The Indian mainland can be divided into
five physiographic units namely
India stretches 3,214 km from
i. The Great Mountains of the North
north to south and 2,933 km
ii. The North Indian Plains
from east to west.
The total length of the main- iii. The Peninsular Plateau
land coastline is nearly 6,100 iv. The Coastal Plains
km and that of the land frontier v. The Islands
is about 15,200km. The total
length of the coastline includ- dence, the country was divided bicameral legislatures. Legis-
ing that of the islands, is about into hundreds of small states lative power is distributed be-
7,500 km. and principalities. tween Parliament and state leg-
With an area of about 32,87,263 The princely states were reor- islatures.
sq.km., India is the seventh ganized on the linguistic basis
largest country in the world, in 1956 to form 14 states and 6
accounting for about 2.4% of union territories. The mountains of the north are
total world area. young fold mountains.
Now, the Indian Union con-
The northern most point of the sists of 28 states, 6 union terri- The Himalayas are the most
country lies in the state of tories and one national capital prominent among these
Jammu and Kashmir and it is territory (Delhi). mountain ranges. Besides
known as Indira Col. In 23 states, the legislature is this, the trans-Himalayan
unicameral. Bihar, Jammu and ranges and the hill ranges of
Kashmir, Karnataka, Maha Purvachal are the important
At the time of Indian indepen- units.
rashtra and Uttar Pradesh have
The Himalayas Neighbours of India
It is one of the youngest India shares her borders with China (Chinese Tibetan Autonomous
mountain systems in the world Region), Nepal and Bhutan in north, Pakistan and Afghanistan in
and comprise mainly north-west and Myanmar in east.
sedimentary rocks. Bangladesh forms almost an enclave within India on the eastern side.
The Indus valley in Kashmir In the south, on the eastern side, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk
and the Brahmaputra valley in Strait separate India from Sri Lanka.
Arunachal Pradesh are The boundary between India (Arunachal Pradesh) and China is known
accepted as the western and as McMohan Line.
the eastern limits of the The boundary line between the imperial India and Afghanistan is
Himalayas in India. known as Durand Line.
The Himalayan region is The boundary between India and Pakistan is known as Radcliff Line.
considered the largest snow India is surrounded by the Indian ocean on its three sides, thus it is
field in the world outside the a subcontinent. The Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are its two
polar ice caps. northward extensions. India and its neighbours Pakistan, Nepal and
The Himalayan chain measures Bhutan are known as the Indian sub-continent.
about 2,500 km from west to east The northern most tip, where the boundaries of China, India, Paki-
and width of this fold system stan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan meet is known as ‘Wakh Corridor’.
varies between 150 and 400km.
According to the plate
Kanchenjunga in Sikkim is the The Himalayas is the high-
tectonics theory, the Indian highest peak of the Himalayas est mountain range in the
plate moved northwards and its in India. (8598 m). world and also the young-
forward edge penetrated below Highest Mountain Peak in In- est mountain range.
the southern edge of the dia is K2 (8611 m). Longest Mountain Range is
Tibetan plate. This resulted in It is in Pak occupied Kashmir. Andes in South America.
the folding and uplift of the The northernmost Himalayan
Himalayas. ranges are called the Great or
The Himalayas consist of three Inner or Central Himalayas
parallel ranges. (Himadri). Beyond this range To the south of the Central
(i) The southernmost range, Himalayas lies the second
lies another range called the
called the Siwalik is the major range, the Lesser or
Tethys or the Tibetan
lowest. Lower or Middle Himalayas or
Himalayas beyond which lies
(ii) The ranges lying north of Himachal. It is separated from
the structural zone called the
the Siwalik are known as the Great Himalayas by the
Indo-Tsangpo Suture zone.
the middle Himalayas or structural zone called the Main
the Himachal. Central Thrust Zone.
(iii) The northernmost ranges The Himalayan rivers have cut
Mount Everest or
of the Himalayas, known as deep gorges in the Himachal.
Sagarmatha, the highest
the Himadri, are the high- In the Lesser Himalayas, slate,
mountain peak (8,850 m) in the
est with an average height limestones and quartzites are
world belongs to Himadri. Other
of more than 6,000 metres the dominant rocks.
important peaks of this range are
above the sea level. The southernmost range of
The Himadri contain some of the Himalayan system is called
Makalu (8,481m) and
the world's highest peaks. outer or sub-Himalayas or Si-
Mt. Everest (8848 m) in Nepal
waliks. In between the outer
is the world's highest peak.
Himalayas and the lower Hima-
layas lies the main boundary
thrust. This valley zone is KARAKORAM RANGES
known by the name of doons
The mountains extending between the Pamir plateau and
and duars. the Indus river in Kashmir are known as the Karakoram.
The abode of snow The Karakoram mountains contain the Siachen, which is
Mountains between the Indus the world's largest mountain glacier.
and the Brahmaputra are called Extend from the Pamir, east of the Gilgit River, 600 km long
'the Himalayas' meaning 'the and the average width - 120-140 km.
abode of snow.' Ancient name was Krishnagiri.
Ladakh Range lies to the Trans Himalaya, originally a part of Eurasian plate.
south of the Karakoram Range Abode of largest glaciers in India.
between the Indus and its Siachin, Baltoro, Biafo, and Hisper glaciers.
World’s second highest peak (in India): K2 or Godwin
tributary the Shyok River and
extends upto Mustang in
Other Important Peaks:Gasherbrum I or Hidden Peak, Broad
Tibet, over a distance of about
Peak and Gasherbrum II.
1,000km. The Trans-
The Siachin Galcier occupying the Nubra valley is about
Himalayan Kailas Range is an 75 km long and it is considered the largest glacier outside
offshoot of this range and the polar areas.
Mount Kailas (6,500m) is the
highest peak in it. is a classical example. It is right- boundary of India are called
Zaskar Range lies south of the ly described as 'paradise on the Purvanchal.
Ladakh Range and the Greater earth'. Nanga Parbat in Kashmir and
Himalayas lie to its south. It is The other important valleys are Nandadevi in U.P. are the other
often considered the western Kulu and Kangra in Himachal two important peaks of the Hi-
part of the Greater Himalayan Pradesh. malaya.
Range. The Nanga Parbat The doons in the Kumayun Hi-
(8,126m) marks it culmination malaya of Uttar Pradesh are
in the north-west. Kamet also well known.
(7,756m) is the highest peak. The Brahmaputra marks the
The Himalayas are known for eastern-most geographical lim-
some of the beautiful valleys of it of the Himalaya.
the world. The Kashmir valley Mountains along the eastern
The Himalayas are regionally divided into Punjab
Himalayas, Kumaon Himalayas, Nepal Himalayas,
N AM E L O C AT I O N D I S TA N C E
P unja b H im a la ya B e tw e e n Ind us a nd S a tluj 560 km
K um a o n H im a la ya B e tw e e n S a tluj a nd K a li 320 km
N e p a l H im a la ya B e tw e e n K a li a nd Tista 800 km
A ssa m H im a la ya B e tw e e n Tista a nd D iha ng 720 km
Important passes of Himalayas
Kashmir : Burzil and Zoji-la The Eastern Ghats are irregular hill ranges that
Himachal Pradesh : Bara Lacha-la, Shipki-la. stretch from northern Orissa to the Nilgiris in
Uttaranchal : Thanga-la, Niti-la, Lipu-Lekhla Tamil Nadu across the coastal Andhra.
Sikkim - Nathula, Jelepla
Khybar pass is the most famous pass which leads The Satpura range extends from the Narmada
from Peshwar to Kabul. valley in the north to the Tapti valley in the south.
South of Khybar pass is the Gomal Pass (it is in The 800 km range Aravallis stretching from the
Pakistan). north-east to the south - west of India sepa-
The Bolan Pass leads from Kandahar to Quetta. rates the semi-desert regions of Rajasthan from
The Purvachal Hills in the north-east consist of the fertile Udaipur and Jaipur regions.
the Patkai-Bum, the Garo-Khasi-Jaintia and
Lushai Hills. Aravallis is the oldest mountain range in India.
Vindhya mountains cut off the northern plain from Sahyadri hills is a part of the Western Ghats.
the south. Nilgiris is also a part of Western Ghats. Nilgiri is
The Peninsular mountains include The Western known as the Blue Mountains.
Ghats (The Sahyadris), The Eastern Ghats, The The southern most tip of Eastern Ghats is called
Satpura Range and The Aravallis. Cardamom Hills.
The Western Ghats runs along the west coast
from the south of Tapti river valley to The Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats meet at
Kanyakumari. Nilgiri Hills.
Peninsular Plateau The plateau region includes a
number of other minor
(The Deccan Plateau) mountains besides the Aravalli
It extends over eight Indian Plateau (also called the and the Eastern and Western
states and encompasses a wide The Deccan Plateau) is a Ghats. They include the
range of habitats, covering large plateau in India. Deccan Vindhyas and Satpuras in
most of central and southern Plateau is divided into three Central India.
India. major units – the Western Ghats, The Satpuras, which lie
It is separated from the the Eastern Ghats and the between the rivers Narmada
Gangetic plain to the north by Deccan Trap. The Deccan and Tapi, have several hills
the Satpura and Vindhya Plateau lies south of the including the Rajpipla Hills in
Ranges, which form its I nd o-G a ng e ti c Maharashtra, and the Maikal
northern boundary. plain. Range and Pachmarhi Hills in
The Eastern Ghats and the Madhya Pradesh.
Western Ghats constitute its The Western Ghats separate
eastern and western Aravalli Ranges in the west, the Deccan Trap region from
boundaries, respectively. Malwa region in the centre and the Western Coastal Plain
The river Narmada, which the Chotta Nagpur Plateau in while the Eastern Ghats lie
flows through a rift valley, the east. between the Eastern Coastal
divides the region into two The Deccan Trap represents Plain and the Deccan Trap.
parts: the Malwa Plateau in the the core of the plateau region The Western Ghats form a
north and the Deccan Plateau and it is in this part that the continuous range from south
in the South. oldest rock systems of India to north and the highest range
The northern part of the are found. This region is made of this region is often called the
plateau is occupied by the up of crystalline rocks. Sahyadri.
The Western Ghats are The Aravallis are one of The Anai Mudi, the highest
connected to the Eastern the oldest fold mountains peak, is 2,695 metres above the
Ghats by the Nilgiri Hills (Blue sea level. Udagamandalam is a
in the world. The highest
Mountains). South of these well known hill station of the
peak of Aravalli range is
are the Annamalai Hills south located in Tamil Nadu.
