22.22        ndian     onom
     of aircrafts, consumption of fuel other than          and Morgenstern an economist and this book was
     industrial fuel, use of telephone, scholarship to the based on the former’s prior research published in
     children of the employees. The tax was abolished      1928 on the Theory of Parlour Games (in German).
     from 2009–10.                                              The theory has found significant applications
                                                           in many areas outside economics as usually
        gAllup poll                                        construed, including formulations of nuclear
                                                           strategies, ethics, political science, and evolutionary
     A method of survey in which a representative          theory.
     sampling of public opinion or public awareness
     concerning a certain subject/issue is done and on        gDrs
     this basis a conclusion is drawn.
          The credit of developing this research           While ADRs are denominated in dollars and
     methodology goes to George H. Gallup (1901–84),       traded on US National Stock Exchanges, GDRs
     a US journalist and statistician who in 1935 did      can be denominated either in dollars or Euros
                                                           and are commonly listed on European Stock
     set up the American Institute of Public Opinion.
                                                           Exchanges. Investors can cash in on the difference
     Through his efforts the method developed between
                                                           in price between local and foreign markets. Some
     the period 1935–40. In the coming times, the poll
                                                           time back ADRs and GDRs were fungible one way
     technique was immensely used by business houses
                                                           i.e. foreign investors could convert their ADRs/
     for their market research and the psephologists for   GDRs into underlying shares and sell them in the
     election forecasting, around the world.               local market. However, they were not permitted
                                                           to reconvert shares bought on the local exchange
        gAme theory                                        into ADRs/GDRs. In 2002, two-way fungibility
                                                           was permitted. Under these rules reissuance of
     The analysis of situations involving two or
                                                           depositary receipts is permitted to the extent to
     more interacting decision makers (that may be
                                                           which they have been redeemed into underlying
     individuals, competing firms, countries, etc.) who
                                                           shares and sold in the domestic market.
     have conflicting objectives. It is a technique which
     uses logical deduction to explore the consequences
                                                              giffen gooD
     of various strategies that might be adopted by
     game players having competing interests.              The good for which the demand increases as its price
          Game theory is a branch of Applied               increases, rather than falls (opposite to the general
     Mathematics that studies strategic interactions       theory of demand)—named after Robert Giffen
     between agents–where the agents try maximising        (1837–1910). It applies to the large proportion
     their pay off. It gives formal modelling approach     of the goods belonging to the household budget
     to social situations in which decision makers         (as flour, rice, pulses, salt, onion, potato, etc. in
     interact with other agents. The theory generalises    India)—an increase in their prices produces a
     maximisation approaches developed to analyse          large negative income effect completely overcoming
                                                           the normal substitution effect with, people buying
     markets such as supply and demand model.
                                                           more of the goods.
          The field dates back from the 1944 classic
     Theory of Games and Economic Behaviour by John
                                                              gini coefficient
     von Neumann and Oskar Morgentern (Princeton
     University Press, N. Jersy, 1944 & 2004; 60th         An inequality indicator in an economy. The
     Anniversary Ed.). Neumann was a mathematician         coefficient varies from ‘zero’ to ‘one’. A ‘zero’