hindustan Shipyard Ltd,            plant is at Sindri (Jharkhand).     The important centres for pa-
  Vishakha patnam set up in          The first super-phosphate fac-      per products are Lucknow,
  1941, is the first ship building   tory was set up at Ranipet in       Titagarh, Raniganj, Pune,
  yard in the country to receive     Tamil Nadu in 1906.                 Naihati etc.
  ISO-9001 certification.            India is now the third largest      Maharashtra is the largest pro-
  Cochin Shipyard Ltd, Kochi         producer of nitrogenous fertil-     ducer of paper followed by
  was incorporated in 1972. It       izers in the world.                 Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat.
  also manufactures ships for        Fertilizer companies with the       Uttar Pradesh has the largest
  Indian Navy.                       highest sales are - National        number of paper mills.
  Mazgaon Dock at Mumbai             Fertilizer Ltd, Tata Chemicals      Paper companies with the high-
  builds cargo ships, passenger      Ltd, Rashtriya Chemicals &          est sales are Ballarpur Indus-
  ships, dredgers etc. for Indian    Fertilizers Ltd.                    tries Ltd, Orient Paper & Indus-
  navy.                              The first successful attempt        tries Ltd and Tamil Nadu News-
  The first aircraft industry was    was made in 1912 - 13 when the      print & Paper Ltd.
  set up at Bangalore in 1940        Indian Cement Co Ltd set up a       West Bengal is the leading
  under the name of Hindustan        plant in porbander (Gujarat).       state in paper manufacturing.
  Aircraft Ltd. Later, Hindustan     The Indian Cement industry is       In India, Jharkahand is the
  Aircraft Ltd was merged into       the second largest in the world     largest producer of Lac (50%),
  Aeronautics India Ltd in 1964      after that of China.                followed by Madhya Pradesh
  to form Hindustran Aeronau-        Madhya         Pradesh       and    and Chhattisgarh. India is the
  tics Ltd, Bangalore.               Chhattisgarh, are the leading       largest exporter in the world.
  Major companies in integrated      producer of total cement pro-       Lac is obtained from an insect
  refining and marketing are         duction in India.                   named Cerria lacca wihich lives
  HPCL, BPCL and IOC.                Leather industry is divided into    on trees.
  Godavari - Krishna delta is        two parts - tanning and leather     Sugar Industry is the second
  known for local tobacco, sug-      goods.                              largest agro-based industry in
  arcane, rice, oil, cement and      For tanning, Kanpur, (1st tan-      India after cotton textile indus-
  small textiles.                    nery centre), Chennai, and          try.
  The industry associated with       Kolkata are three largest Cen-      India is the largest sugar pro-
  sports materials mainly located    tres.                               ducing country with over 15%
  at Agra, Meerut (UP),              The Central Leather Research        share of the global output.
  Ludhiana, Jalandhar (Punjab)       Institute at Chennai is the larg-   India is world’s largest pro-
  and Delhi.                         est of its kind in the world.       ducer of sugarcane and sugar
  Pinjore in Haryana and Jalahalli   Uttar Pradesh is the leading        as well.
  in Bangalore are associated        producer of glass in India fol-     Maharashtra is the largest
  with watch industry.               lowed by West Bengal and            sugar producer followed by
  Moradabad is famous for            Maharashtra.                        Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.