(Annaimudi is the highest peak Guru Shikhar near Mt.
in the peninsular region) which Abu (1,158m) in Plains of India
are separated from the former Rajasthan. The vast plains of north India
by the Palghat Pass. are alluvial in nature and the
Two branches of the this part draining southeastern western most portion is
Annamalai Hills are known as part of Rajasthan. occupied by the Thar Desert.
the Palani Hills and the Yelagiri The plains of south India i.e.,
The Thar Desert merges into
(Cardamom) Hills. coastal plains are also alluvial
the Rann of Kutch. Much of
The Sivasamudram Fall, the to a large extent.
the Rann is a sandy area and
Gokak Fall and the Mahatma The northern plain is known as
parts of it are marshy.
Gandhi Fall are important the Ganga-Brahmaputra plain
The rocks of the Deccan Trap
waterfalls in this area. and is divided into smaller
are rich in deposits of a variety
units like the western plain,
The most important waterfall of minerals. Granite, basalt,
eastern plain, Bihar plain,
formed by the Narmada is the gneiss and quartzite are the
Bengal plain and Brahmaputra
Dhuandhar Falls near Jabalpur. major rocks besides some
The river flows through marble limestone and sandstone.
rocks in this region and hence Some of the richest deposits Northern Plain
the Dhuandhar Fall is also of manganese are found in This plain lies to the south of
called the Marble Falls. Madhya Pradesh. Iron and the northern mountain wall and
The Aravallis due to erosion gold are seen in Jharkhand and stretches in the shape of an arc
over a long period of time their Karnataka respectively. from the western most part of
height has been reduced and The Western Ghats mark the the country to the
they can be considered relict western boundary of the Brahmaputra valley in the east.
mountains. Deccan Plateau and they Indo-Gangetic plain is one of
River Chambal is the most separate the plateau from the the most extensive stretches of
important river originating coastal plain. The famous the alluvium in the world.
from the eastern slopes of the Palghat, Borghat and Thalghat The Indo-Gangetic Plains also
Aravallis. are important gaps that known as the Northern Plains
The Luni and the Sabarmati are facilitate passage over this and The North Indian River
the most important rivers rising barrier. Plain encompassing most of
from the Aravallis and flowing northern and eastern India, the
are known by most populous parts of
in a westerly direction. The Western Ghats
na m es . In Pakistan, parts of southern
The dry north-western part of di ff er en t loca l
arnataka they Nepal and virtually all of
Rajasthan is part of the Maharshtra and K
ri . Fu rt he r
extensive Thar Desert that ar e ca lle d Sa hyad Bangladesh.
d the Nilgiris
extends into Pakistan. south, they are calle The areas that are parts of the
East of Aravalli range, the area in Tamil Nadu. Still plains are as follows-
d Tamil Nadu
is less dry and there are lower along the Kerala an Bangladesh, Assam, Bihar,
kn ow n as
hills like Bundi Hills. Chambal bord er, th ey ar e Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab,
and its tributaries flow through Anaimala and Card Rajasthan, Tripura, Uttar
Pradesh, West Bengal, Nepal, The foot hill zones of the
Madhesh, Punjab, Sindh, eastern plain in the northern
Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, parts of West Bengal and still
Jharkhand, Orissa, Balo eastward are occupied by the
chistan, North-West Frontier Bengal Duars and Assam
Province, Kashmir region. Duars.
The total length of the Coastal Plains
northern plain is about 2,400km The coastal plains separate the
and the width varies from 145 peninsular plateau from the sea.
to 480 km. The inner margins of the plains
Western Plain are marked by the Eastern and
The western part of the and the delta plains of the the Western Ghats that
northern plain is also called the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. separate the Deccan plateau
Indus plain or Punjab plain. It is customary to divide this region from the coastal low
It slopes gently towards west part into the Ganga plain and lands.
and extends into Pakistan the Brahmaputra plain. The Eastern and the Western
through Punjab. An important division of the Ghats that separate the Deccan
The plain is drained by the plain is made in terms of the plateau region from the coastal
Indus and its tributaries. That khadar and the bangar zones. lowlands.
part of the plain that extends The term khadar refers to the The plain along the Bay of
in India is drained into the new alluvium and the bangar Bengal coast is called the
Arabian Sea by the rivers - to the old alluvium. Eastern Coastal Plain and the
Sutlej, Beas and Ravi, The lower part of the plain one extending along the
tributaries of the Indus that adjacent to the rivers that is Arabian Sea coast of India is
join the main stream after prone to frequent floods is called the Western Coastal
entering Pakistan. The Indian called khadar. plain.
part of the plain is also called Bangar soils frequently have The Eastern coastal plain of
the Punjab and Haryana beds of kanker or hard pans. India stretches along the Bay
Plain. The western part of the plain, of Bengal from river
Streams carrying water only from Haridwar to Aligarh is Subernarekha to Kanya
during the rainy season and called Upper Doab and from Kumari.
with their beds choked with Aligarh to Allahabad is called The northern part of this plain
boulders are called chos in the Middle Doab. is often called the Utkal plain,
Punjab. The northern part of Ganga- the middle one is the Andhra
The water becoming sub- Yamuna Doab and Uttar Coastal Plain and the
surface in this zone emerges on Pradesh is covered by southern most part is called the
the surface in lower areas Ruhelkhand Plain. This part Tamil Nadu Coastal Plain
down stream and produces is drained by Ghaghra, Rapti (also called the Coromandel
and Gomti rivers. coastal plain).
marshy conditions. Such
The plain is characterized by The rivers flowing into the Bay
marsh areas in Punjab are
streams that flow as sub- of Bengal from the plateau
surface channels in dry region have contributed to the
The only river that remains
season. This area is called the formation of this coastal plain.
perennial in its upper course
bhabhar or the ‘bhabar zone’. Part of the plain that lies in the
in Haryana is Ghaggar. This
The marshy region at the foot upper course of the rivers is
stream is lost in the dry area in
of the Himalayas is called the called the upper plain and the
Rajasthan. part in which lie the deltas of
terai zone. Much of this zone
Eastern plain has been drained out and the rivers, is called the lower
It comprises the flood plain reclaimed for agriculture. plain.
The major rivers flowing this plain is called the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
through the Eastern Coastal Gujarat coastal plain The southernmost tip of India,
Plain are the Mahanadi, the and the southernmost, Indira point is in Great Nicobar
Godavari, the Krishna and the the Kerala coastal plain. islands which is the biggest
Kaveri. The delta regions of In between these two island in Nicobar group.
these rivers are very fertile and sections lie Konkan The Lakshadweep in the Ara-
support high densities of Coastal Plain in the bian sea comprises of a group
agricultural population. north and the Malabar of 36 islands, about 300km to
The western coastal plain Coastal Plain to the the west of Kerala coast.
forms a narrow strip of land South. Only 10 of the islands are in-
along the western coast of habited.
India. It stretches from Gujarat The Islands Kavarathi is the capital of
to Kerala. Lakshadweep.
Besides the mainland, India has
The Western Ghats New Moore Island lies in Bay
two groups of Islands namely
forming the inner margin of Bengal near West Bengal
the Andaman and Nicobar Is-
of this plain are a much also belongs to India.
lands in the Bay of Bengal and
higher mountain range Coco Islands North of
the Lakshadweep Islands in the
than the Eastern Ghats Andaman belong to Myanmar.
that are more of a series The Andaman and Nicobar Is-
Andamans consists of a north-
of discontinuous hills. lands are close to the Indo-
ern cluster of 204 small islands
The rivers flowing down Australian Plate Boundary.
and Nicobar islands consists
the escarpment like slope Barren Island became active in
of a southern cluster of 19 Is-
of the Western Ghats are 1991 after being (inactive) for
rapid streams and they do over two centuries.
Ten degree channel separates
not form any deltas. Minicoy islands is separated
Andaman from Nicobar.
The northernmost part of from Maldives by 8o channel.
Port Blair is the capital of
RIVER SYSTEM OF INDIA
The river system of the country can be classified on the basis of their origin in to two categories:
i. The Himalayan Rivers and ii. The Peninsular rivers
The Himalayan rivers Kulu hills of Himachal
The Himalayan rivers has three Pradesh.
principal systems The Chenab is the largest of In Hindu tradi-
1. the Indus system Indus tributaries. It has a total tion Triveni Sangam
2. the Ganga system and length of 1,800 km in India. is the "confluence" of
3. the Brahmaputra system The Jhelum, an important three rivers, two physical
tributary of the Indus flowing rivers Ganga, Yamuna, and
1. Indus system the invisible or mythic
through the state of Jammu and
It is one of the largest river Kashmir (Srinagar Valley is the Saraswati River. The site is
systems in the world. River valley of the Jhelum) rises in a nearAllahabad, India. A place
spring at Verinag. of religious importance
Indus rises from Kailas
The Beas rises at Beas Kund and the site for historic
Range in the Tibetan Plateau
near the Rohtang Pass in Kumbh Mela held ev-
region and is joined by a
Himachal Pradesh. ery 12 years.
number of tributaries in
Jammu and Kashmir. 2. Ganga System
It is the largest drainage and Bangladesh and finally en-
The most important tributaries
system of India carrying the ters into the Bay of Bengal.
of Indus include the Sutlej, the
run off of about 25 percent of Ganga is known by the name
Chenab, the Ravi and the Beas the total land area of the
that join it after entering into ‘Padma’ in Bangladesh.
Pakistan. The river has been declared as
The River Ganga is the long- India's National River.
Sutlej is the largest amongst
est river (2640 km) in India. Its It has been considered the ho-
the tributaries of Indus.
source is at Gangotri glacier in liest of all rivers by Hindus.
After flowing through Pakistan,
the Himalayas. Some of the most important
Indus falls into Arabian Sea.
Ganga, the main stream, is Hindu festivals and religious
River Indus is an antecedent
constituted by two major head congregation (worship) such
river as it is considered as older streams, the Alakananda and
than the Himalayas. as the Kumbh Mela every
Bhagirathi. These two twelve years at
River Sutlej rises beyond the headstreams of the Ganga join Media:Allahabad and the
Himalayas and has cut a gorge at Devprayag. Chhath Puja.
through the Central Himalayan The source of the Alakananda The Ganges Basin drains
Range. is near the Tibetan border and 1,000,000-square-kilometre
The Ravi is the smallest river that of the Bhagirathi near (390,000 sq mi) and supports
of Punjab and is well-known as Gangotri. one of the world's highest den-
the 'River of Lahore.' It rises The Ganga is joined by the
sity of humans.
near the Rohtang pass in the Yamuna near Allahabad.
Only two rivers, the Amazon
Yamuna, Gomti, Ghagra,
d and the Congo, have greater
avi, Chenab an Gandak, Ramganga, Son,
Sutlej, Beas, R ibut ar ies of Chambal, Betwa and Ken are
discharge than the combined
Jhelum are the is flow of the Ganges, the
nt K ailash in Tibet the main tributaries of Ganga.
Indus. Mou r. It fa ll s Ganga flows through Uttar
Brahmaputra and the Surma-
the source of In Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal
Meghna river system.
into the Arabian
3. Brahmaputra system dia. The source of the river lies peninsular India. It rises from
in the Nasik district of Maha- Trambak in Nasik district in the
Brahmaputra is the third
major antecedent river of rashtra and it traverses over a Western Ghats.
India flowing from the course of more than 1,400km. Rajahmundry, is the largest
Himalayan region towards It is commonly known as ‘Vrid- city on the banks of Godavari.
the northern plains. dha Ganga’. The Peninsular rivers are gen-
Krishna System erally rain-fed and, therefore,
The 2,688 km Brahmaputra is fluctuate greatly in volume. A
It is the second largest east
longer than the Ganges, but very large number of them are
flowing system of the penin-
only one third of the river non-perennial.
passes through India. sular region.
Peninsular rivers contribute 30
Brahmaputra originates from The river rises in Western
percent of the total outflow in
the Manasarovar lake in Ghats near Mahabaleshwar
Western Tibet. It flows for a and flows in a north-easterly
The major Deccan rivers are
long distance parallel to the direction to Divi in Andhra
the Godavari, Krishna, Cau-
Himalayan ranges in an Pradesh. It is commonly
very, Pennar, Mahanadi, Damo-
easterly direction. Here, it is known as ‘Dakshina Ganga’.
dar, Sharavati, Netravati, Bhar-
known as the Tsangpo. Kaveri system athapuzha, Periyar, Pamba,
It takes a southward turn and The river Kaveri is the most Narmada and Tapti.
enters India in eastern southerly among the major riv- There are three major rivers –
Arunachal Pradesh under the ers of the peninsular region Narmada, Tapti and Sabarmati
flowing into the Bay of Ben- flowing into the Arabain sea
When it enters Bangladesh, it
gal. from the Peninsular region.
is named as 'Meghna.'
It rises in the Brahmagiri Hills Narmada and Tapti are the
The Ganga and the
in Coorg district and flows to- major west flowing rivers of
Brahmaputra join in
Bangladesh and form the wards the coast. India. They drain into the Gulf
extensive delta of Sunderbans. It descends from South Karna- of Cambay in the Arabian Sea.
It derives the name from the taka Plateau to the Tamil Nadu The river Narmada rises in the
Sundri tree that grows widely Plains through the famous Amarkantak plateau, flows
in this region. Sivasamudram waterfalls. through a rift valley and makes
a number of waterfalls. The
Mahanadi system Peninsular rivers Marble Falls near Jabalpur is
It drains a large part of Orissa. a famous fall on this river.
The Mahanadi is one of the It is a river that flows
The Tapti (Tapi) rises near
major rivers of peninsular pla- through the peninsular
Betul district. The Parna,
teau region flowing into Bay part of a country.( a penin-
flowing from the Gawilgarh
of Bengal. sula is a patch of land cov-
Hills, is the most important
The Seonath, the Hasdeo and ered by water on three sides tributary joining the Tapti near
the Mand join it from the north and connected to a land on Bhusawal.
and the Jonk joins from south. the fourth side) Satpura Mountain range lies
The river forms its delta in the Peninsular rivers (The Deccan between Narmada and Tapti.
Cuttack district of Orissa be- rivers) are generally rainfed The Sabarmati rises in the
fore flowing into the Bay of and comprises the rivers of Aravallis in Rajasthan and
Bengal. peninsular India. They are flows into the Gulf of Cambay
Godavari System shorter and seasonal in nature. in Gujarat.
Godavari is the largest among River Godavari is the largest River Krishna rises from the
the rivers of the Peninsular In- river system (1465 km long) of north of Mahabaleswar in the
The Main Rivers in India
Name Length Originates Ends in Passes through
Ganga (Bhagirati) 2,507 Gaumukh Bay of Bengal Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and W.Bengal
Yamuna (Jamuna) 1370 Garhwal in Yamunotri Bay of Bengal Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh
Brahmaputra 2,850 Chemayung-Dung glacier, Bay of Bengal North Eastern states of India
between lake Manasarovar
and Mount Kailash
(Dakshina Ganga" or 765 Hills of Coorg, Karnataka Bay of Bengal Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
Ganges of the south)
Godavari 1,465 Trimbakeshwar near Nasik Bay of Bengal South-easterly direction, through
Hills in Maharashtra Maharastra and Andhra Pradesh
Krishna 900 Near Mahabaleshwar in Bay of Bengal Maharastra, Karnataka and Andhra
Narmada 1,300 Amarkantak hill in Arabian Sea Maharastra, Madhya Pradesh and
Madhya Pradesh Gujarat
Tapti 724 Pachmari, Madhya Pradesh Arabian Sea Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat
Gomti 805 Himalaya Range of Nepal Bay of Bengal Uttar Pradesh
Ghaghara Shivalik mountain range of Disappears into Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan
Himachal Pradesh the Thar Desert
Mahanadi 860 Satpura Range Bay of Bengal Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa and
Western Ghats. It enters into quent flood. sandy areas of Rajasthan.
the Bay of Bengal. Krishna Sabarmati rises from the Jai Some of Peninsular rivers such
basin forms the third largest Samand lake of Udaipur, as Narmada and Tapti form es-
river basin in India. Rajasthan. tuaries. Other rivers such as
River Cauvery rises from the The Luni originates from Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna,
Brahmagiri hills in the Coorg Annasagar in the Aravallis and Cauvery form deltas.
district of Tamilnadu. It is ends on the Sahni marshes, Drainage of the Thar
known as Dakshina Ganga. North of Rann of Kutch. Desert Region
About 55 percent of the The Third river system is also The greater part of Rajasthan
Cauvery basin lies in called the ‘Rivers of Inland and Gujarat is dry land, which
Tamilnadu, 41 percent in Drainage Basins’ which con- forms a part of the Thar desert.
Karnataka and three percent in sists of small rivers in the
The Cauvery water Dispute
t de lta , Su nd er ba ns is formed by the
Tribunal gave its final verdict The world’s larges ladesh, in the Bay of
in 2006. It ordered Karnataka ap utra in W est Bengal and Bang al halo-
and Br ah m
ba ns is th e la rg es t single block of tid
to release 192 TMCFT water to Bengal. The Sundar the vast
re st in th e wo rld . The forest lies in
Tamil Nadu every year. phytic mangrove fo of the
River Pennar rises in the Kolar Be ng al fo rm ed by the confluence
delta on the Bay er s across sout he
district of Karnataka.
ge s, Br ah m ap ut ra an d Meghna riv as a UN ES CO
Gan e inscribed
River Damodar is called as est Bengal. It becam
"Sorrow of Bengal and Bangladesh and W
Jharkhand", because of fre- world heritage site
Difference between the Himalayan (Andhra Pradesh). Wular is the
second largest fresh water lake.
and the Peninsular Rivers The largest saltwater lake :
Rivers such as Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra etc., are antecedent Lake Chilka (Orissa)
rivers i.e., they are older than the landforms over which the The second largest salt water
Himalayan rivers flow. lake is Sambhar in Rajasthan.
Due to their sources in the snowfields, the Himalayan rivers It is the largest inland salt lake
are perennial and carry large amounts of water. Their erosional in India.
capacity is immense and they carry large amounts of silt. Dal Lake is famous for house
Most of the rivers of the peninsular plateau are consequent boats.
streams and they follow the general slope of the plateau region. The lakes of India generally
Their valleys are well developed and they do not change their classified as fresh water and
course frequently. brakish lakes.
Further, the peninsular rivers are seasonal in character as they
are rainfed. Important lakes in India
Due to a lesser amount of flow, the hydroelectricity generation Chilka (Orissa)
potential of the peninsular rivers is much lower than the Sambar (Rajasthan)
Himalayan rivers. Pulicat (Andhra Pradesh)
The Thar Desert (also known is the river Luni.
Wular (J & K)
as the Great Indian Desert), is The river Luni rises in the
a large, arid region in the Aravalli Ranges and enters the Dal (J & K)
northwestern part of the Indian Arabian Sea through the Rann Uday Sagar (Rajasthan)
subcontinent. of Kutch. Pushkar (Rajasthan)
The Cholistan Desert adjoins For most of the year, Luni is Loktak (Manipur Hills)
the Thar desert spreading into dry. Bhimtal Lake (Nainital)
Pakistani Punjab province. Lakes Roopkund Lake
It is an area of internal drainage (Uttaranchal)
and the only river rising or The largest fresh water lake Osman sagar lake
flowing through this territory in India: Lake Kolleru (Andhra)
MULTI-PURPOSE RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS
India stands fifth in the world Pradesh. Falls, the highest in India.
after Congo, Russia, Canada The Nagarjunasagar project Its total capacity is 891 MW. It
and the United States in po- is built on the river Krishna in feeds Bangalore industrial re-
tential of water power re- Andhra Pradesh irrigates gion and is also taken to the
sources. 8,67,000 hectares of land. states of Goa and Tamil Nadu.
Damodar River Valley project The dam has been named after The Sabarigiri project in Kerala
was the first multi-purpose river the Buddhist scholar has an installed capacity of 300
valley project in Free India. Nagarjuna. MW while the Idukki project
The project-irrigates half a mil- The Chambal project helps ir- has a capacity of 390 MW.
lion hectares of land in West rigate parts of Madhya The Balimela project in Orissa
Bengal and parts of south-east Pradesh and Rajasthan. has an installed capacity of 360
Bihar. The project consists of Gandhi MW and in Gujarat Ukai
The Bhakra Nangal Project is Sagar Dam in Madhya Project has a capacity of 300
an example of water manage- Pradesh, and Kota Barrage and MW.
ment on scientific lines on the Jawahar Sagar Dam in In Jammu and Kashmir Salal
largest scale. Rajasthan. Hydel Power project provide
The project serves the states Hydel power projects over a thousand MW of power.
of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, In the year 1902 the first water Tehri Hydel Power project is a
Haryana, Rajasthan and the power house was set up on the joint project of the Govt of In-
National Capital Territory of river Kaveri at Sivasamudram dia and Uttaranchal. Tehri Hy-
Delhi. in Karnataka. dro Development Corporation
Indira Gandhi or Rajasthan Tata Hydro electric scheme was was set up in 1988.
Canal is the longest irrigation introduced in the western ghats Narmada Valley Development
canal in the world of Maharashtra to furnish Authority (NVDA), is an or-
Indira Gandhi Canal Project in power to the city of Mumbai. ganization of Govt. of M.P.
Rajasthan utilized water of In Tamil Nadu, Pykara was the constituted for planning wa-
Satluj, Beas and Ravi to irrigate first water power station. ter resources development in
north-western parts of the In the north, Mandi power Narmada basin
country house was the first to be de- Narmada is the fifth largest
The Kosi project in Bihar has veloped in the Himalayan re- river in India and largest west
been taken up in cooperation gion. The next one to be taken flowing river of Indian penin-
with Nepal. up was the Upper Ganga Ca- sula originating from Maikala
Its main aim has been to con- nal Hydroelectric Grid System. ranges at Amarkantak in
trol floods brought by the river The Rihand project is the larg- Madhya Pradesh
Kosi, known as the 'River of est manmade lake in India on
Sorrow' for north Bihar. the borders of Madhya
The main canal is taken off Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. DAM and RIVER
from Hanumannagar barrage The Koyna project in
on the Kosi. Maharashtra is on the east Bhakranangal Dam ............. Sutlej
Another important joint ven- flowing tributary of the Hirakud ...................... Mahanadi
ture of India and Nepal is the Krishna. Its capacity is 880 Tehri Dam ................ Bhageerathi
Gandak Project. MW. It feeds power to Uri Power Project ............. Jhelum
The Hirakud dam in Orissa is Mumbai-Pune industrial re-
Nagarjunasagar Dam ....... Krishna
the longest dam in the world. gion.
The Tungabhadra Project The Sharavathy project in Kosi Project ......................... Kosi
serves Karnataka and Andhra Karnataka is located at the Jog Koyna Project ................. Krishna
• Garland Canal Project linked Peninsular rivers of South India and Himalayan rivers through Canals.
• The Farakka Barrage Project is designed to serve the need of preservation and maintenance of the
Kolkata Port by improving the regime and navigability of the Bhagirathi-Hoogly river system.
• The Grand Anicut also known as the Kallanai, was built by the Chola king Karikala Cholan in AD
26. It is considered as one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world,
which is still in use.
• Uttar Pradesh occupies the First place with the total length of rivers and canals as 31.2 thousand
km, which is about 17 percent of the total length of rivers and canals in the country. Other states
following Uttar Pradesh are Jammu & Kashmir and Madhya Pradesh.
PROJECT RIVER STATE PURPOSE
Bhakra Nangal Multipurpose Sutlej Joint venture of Punjab, Irrigation, hydro electricity
Project (A tributary of Indus) Haryana and Rajasthan.
Bhakra dam: One of the highest
gravity dam in the world.
Govind Sagar Lake (H.P.) is a
Thein Dam project Ravi (A tributary of Indus). Punjab Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
Dulhasti project Chenab (A tributary of Indus) Jammu and Kashmir Part of the programme of
cascade development for
Salal project Chenab (A tributary of Indus). Jammu and Kashmir Irrigation
Beas project Beas (A tributary of Indus). Joint venture of Punab, Hydro electricity
Haryana and Rajasthan.
Sharda Sahayak Project Ghagra (left bank tributary of Uttar Pradesh Irrigation
Ramganga multipurpose project Chuisot stream near Kalabagh Uttar Pradesh Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
Banasagar project Son M.P., Bihar and U.P. Irrigation
Rihand S che me Re se r vo ir : Rihand Uttar Pradesh Hydroelectricity for the
Govind Ballabh Sagar (U.P.). d evelo p ment o f so uth
eastern industrial region of
Upper Krishna Project Krishna Karnataka Irrigation (Almatti dam is
Tungabhadra multipurpose Tungbhadra (A tributary of Joint venture of Andhra Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
project. Krishna) Pradesh and Karnataka.
Ghatprabha project Ghatprabha (A tributary of Andhra Pradesh and Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
Malprabha project Malprabha (A tributary of Karnataka Irrigation
Bhima project Bhima Maharashtra Irrigation
Mettur project Cauvery Tamil Nadu Hydroelectricity
Shivasamudram scheme Cauvery Karnataka Hydroelectricity
Kundah project Kundah Tamil Nadu Hydroelectricity
Sharavati Project Sharavati (near Jog falls) Karnataka Hydroelectricity
Chambal project Chambal (a tributary of Raja sthan, Ma dhya Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
(Gandhi Sagar Dam (M.P., Yamuna). Pradesh.
Rana Pratap Sagar and Jawahar
Sagar Dam or Kota Dam.
Kakrapara Project Tapi Gujarat Irrigation
Ukai project Tapi Gujarat Irrigation
Sardar Sarovar Project Narmada Gujarat, M.P., Rajasthan Irrigation, hydroelectricity
Tawa project Ta w a ( A t r ib ut a r y o f Madhya Pradesh Irrigation
Mahi project (Jamnalal Bajaj Mahi Gujarat Irrigation
Matatila project Betwa Uttal Pradesh, Madhya Irrigation, hydroelectricity.
The nation has four seasons: Indian climate is greatly influ- Thunder storms cause upto 25
winter (January and February), enced by the presence of cm of rainfall along the Kerala
summer (March to May), a Himalayas in the north and and Karnataka coasts and
monsoon (rainy) season (June the Indian Ocean in the south. about 10 cm. in the interior of
to September), and a post- The climate of India is mon- South India. Such rains are
monsoon period (October to soonal type, fed up by two rain called 'Cherry Blossoms' in
December). bearing winds. Karnataka where they prove
The climatic conditions in In- Latitude and the monsoon immensely beneficial to coffee
dia are affected the most by the winds are the major factors af- plantation. They are called as
tropical monsoon. Due to the fecting the Indian climate. 'Mango Showers' in South
overwhelming influence of the The Tropic of Cancer divides India, due to their salutary ef-
tropical monsoon on Indian India into two almost equal cli- fect on mango crop.
climate, India is called a tropi- matic zones namely the north- The normal date of the onset
cal country. ern zone and the southern zone. of the rains is 20th May in
Andaman & Nicobar Islands The North East Monsoon (Oc- Hot Dry Season : It is marked
and by the end of June, it is tober - November) brings rain by the rising temperature
usually established over most mainly to Tamil Nadu. during the latter half of the
of the country. The North - East Monsoons month of March. The highest
Normal duration of the mon- are comparitively minor mon- temperatures in the south are
soon varies from 2 to 4 months. soons confined to a smaller experienced in April and in the
The Trans-Himalayan and area of the country. They are northern plains in May and
Greater-Himalayan regions, the winds blowing out from the June.
Drass and Kargil of Ladakh re- landmass of north-western In- This part of the year is marked
gion are the coldest regions in dia towards the Indian Ocean. by a dry spell and the north-
the country. Monsoon is a wind system of western parts of the country
Mawsynram in Meghalaya the tropical regions under
(1141 cm) is the experience hot, dry winds
which the direction of the called loo.
rainiest place in the world. winds is reversed seasonably
Jaisalmer in western Hot Wet Season : The trough
and it results in summer
Rajasthan is the driest place in rainfall and dry winters. of low pressure over the Indo-
India which receives the low- During the summer season, the Gangetic plain causes the
est rainfall. winds blow from sea to the equatorial winds of oceanic
El-Nino is a complex weather continents so that the moist origin to move over to India.
system that appears once in winds cause rainfall in this This is the onset of southwest
every 3 to 7 years bringing season. monsoon and also the
drought, floods and other During winter, the direction of beginning of the hot wet
weather extremes to different the winds is reversed so that season.
parts of the world. El-Nino is they blow from continents The peninsular landmass of
used in India for forecasting towards the sea. India divides the southwest
long range monsoon rainfall. The onset of monsoon in India monsoon winds into two
Monsoon implies the onset of the branches, one each blowing
India receives 90% of the total southeast monsoon (winds from the Arabian Sea and the
rainfall from monsoons. Mon- blowing from the Indian Ocean Bay of Bengal.
to the Indian subcontinent) in
soons are the seasonal winds The Arabian Sea branch first
the beginning of the summer
which blow during six months strikes the Western Ghats and
season so that the months
of summer from ocean to land causes heavy rainfall in the
from June to mid-September are
and for the six months of win- Western Coastal Plains.
ter from land to sea. On the eastern side of the
The south-west monsoon
On the basis of monsoonal winds are replaced from Ghats, the rainfall is much lower
variations there are four sea- October onwards by the due to the rain-shadow effects
sons in India namely the cold north-east monsoon blowing of the Ghats and interior Tamil
(winter) season (December to from the continental area Nadu remains dry during this
February), the hot (summer) towards the sea to the south. season.
season (March to May), the Hence the winter season The direction of the winds
south west monsoon (the rainy remains by and large dry. during this season over the
season) (June to September) Bay of Bengal is modified by
and the season of retreating Seasons
the presence of the low
monsoon (October to Novem- The climatic year of India can pressure over the Ganga Valley
ber). be divided into four seasons: and the physical barrier of the
The South West Monsoon the hot dry season, the hot wet Arakan mountains. Hence their
forms the main monsoon sea- season, the cool dry season direction over this region
son in India (June to August). and the cool wet season. becomes south-easterly.
Cool Dry Season : This season Rajasthan and Gujarat regions and parts of Maharashtra.
lasts from mid-September to remain dry during this season Temperature remains between
mid-December. It is the period also. 200C and 23.80C.
of retreating south-west Parts of Kutch and the western
monsoon in India. Climatic Regions
parts of Rajasthan are included
The period is characterized by The wettest areas in the in the category of tropical
low temperature, low northerly western coastal plain and parts deserts. It receives a rainfall of
winds, clear skies and low of Assam fall under the less than 25cm and the
humidity. category of tropical rainforest temperature may rise up to
Although the season is climate. This region receives 500C.
dominated by subsistent more than 400 cm of rainfall A humid subtropical climate
easterly or northeasterly winds and Mawsynram near with dry winters covers most
over the peninsula, winds Chirapunji, which receives the of the northern plains from
generally blow from a westerly highest average annual Punjab to Assam along the
direction in the northern part rainfall in the world, lies here. Himalayas.
of the country. The tropical savanna climate
Cool Wet Season : By October, The Himalayas and the
covers most of the peninsular Karakoram Range are included
the southwest monsoon region except for the semi- arid
withdraws from most parts of in areas identified as having a
zone east of the Sahyadris. In mountain climate. Here, the
India and the northeast
this region, the temperature temperature and rainfall vary
monsoon establishes itself
remains above 18.20C and the according to altitude and the
over the entire area from which
range of temperature is also aspect of the slopes.
the southwest monsoon has
high. It is seasonal in character.
The western remains dry up to Tropical and sub-tropical SOILS IN INDIA
the end of November in most steppe climate extends over
parts. large areas in Punjab, Haryana, Alluvial Soil
The western disturbances are Kutch, parts of the Gangetic
cyclonic systems that develop plains and some parts of the Alluvial soil contributing the
in the belt of the westerly Peninsular region. Temperature largest share, is formed by the
winds and they bring unsettled in this region falls below 180C deposition of sediments by riv-
weather in their wake. These in the winter season but may ers in the interior parts of India
disturbances cause rain or rise above 300C in summer. and by the sea waves in the
snowfall in Jammu and Kashmir Tropical semi-arid steppe coastal areas of the country.
and north Indian Plains and climate covers the rain- Alluvial soil is the best agri-
break the dry spell. This period shadow area of the Sahyadris cultural soil because
of the year is called the cold-
The winds blowing towards The Indian Council of Agricultural
Tamil Nadu from the northeast
Research has divided the Indian soils into 8
pick up some moisture as they
blow over the Bay of Bengal categories. Alluvial soil, Black soil, Red soil, Later-
and they cause rainfall in Tamil ite soil, Forest soil, Arid and Desert soil, Saline and
Nadu and parts of Andhra Alkaline soils, Peaty and organic soils. Black soils
Pradesh due to the obstruction (29.69%), Alluvial soils (22.16%), Red and
posed by the Eastern Ghats yellow soils (28%).
and the eastern face of the
(i) They contain a variety of Red soils are poor in nitrogen, conditions in the north -west-
salts derived from Hima- phosphorus, potassium and ern parts of the country. They
layan rocks. organic matter. are rich in phosphate though
(ii) They are light and porous, They are more suitable for the poor in nitrogen.
therefore easily tillable. cultivation of rice, ragi, to- These soils often have a high
(iii) They are good for canal bacco and vegetable. soluble salt content and very
irrigation because of high The colour is red because of low humus content.
water table and an easily the presence of iron oxides. These soils are made fertile by
penetrable stratum. Mainly found in the Peninsu- adding gypsum.
Alluvial soils are suitable for lar India and hilly states of
cultivation of almost all kinds North East India. Saline and Alkaline Soils
of cereals, pulses, oil seeds,
cotton, sugarcane and veg- Laterite Soil Saline and Alkaline soils are
etables. salt impregnated and infertile.
Alluvial soils are rich in pot- Laterite soils are formed by the These soils are found espe-
ash and poor in nitrogen and weathering of laterite rocks. cially in the dry tracts of the
organic matter. Laterite soils are deficient in north.
Immature soils with weak pro- nitrogen. They are chiefly
files – Azonal found in Karnataka, Kerala, Peaty soils
Alluvial soils are devoted to Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and
Malabar areas. Peaty soils are developed un-
the cultivation of wheat rice, der humid conditions as a re-
pulses, sugarcane, jute, oil- These soils are agriculturally
sult of the accumulation of
seeds, fodder etc. unimportant because of inten-
large amounts of organic mat-
sive leaching, low base ex-
ter. These soils are highly sa-
Black Soil change capacity and their
line and rich in organic matter.
Black soil is found largely in This soil is found in Kottayam
These are the typical soil of the
the Deccan plateau. and Alappuzha districts of
tropical regions with heavy
Black soil is suitable for the Kerala, where they are called
seasonal rainfall and alterna-
cultivation of cotton and there- kari.
tive dry season.
fore it is called black cotton soil. When the rain cease they are
These soils provide valuable
Also known as regur soils. put under paddy cultivation.
Regur soils varies in colour It also occurs in the northern
from black to chestnut brown. Forest Soil Bihar, Southern Uttaranchal
Black soils are rich in iron, lime Forest soils are formed by the (Almora district) and coastal
and aluminium content. deposition of organic matter areas of West Bengal, Orissa
Black soils have high moisture derived from forests. They are and Tamil Nadu.
retention capacity. rich in organic matter and hu- Soil erosion and
mus. They are found mainly in
Red Soil Punjab, Karnataka, Manipur
Red soil is formed by the and Jammu & Kashmir. Soil erosion by water, wind and
weathering of ancient meta- These soils are used for plan- tillage affects both agriculture
morphic and crystalline rocks. tations of tea, coffee, spices and the natural environment.
They are airy and need irriga- and fruits. Soil erosion is just one form of
tion support for cultivation. soil degradation. Other kinds
Red soil is suitable for the cul-
Arid and Desert Soils of soil degradation include
tivation of pulses and coarse Arid and Desert soils are salinisation, nutrient loss, and
grains. formed under arid and semi arid compaction.
Soil erosion means removal of Tropical Evergreen forests are Sunderbans after the sundari
the top layers of the soil at a dense forests of luxuriant trees in these forests.
rate higher than the rate of ac- growth found in areas where Evergreen forests (Tropical)
crual of new fertile top part of rainfall ranges between 200 to are found in the Western ghats
the soil is removed. 300 cm. eg; Western Ghats and and Sub-Himalayan region.
sub-Himalayan regions. They provide hardwood like
Soil conservation is a set of Dry Tropical forests are mostly teak, rosewood, ebony etc.
management strategies for pre- prevalent in regions with an Social forestry aims at not
vention of soil being eroded annual rainfall of 90 to 130 cm. only providing fuelwood,
from the earth’s surface. Swamps or Littoral forests are fodder and other forest prod-
The most common methods of also called tidal forests which ucts, but also to meet the re-
soil conservation include affor- occur in and around the tidal quirement of ecological bal-
estation, contour cultivation, creeks and along the deltas of ance through large scale affor-
keeping land covered by crops river Ganges, Mahanadi, estation on community lands
and other plants, mulching, Krishna and Godavari. and waste lands.
Alpine forests cover the alpine
construction of embankments Energy plantations are plan-
areas in the Himalayas, at a
and flood channels and scien- tations of softwood and grass
height of 2880 m to 3700m.
tific methods of cultivation to meet the energy needs of
Siwaliks are covered with tropi-
keeping in view landform char- households.
cal moist deciduous flora such
acteristics. as sal and bamboo. World Environment Day :
Planting of trees is known as June 5.
Cultivation on the steep slopes
and excessive grazing should afforestation. Government of India adopted
also be avoided. Deforestation is the destruc- a forest policy in 1952 and fur-
tion of trees. ther modified it in 1988. Ac-
Forests also help to prevent cording to new forest policy,
NATURAL VEGETA- soil erosion and land slides. It the Government will
TION (Forests) maintains the ecological bal- emphasise sustainable forest
ance and provides forest prod- management.
Natural vegetation in India var- ucts such as timber and indus- Forest policy aimed at 1. bring-
ies from region to region due trial raw materials. Forests ing 33% of geographical areas
to variations in climatic condi- helps to protect wild life and under forest cover, 2. maintain-
tions, soil types and relief fea- rare species of trees and plants. ing environmental stability, 3.
tures. Madhya Pradesh has the larg- conserving natural heritage of
est area under forest among the country, 4. checks soil ero-
Some major types of the Indian states. sion, 5 increasing forest cover
vegetation found in India Haryana has the least area etc.
are Evergreen forests, under forest.
Out of a total of 593 districts,
Deciduous forests, Dry Arunachal Pradesh has the
187 have been identified as
largest percentage of area un-
forests, Hill forests and der forest.
tribal districts. The tribal dis-
Tidal forests. tricts account for about 59.8%
India provides about 8% of the
of total forest cover of the coun-
world’s hardwood and ranks
Nearly 19.39% of the total try.
third after Brazil and Indone-
land area in India is under for- sia. The National Commission on
est. The National Forest policy Mangrove forests are found in Agriculture (1976) classified
has laid down a target of rais- the coastal plains. social forestry into 3 catego-
ing the area under forest to The forests on the Ganges ries - Urban forestry, Rural for-
nearly 33.3%. delta in Bengal are called estry, Farm forestry.
INDIA’S WILD LIFE
otected area) was
India,a country of diverse wild- l pa rk (a n IUCN category II pr
India’s first na tiona w kn own as Jim
life & it is the second largest as H ai le y National Park, no
established in 19 35 national parks.
country on the planet to have . By 19 70 , India only had five
Corbett Nationa l Pa rk d Project Tiger
such diverse life forms. th e W ild lif e Protection Act an
In 1972, India en acted ies. Further
India is home to several well ta ts of co ns er vation reliant spec
to safeguard the ha
bi ildlife wa s
known large mammals includ- en gt he ni ng prot ections for w
federa l legisla tion
ing the Asian Elephant, Ben- s. Th er e ar e 96 na tiona l pa rks. All na
introduced in the 19 km2, 1.16% of Indi
gal Tiger, Asiatic Lion, Leop-
s enco m pa ss a co mbined 38,029.18
ard, Sloth Bear and Indian Rhi- park land
noceros. tota l surface ar ea.
Other well known large Indian
tional Trade in Endangered
mammals include ungulates Species (CITES) of wild flora Biosphere reserves are multi
such as the rare Wild Asian and fauna, to which India is a purpose protected area to
Water buffalo, common Do- signatory. preserve the genetic diversity
mestic Asian Water buffalo, Some of the endangered spe- in representative eco system.
Nilgai, Gaur. cies are Asiatic Lion, One So far fourteen biosphere
India displays significant Horned Rhinocerous, Hangul, reserves have been set up.
biodiversity. One of eighteen Royal Bengal Tiger, Wild Ass They are:
megadiverse countries, it is etc. Nilgiri, Nanda Devi, Nokrek,
home to 7.6% of all mammalian, The Animal Welfare Board of Great Nicobar, Gulf of
12.6% of all avian, 6.2% of all India was established in 1962. Mannar, Manas, Sunderbans,
reptilian, 4.4% of all amphibian, Research programmes in wild- Similipal, Dibru Saikhowa,
11.7% of all fish, and 6.0% of life are carried out by the Wild Dehong Debang,
all flowering plant species. life Institute of India, Dehradun Panchmarhi, Kanchenjunga
The wild life reserves of India and the Salim Ali Centre for and Agasthyamala and
are of two types - the Wild life Ornithology and Natural His- Achanakmar Amarkantak.
sanctuaries and National tory, Coimbatore.
Project Tiger is the centrally National animal
Presently, the country has 490
sponsored scheme launched
Wildlife Sanctuaries, 96 Na- Royal Bengal Tiger
on April 1, 1973 to save the ti-
tional Parks and 27 Tiger Re-
National aquatic animal
Wild life protection in India
was given statutory status National bird
with the adoption of the Wild- Indian Peacock
life (Protection) Act, 1972 by National tree
all the Indian states except Banyan tree
Jammu and Kashmir.
Keibul Lamjo is the only float-
ing National Park in the coun- Wildlife Institute of India (WII) is
try, is located in Manipur in established in 1982. It is an interna-
Loktak Lake. tionally acclaimed Institution, which
Trade in endangered species World's rarest monkey, the golden
offers training program, academic
is subject to strict rules under langur typifies the precarious survival courses and advisory in wildlife re-
the Convention on Interna- of much of India's megafauna. search and management.
s of fi sh es (about 11% of the first week of October ev-
t 2546 spec ie phibians
There are abou s. A bo ut 19 7 species of am ery year.
in Indian w at er ies (6% of
species) found m or e th an 408 reptile spec Flora of India
ld total) an d species of
(4.4% of the wor di a. T he re are about 1250 The Flora of India is one of the
are found in In e about 410
the world total) or ld sp ecies). There ar richest of the world due to a
a (12% of th e w 8.86% of the
birds from Indi n fr om In di a which is about wide range of climate, topog-
species of mam raphy and environments in the
world species. country. There are over 15000
gers from extinction on India. in 1992. species of flowers in India.
It has become the most suc- Today, there are 39 Project Ti-
cessful conservation ventures ger wildlife reserves in India.
in modern history. Project Elephant was
At present Madhya Pradesh launched to protect the wild
with 912 tigers tops the state life and elephant population.
with greater number of Tigers. Most of India's rhinos today
Madhya Pradesh is known as survive in the Kaziranga Na-
the tiger state of India. M.P tional Park.
was followed by Uttar Pradesh A wild life week is observed in
Lotus, National Flower of India
shew nuts, coco-
AGRICULTURE e wo rld ’s la rg est producer of milk, ca
India is th pper.
rmeric and black pe
IN INDIA nuts, tea, ginger, tu (281 million).
la rg est cattle population
It also has th e wo rld 's sugar, groundnut
Crops in India can be classi-
co nd la rg es t pr od ucer of wheat, rice,
fied into subsistence crops, It is the se
commercial crops, plantation and inland fish o.
t producer of tobacc uction with first
crops and horticulture crops. It is the third larges of the world it prod
un ts fo r 10 %
India's total geographical area India acco sapota.
tion of banana and
is 328.7 million hectares of rank in the produc
which 140.8 million hectares is
Crop season in India can be classified into three
the net sown area, while 192.80
such as Kharif, Rabi and Zaid.
million hectares is the gross
cropped area. Kharif (rainy) crops are sown in June/July and harvested in
Agriculture contributes about September / October. Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Ragi, Maize, Cotton
17.8% to national Gross Do- and Jute are the important Kharif crops.
mestic Product (GDP) and Rabi (winter) crops are sown in October/ December and har-
nearly 16% to export earnings. vested in April/ May. Wheat , Barley , Peas, Rape-seed, Mustard
Types of Cultivation and Grams are the important Rabi crops.
Zaid (Summer) crops : Zaid crops are grown in the short peri-
1. Sedentary Cultivation
ods after the harvest of the Kharif and Rabi crops. Sown in
2. Crop rotation
3. Shifting cultivation April, May and June. Products are mostly fruits and vegetables.
4. Mixed cropping Green Revolution
Areas of Cultivation
5. Relay cropping
Temperate Himalayan Region To increase yield per hectare
6. Terrace cultivation
Eastern Himalayan Region & government of India intro-
7. Mixed farming
Western Himalayan Region. duced a programme called
Operation flood I was
The Eastern Himalayan Region Green Revolution.
launched in 1970, which aimed Assam, Sikkim and Mishmi Hills The Green Revolution (first)
at capturing a commanding The Western Himalayan Region was launched in 1967-68.
share of the liquid milk mar- Kulu, Kangra and Kashmir Valleys, The second Green Revolution
ket. Garhwal, Kumaon and Simla Hills
was launched in 1983-84.
A centrally sponsored Com- Northern Dry Region
Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Gujarat, Father of Green Revolution -
Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West- Dr. Norman Borlaug
ICAR ern Madhya Pradesh Father of Green Revolution in
Eastern West Region India - Dr. M.S. Swaminathan
Indian Council of Agri- West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Green Revolution focused the
cultural Research (ICAR) is Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil development of high-yielding
an autonomous body under Nadu, Chattisgarh, Assam, varieties of cereal grains, ex-
the Ministry of Agriculture. Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura and pansion of irrigation infrastruc-
Headquarters: New Delhi. The Mizoram.
ture, and distribution of hybrid-
council is the apex body for co- Western Wet Region
Kerala, Karnataka ized seeds, synthetic fertilizers,
ordinating, guiding and man-
aging research and educa- Southern Region and pesticides to farmers.
tion in agriculture in- Parts of Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Punjab pioneered green revo-
cluding horticul- Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, lution among the other states
ture. Gujarat, Karnataka and Uttar transforming India into a food-
Pradesh surplus country.
Crop Areas of Production Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
Barley Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh To achieve 4% annual growth during the
Cotton Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya 11th Five Year Plan a new scheme namely
Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana, Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) was
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka.
Jute West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa, launched during 2007-08. The funds under the
Tripura scheme are provided to the states as 100%
Groundnut Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh grant by the Central Government. The broad
Mustard & objectives of RKVY is to incentives the state
rape seed Rajasthan to increase public investment to achieve 4%
Sunflower Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, growth rate in agriculture and allied sectors in
Karnataka the 11th Five Year Plan. The States have been
Pulses Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh,
provided flexibility and autonomy in the proc-
Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Karnataka,
Andhra Pradesh. ess of selection, planning, approval and ex-
Coffee Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra ecution of schemes.
Rubber Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka States first in production
Silk Karnataka, Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra
Saffron .......................................... Jammu Kashmir
Pradesh, Assam, Bihar (tassar)
Tobacco Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tea ............................................... Andhra Pradesh
Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Bihar. Spices Garden ............................................. Kerala
Cardamom Karnataka, Sikkim, Kerala, Tamil Nadu Coffee ................................................... Karnataka
Cashewnut Kerala, Andhra Pradesh Sandalwood .......................................... Karnataka
Castor seed Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh Cotton ...................................................... Gujarath
Chillies Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa Tobacco ....................................... Andhra Pradesh
Cloves Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka Plantain ............................................. Maharashtra
Cocoa Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu Wheat .............................................. Uttar Pradesh
Ginger Kerala, Meghalaya Sugar cane ....................................... Uttar Pradesh
Pepper Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
Paddy Crop (Rice) .............. West Bengal & Andhra
Poppy Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab
Ragi Karnataka, Tamil Nadu Coriander ............................................... Rajasthan
Saffron Jammu and Kashmir
Banana Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala
Pineapples Assam, Meghalaya, West Bengal, White Revolution
Mango Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, The White Revolution
Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu. in the country has been
Apple Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, achieved by means of
Uttaranchal Operation Flood. It was
Arecanut Kerala, Karnataka, Assam, Meghalaya, carried out in three
Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. phases.
Coconut Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Operation Flood I .... 1970 - 1981
Pradesh, Goa. Operation Flood II ... 1981 - 1985
Grapes Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh,
Operation Flood III ... 1985 - 1996.
Karnataka, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh,
Himachal Pradesh White revolution launched to increase the quality
Orange Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and quanity of milk and dairy products.
Meghalaya, Sikkim. The Father of the White Revolution in India is
Turmeric Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Dr. Varghese Kurien. He is also known as
Orissa, Maharashtra. Milkman of India.
mand Area Development
Programme was launched in National Food Security ed from 2007-08
1974-75 with the main objective ssion', has been launch
'National Food Security Mi s, wheat by 8
of improving utilization of irri- of rice by 10 million ton
to increase the production d of the Elev-
2 million tons by the en
gation potential and optimizing million tons and pulses by ssi on will have
National Food Security Mi
agricultural productivity. enth Plan (2011-12). The Th e Mission is
Wheat & (iii) Pulses.
Irrigation in India can be clas- 3 components (i) Rice (ii) ult ure .
trol of Ministry of Agric
sified into Wells, Tanks and functioning under the con
Wells account for about 48%
of the total irrigated area in the
country. Punjab is known as the Granary of
Tanks account for about 10% India or India’s bread-basket.
of the total irrigated area, are Punjab (Land of the five rivers) is one of the most fertile
regions on earth. The region is ideal for wheat-growing.
used in Central and Southern
Rice, sugar cane, fruits and vegetables are also grown.It pro-
duces 14% of India’s cotton, 20% of India’s wheat, and
NABARD 9% of India’s rice. The Firozpur District is the largest
NABARD (National Bank for producer of wheat and rice in the state.
Agriculture and Rural Devel-
opment) is set up as an apex
Development Bank with a Green Revolution .................................. High Yielding Variety of Seeds
mandate for facilitating credit White Revolution ............................................ Milk & Dairy products
flow for promotion and devel- Silver Revolution ....................................................... Egg and Poultry
opment of agriculture, small- Silver Fibre Revolution ............................................................ Cotton
scale industries, cottage and Yellow Revolution ................................................................ Edible Oil
village industries, handicrafts
Blue Revolution .................................................................... Fisheries
and other rural crafts. It is an
Pink Revolution ...................................................................... Prawns
apex development bank
based in Mumbai, Golden Revolution ................................................................... Honey
Maharashtra. It was estab- Golden Fibre Revolution .............................................................. Jute
lished on 1982. Brown Revolution ..................................................................... Cocoa
Animal Resources Sericulture
. India has the largest number Natural silk is produced from the cocoons of the silk worms. Rearing
of livestock in the world. of silkworms and production of silk from them is called sericulture.
. The rearing of various animals Sericulture is the biggest village industry in India after handloom and
and obtaining different prod- khadi.
ucts from them is called ani- India is the second largest silk producer in the world.
mal husbandry. Karnataka is the leading producer of silk in India.
The Central Semen Production Bihar and Jharkhand are the leading producers of tasar silk.
and Training Institute at India has the unique distinction of being the only country producing
Hessarghatta is one of the all the five kinds of silk – Mulberry, Eri, Muga, Tropical Tasar and
premier organisation in the Temperate Tasar.
country engaged in Mulberry silk is the most popular variety in India, contributing more
multiplying high pedigree than 87% of the Country’s silk production.
animals. Cultivation of mulberry plants is referred to as Moriculture.
MINERAL of coal & lignite, 2nd in bar- ONGC
ites, 4th in iron ore, 5th in baux- Oil and Natural Gas Corpora-
RESOURCES ite and crude steel, 7th in man- tion Limited (ONGC) (incorpo-
India's major mineral resources ganese ore and 8th in alu- rated on 23 June 1993) is a
include Coal (third-largest re- minium. state-owned oil and gas
serves in the world), Iron ore, Iron Ore is the backbone of company in India. It was set
Manganese, Mica, Bauxite, Ti- modern civilisation. Varieties of up as a commission on 14
tanium ore, Chromite, Natural iron ore: August 1956. It contributes
gas, Diamonds, Petroleum, Magnetite - the best quality 77% of India's crude oil
Limestone and Thorium of iron ore and contains 72% production and 81% of India's
(world's largest along Kerala's pure iron. natural gas production. Indian
shores). Haematite - contains 60 to 70% government holds 74.14%
India's minerals range from pure iron. equity stake in this company.
both metallic and non-metallic Limonite - contains 40 to 60%
types. The metallic minerals pure iron. from where iron ore is exported
comprise ferrous and non-fer- Jharkhand has the largest re- to Japan through Vishakha
rous minerals while the non serves accounting for about patnam.
metallic minerals comprise min- 25% of the total reserves of Japan is the biggest buyer of
eral fuels, precious stones, iron ore in India. Indian iron ore.
among others. India’s richest haematite de- India has the second largest
India produces 89 minerals out posits are located in manganese ore reserves in the
of which 4 are fuel minerals, 11 Barabilkoira valley in Orissa. world after Zimbabwe.
metallic, 52 non-metallic and 22 The Bailadila mine is the larg- India is the fifth largest pro-
minor minerals. est mechanised mine in Asia ducer in the world after
India also exports iron ore, ti-
India has the world’s largest reserves of Iron.
tanium, manganese, bauxite,
granite, and imports cobalt, India is the largest producer of mica in the world.
mercury, graphite etc. India possesses the largest reserves of monazite known in the world.
India ranks 3rd in production India ranks third in the world in the production of manganese.
Minerals Areas of Production
Antimony Punjab, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Bihar
Asbestos Karnataka, Rajasthan
Beryllium Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh
Barytes Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra
Diamonds Madhya Pradesh (Panna mines)
Graphite Orissa, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh
Granite Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
Magnesite Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal
Marble Rajasthan (Makrana)
Nickel Orissa, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu
Rock Salt Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh
Sea Salt Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh
Sulphur Tamil Nadu
Tin Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan
Coal Jharkhand, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa
Gold Andhra Pradesh (Ramagiri), Karnataka (Kolar, Hutti)
Gypsum Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat
Silver Karnataka (Kolar), Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu
Chromite Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Manipur, Orissa, Tamil
Dolomite Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Orissa, Gujarat, Karnataka, West Bengal, Uttar
Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Maharashtra
Thorium Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh
Uranium Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh.
Ilmenite Tamil Nadu, Kerala
Rock phosphate Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh.
Brazil,Gabon, South Africa and Leading salt producer in India
Australia. is Gujarat. It produces 60% of Geological Survey of India
The main reserves are found salt of the country. GSI, established in 1851 is a
in Karnataka, followed by State with the largest mineral government organization in In-
Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, deposit is Jharkhand. dia for conducting geological
Maharashtra and Goa. Jharkhand is the state with surveys and studies. It is one of
Orissa is the leading producer highest mineral output in India. the oldest of such organizations
of manganese in the state. Chottanagpur plateau is the in the world. There are two geo-
Raniganj (West Bengal), Jharia richest mineral belt of India. logical parks maintained by GSI.
(Bihar), Singrauli (Madhya India’s contribution to gold Saketi Fossil Park, Saketi,
Pradesh) and Korba production across the world is Himachal Pradesh and Nehru
(Chhattisgarh) are the major less than one percent (0.75%). Park, Hyderabad, Andhra
coal fields in India. Karnataka is the largest pro- Pradesh. The park displays life
Marble is found largely in ducer of gold followed by size figures of dinosaurs like T-
Rajasthan. Andhra Pradesh. Rex.
There are mainly three gold Major Cement companies duce mica.
fields in India: Ambuja cement, Aditya Cement, Japan (19%) and USA (17%)
Kolar gold field in Karnataka JK Cement and L & T Cement. are the major buyers of our
Hutti gold field in Karnataka Steel Companies mica.
Ramgiri gold field in Ananta Steel Authority of India (SAIL), Limestone with more than 10%
pur district of Andhra Pradesh Bbilai Steel Plant, Durgapur Steel magnesium is called dolomite,
Silver is mainly produced from Plant, Rourkela Steel Plant, Bokaro when the percentage rises to
Zawar mines of Udaipur Steel Plant. 45, it becomes true dolomite.
district in Rajasthan. Iron and Steel industry is the
Orissa has the largest India has the world's largest chief consumer of dolomite.
deposits of Nickel. deposits of coal. Bituminous About 90% dolomite reserves
Lignite also known as brown coal is found in Jharkhand and are concentrated in Madhya
coal. It is a lower grade coal Bihar and Ranigunj in West Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Orissa,
and contains about 40 to 55% Bengal. Lignite coals are found Gujarat, Karnataka, West
carbon. in Neyveli in Tamilnadu. Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and
It is found in Rajasthan, Coal has been described as the Maharashtra.
Neyveli of Tamil Nadu, Assam bridge into the future. Rajasthan is the largest
and Jammu and Kashmir. India ranks third in the world producer of Asbestos
Jharia in Jharkhand has been after China and USA in coal followed by Andhra Pradesh
recognised as the store house production. and Karnataka.
of the best metallurgical coal The Panna diamond belt is the Gypsum is mainly used in
in the country. only diamond producing area making ammonia sulphate
Coal India Ltd produces the in the country, which covers fertilizer and in cement
largest quantity of coal in In- the districts of Panna, industry. Rajasthan is the
dia followed by Singareni Chatarpur and Satna in Madya main producer followed by
Collieries Comp Ltd. Pradesh, as well as some parts Jammu and Kashmir.
Assam is the oldest oil produc- of Banda in Uttar Pradesh. Major deposite of magnesite
ing state in India. Bauxite deposits are found in are found in Uttranchal, Tamil
Digboi in Assam is the oldest western Bihar, southwest Nadu and Rajasthan.
oil well of India. Kashmir, Central Tamilnadu, Jharkhand is the largest
Natural gas fields are and parts of Kerala, U.P, producer of Kyanite in India
Ankleshwar and Cambay in Maharastra and Karnataka. followed by Maharashtra and
Gujarat, Bombay high and With the recent spurt in world Karnataka.
Assam. demand for chromite, India has In Sillimanite production,
The first successful oil well was stepped up its production to Orissa contributes 55.87% of
sunk at Digboi in 1889. reach the third rank among the the total production, followed
Bombay High is the offshore chromite producers of the by Kerala and Maharashtra.
oil field located in the coast of world. Diamond is found at Panna in
Maharashtra. Recent discoveries of Krishna- Madhya Pradesh.
Oil Refineries with the largest Godawari off-shore basin and In salt production, rock salt is
refining capacity- Rava field will have big taken out in Mandi district of
Reliance Petroleum Ltd, constribution in the field of Himachal Pradesh. Sambhar
Jamnagar gas production in India. lake in Rajasthan produces
Indian Oil Corp Ltd, Koyali Non - Metallic Minerals about 10% of annual produ
Bauxite is exported to countries Jharkhand is the leading pro- ction. And Gujarat coast
such as China, Korea, Ukraine, ducer of mica. Bihar, Rajasthan produces nearly half of our
Saudi Arabia. and Andhra Pradesh also pro- salt.
List of Public Sector Undertakings of India
Air India Limited, Airports Authority of India Lubrizol India Limited (LIL)
Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation of India (ALIMCO) Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL)
Bengal Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals Limited (BPCL) Manganese Ore (India) Limited (MOIL)
Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL), Jharkhand Mazagon Dock Limited, Mumbai
Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL), Andhra Pradesh MECON Limited
Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) Metro Railway, Kolkata
Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Bangalore Mineral Exploration Corporation Limited (MECL)
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation Limited (MMTC)
Bharat Refractories Limited (BRL) Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited (MIDHANI)
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) MSTC Limited
Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Limited (BHAVINI) Mumbai Railway Vikas Corporation Limited (MRVC)
Biecco Lawrie Limited National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO), Orissa
Bramhaputra Valley Fertilizer Corporation Limited (BVFCL), Assam National Buildings Construction Corporation Limited (NBCC)
Broadcasting Engineering Corporation of India Limited (BECIL) National Fertilizers Limited (NFL), Noida, Uttarpradesh
Cement Corporation of India Limited (CCI) National Film Development Corporation (NFDC), Mumbai
Central Coalfields Limited (CCL) National Handloom Development Corporation Limited (NHDC)
Central Cottage Industries Corporation of India Limited National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Limited (NHPC)
Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Limited (CMPDI) National Insurance Company Limited (NICL)
Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC) National Mineral Development Corporation Limited (NMDC)
Centre for Railway Information Systems (CRIS) National Minorities Development and Finance Corporation (NMDFC)
Coal India Limited (CIL), Kolkata National Projects Construction Corporation Limited (NPCC)
Cochin Shipyard Limited, Kerala National Research Development Corporation (NRDC)
Container Corporation of India Limited (CONCOR) National Scheduled Castes Finance and Development Corporatioin
Cotton Corporation of India Limited (CCI), Maharashtra National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation
Dredging Corporation of India (NSTFDC)
Educational Consultants India Limited (EDCIL) National Small Industries Corporation Limited (NSIC)
Engineers India Limited (EIL) National Textile Corporation Limited (NTC)
Ennore Port Limited, Tamil Nadu National Thermal Power Corporation Limited (NTPC)
Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Limited (ECGC) Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited (NLC), Tamil Nadu
FCI Aravali Gypsum and Minerals India Limited (FAGMIL) North Eastern Electric Power Corporation (NEEPCO)
Ferro Scrap Nigam Limited (FSNL) Northern Coalfields Limited (NCL)
Fertilisers and Chemicals Travancore Limited (FACT), Kochi Nuclear Fuel Complex
Food Corporation of India (FCI) Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL)
Garden Reach Ship Builders and Engineers Limited (GRSE) Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC), Dehradun
Gas Authority of India limited (GAIL) Oil India Limited (OIL), New Delhi
Goa Shipyard Limited Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited (PHHL)
Handicrafts and Handlooms Export Corporation (HHEC) Power Finance Corporation Limited
Heavy Engineering Corporation Limited (HEC) Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID)
Heavy Water Board (HWB) Power Trading Corporation of India Limited (PTC)
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Bangalore Praga Tools Limited
Hindustan Antibiotics Limited (HAL), Maharashtra Projects and Development India Limited (PDIL)
Hindustan Copper Limited (HCL), Kolkata Pyrites, Phosphates and Chemicals Limited (PPCL)
Hindustan Insecticides Limited (HIL) RailTel Corporation of India Limited
Hindustan Latex Limited (HLL), Trivandrum Railway Electrification Project Circle (REPC)
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) Rajasthan Atomic Power Station / Project
Hindustan Newsprint Limited, Kerala Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers Limited (RCF), Mumbai
Hindustan Machine Tools Limited (HMT), Bangalore Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited (RINL)
Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, Vishakhapattanam RITES Limited, Gurgaon, Haryana
Hospital Services Consultancy Corporation (I) Limited (HSCC) Rural Electrification Corporation Limited
Housing and Urban Development Corporation Limited (HUDCO) Semiconductor Complex Limited (SCL)
India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO) Shipping Corporation of India Limited (SCI), Mumbai
Indian Airlines Limited (IA) South Eastern Coalfields Limited (SECL)
Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL), New Delhi Sponge Iron India Limited (SIIL)
Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Limited (IRCTC) State Trading Corporation of India Limited (STCI)
Indian Rare Earths Limited, Mumbai Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL)
Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA) Telecom Factory, BSNL
Indian Telephone Industries Limited (ITI) Telecom Stores Organisation
Instrumentation Limited, Kota, Rajasthan Telecommunications Consultants India Limited (TCIL)
IRCON International Limited Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL)
Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd, Navi Mumbai Water and Power Consultancy Services (India) Limited (WAPCOS)
Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited (KIOCL) Western Coalfields Limited (WCL), Nagpur,Maharashtra
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is a quasi governmental institu- woolens in India and is also
tion for drawing up standards for the products of Indian industry. Known as the Manchester of
It was established in 1947. India.
National Productivity Council (NPC) is an autonomous body Tirupur has gained universal
formed to inculcate productivity in industries, established in 1958. recognition as the leading
source of hosiery, knitted gar-
Uranium deposits occur in microwave ovens, and wash- ments, casual wear and sports-
Jadugoda of Singhbhum and ing machines. wear.
Hazaribagh districts of Industry accounts for 28% of India is the only country pro-
Jharkhand. the GDP and employ 14% of ducing all the five known com-
Thorium, a likely future substi- the total workforce. mercial varieties of silk, viz.
tute for Uranium as a fission The Industrial policy adopted Mulberry, Tasar (Tropical),
material in atomic reactors, oc- by the Government of India Oak Tasar, Eri and Muga.
curs in considerable quantities envisages a mixed economy, Karnataka is the largest pro-
as ThO2, in the beach sands of i.e., the co-existence of public ducer of silk. Second position
Kerala coast. and private sectors. goes to West Bengal.
Monazite deposits of commer- Textile Industries includes cot- First modern silk factory - was
set up at Howrah in 1832.
cial value are found in about 160 ton, jute, wool, silk and syn-
India is fifteenth in services
kms between Cape Comorin thetic fibre textiles. It accounts
output. It provides employ-
and Kollam in Kerala. for 24.6% in total exports.
ment to 23% of work force, and
Thorium is also derived from Cotton textiles is the oldest
it is growing fast.
monazite. Zirconium is also industry in India. It has the
In 2009, seven Indian IT firms
found in Kerala coast. largest number of workers were listed among the top 15
Uranium compounds occurs in employed in an industry. technology outsourcing com-
Singhbhum - copper belt of Kanpur is famous for textiles panies in the world.
Jharkhand, Aravalli's and cen- and clothing, large modern In 1870, the first steel
tral Himalaya. tanneries, leather works and industry,‘Bengal Iron Com-
shoe manufacturing. pany’ was set up at Kulti, West
MAJOR INDUS- Sholapur is famous for impor- Bengal.
TRIES IN INDIA tant textiles based on cotton Three integrated steel plants
grown in local regur soils. were set up at Bhilai, Durgapur
The first Industrial Policy was The first modern cotton textile and Rourkela. Later two more
brought in 1948. mill was established in Bombay steel plants, at Bokaro and
Major industries include tele- in 1851. Vishakhapatnam, were set up.
communications, textiles, jute Dharwar Belgaum are known Private sector plants, of which
and sugar industries, chemi- for cotton textiles, railway and the Tata Iron and Steel Com-
cals, food processing, steel, general engineering goods. pany (TISCO), Jamshedpur is
transportation equipment, ce- The first modern cotton mill the biggest.
ment, mining, petroleum, ma- was established in 1818 at Bhilai plant was set up in col-
chinery, information technol- Ghoosury (West Bengal). laboration with Russia on the
ogy enabled services and phar- The first jute mill was started Kolkata - Nagpur Railway
maceuticals. in 1855 at Rishra near Kolkata. line in the Durg district
Some of the major items manu- The modern woollen textile in- (Chhatisgarh).
factured in India are comput- dustry was started with the Rourkela steel plant in Orissa
ers, communication equipment, establishment of Lal Imli at was set up under the second
broadcasting and strategic Kanpur in 1876. five year plan in association
electronics, television sets, Ludhiana produces 90% of with Germany.
Industry Area of Production
Woollen textiles : Punjab, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Jammu and Kashmir
Copper smelting : (Khetri) Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra
Heavy machinery : Ranchi,Visakhapatanam, Durgapur
Machine tools : Bangalore, Pinjore, Kalamassery, Hyderabad, Srinagar
Heavy electricals : Bhopal, Hyderabad, Tiruchirapalli, Haridwar.
Railway equipment : Chittaranjan (electric engines), Varanasi (diesel engines), Jamshedpur and Bhopal
(electric engines), Integral Coach Factory Perambur (Tamil Nadu), Rail Coach
Factory, Kapurthala (Punjab)
Shipbuilding : Visakhapatnam, Mumbai
Cars : Mumbai (Fiat), Calcutta (Ambassador), Gurgaon (Maruthi)
Buses, trucks : Chennai, Mumbai
Jeeps, tempos, trucks : Mumbai, Pune, Gurgaon
Two-wheelers : Pune, Mumbai, Faridabad, Chennai, Mysore, Ludhiana, Tirupati
Cycles : Mumbai, Asansol, Sonipat, Delhi, Chennai, Jalandhar, Ludhiana
Tractors : Faridabad, Pinjore, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai
Fertilisers : Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh
Pharmaceuticals : Hyderabad, Rishikesh, Gurgaon, Chennai, Muzaffarpur
Pesticides : Delhi, Alwaye
Cement : Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan,
Leather goods : Agra, Kanpur, Mumbai, Calcutta, Delhi.
Glass : Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal
Paper : West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashstra, Karnataka, Madhya
Bokaro, the biggest plant in Indian Copper Corporation Kirloskar Brother Ltd is the
Asia was set up under the was set up in 1924 which was pioneer company in the
fourth five year plan in asso- taken over by Hindustan Cop- maufacturing of machine tools.
ciation with the Russian Gov- per Ltd (established in 1967), Hindustan Machine Tools
ernment. It is located in in 1972. (HMT) is the largest manufac-
Jharkhand. Presently, there are four zinc turer of machine tools in the
The public sector steel plants smelters in the country - country.
are managed by the Steel Au- Alwaye (Kerala), Debari and Locomotives: Chittaranjan Lo-
thority of India (SAIL). SAIL Chanderi (Rajasthan) and comotive Works, Diesel Loco-
was established in 1973. Vishakha patnam (Andhra motive Works (Varanasi), Tata
India is now the eighth largest Pradesh). Engineering and Locomotive
producer of steel in the world. Among the Third-World coun- Works (Jamshedpur).
The first on-shore steel plant tries, India is a major exporter The Integral Coach Factory at
in India was setup at of heavy and light engineering Perampur near Chennai was
Vishakhapatnam. goods. The engineering indus-
set up in 1955 with Swiss col-
Indian Aluminium Coporation try has shown its capacity to
Ltd was formed in 1937. manufacture large-size plants
Top four automobile compa-
BALCO came into being in and equipment for various sec-
nies with the highest sales:
1965, NALCO in 1981. tors like power, fertilizer, and
Aluminium companies with the cement. Tata Motors
highest sales in descending Heavy Engineering Corpora- Maruti Udyog Ltd.
order - HINDALCO, NALCO, tion Ltd was set up at Ranchi Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.
INDAL, MALCO. (Jharkhand) in 1958. Ashok Leyland Ltd.
In medium and heavy commer- brass utensils with engraving Firozabad in Agra district is
cial vehicles, Tata Engineering and polishing. the largest producer of glass.
and Locomotive Company Indian Explosives factory is The first synthetic rubber fac-
(TELCO) is the leading pro- located at Gomia in Hazaribagh tory was started in Bareilly in
ducer. (Jharkhand). 1955.
There are four main centres of First fertilizer plant was set up The first successful effort was
ship building industry at at Ranipet of Tamil Nadu in made in 1870 with the setting
Vishakhapatnam, Kolkata, 1906. up of the Royal Bengal Paper
Kochi and Mumbai. First public sector fertilizer Mills at Ballyganj near Kolkata.
Hindustan Shipyard Ltd, plant is at Sindri (Jharkhand). The important centres for pa-
Vishakha patnam set up in The first super-phosphate fac- per products are Lucknow,
1941, is the first ship building tory was set up at Ranipet in Titagarh, Raniganj, Pune,
yard in the country to receive Tamil Nadu in 1906. Naihati etc.
ISO-9001 certification. India is now the third largest Maharashtra is the largest pro-
Cochin Shipyard Ltd, Kochi producer of nitrogenous fertil- ducer of paper followed by
was incorporated in 1972. It izers in the world. Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat.
also manufactures ships for Fertilizer companies with the Uttar Pradesh has the largest
Indian Navy. highest sales are - National number of paper mills.
Mazgaon Dock at Mumbai Fertilizer Ltd, Tata Chemicals Paper companies with the high-
builds cargo ships, passenger Ltd, Rashtriya Chemicals & est sales are Ballarpur Indus-
ships, dredgers etc. for Indian Fertilizers Ltd. tries Ltd, Orient Paper & Indus-
navy. The first successful attempt tries Ltd and Tamil Nadu News-
The first aircraft industry was was made in 1912 - 13 when the print & Paper Ltd.
set up at Bangalore in 1940 Indian Cement Co Ltd set up a West Bengal is the leading
under the name of Hindustan plant in porbander (Gujarat). state in paper manufacturing.
Aircraft Ltd. Later, Hindustan The Indian Cement industry is In India, Jharkahand is the
Aircraft Ltd was merged into the second largest in the world largest producer of Lac (50%),
Aeronautics India Ltd in 1964 after that of China. followed by Madhya Pradesh
to form Hindustran Aeronau- Madhya Pradesh and and Chhattisgarh. India is the
tics Ltd, Bangalore. Chhattisgarh, are the leading largest exporter in the world.
Major companies in integrated producer of total cement pro- Lac is obtained from an insect
refining and marketing are duction in India. named Cerria lacca wihich lives
HPCL, BPCL and IOC. Leather industry is divided into on trees.
Godavari - Krishna delta is two parts - tanning and leather Sugar Industry is the second
known for local tobacco, sug- goods. largest agro-based industry in
arcane, rice, oil, cement and For tanning, Kanpur, (1st tan- India after cotton textile indus-
small textiles. nery centre), Chennai, and try.
The industry associated with Kolkata are three largest Cen- India is the largest sugar pro-
sports materials mainly located tres. ducing country with over 15%
at Agra, Meerut (UP), The Central Leather Research share of the global output.
Ludhiana, Jalandhar (Punjab) Institute at Chennai is the larg- India is world’s largest pro-
and Delhi. est of its kind in the world. ducer of sugarcane and sugar
Pinjore in Haryana and Jalahalli Uttar Pradesh is the leading as well.
in Bangalore are associated producer of glass in India fol- Maharashtra is the largest
with watch industry. lowed by West Bengal and sugar producer followed by
Moradabad is famous for Maharashtra. Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.