H man Development in ndia         20.17
         is reflected by the inverse relationship        The contribution of air pollution to
         between life expectancy and DALYs rates.        disease burden remained high in India
         The per person disease burden measured as       between 1990 (11.1 per cent) and 2016
         DALYs rate dropped by 36 per cent from          (9.8 per cent), with the levels of exposure
         1990 to 2016 in India, after adjusting          remaining among the highest in the
         for the changes in the population age           world. It causes burden through a mix
         structure during this period.                   of noncommunicable and infectious
         Of the total disease burden in India            diseases, mainly cardiovascular diseases,
         measured as DALYs, 61 per cent was due          chronic respiratory diseases, and lower
         to communicable, maternal, neonatal,            respiratory infections. The burden of
         and nutritional diseases (CMNNDs) in            household air pollution related to use of
         1990, which dropped to 33 per cent in           solid fuels for cooking is being addressed
         2016.                                           with government interventions through
         There was a corresponding increase in           schemes like Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala
         the contribution of non-communicable            Yojana.
         diseases (NCDs) from 30 per cent of the         The behavioural and metabolic risk factors
         total disease burden in 1990 to 55 per          associated with the rising burden of Non
         cent in 2016, and of injuries from 9 per        Communicable Diseases (NCDs) have
         cent to 12 per cent.                            become quite prominent in India. In
         The risk factors are drivers of diseases        2016, the dietary risks, which include
         and injuries causing premature death            diets low in fruit, vegetables, and whole
         and disability. The disease burden in           grains, but high in salt and fat, were
         India can be reduced substantially, if          India’s third leading risk factor, followed
         the risk factors related to health loss are     closely by high blood pressure and high
         addressed effectively. The use of DALYs         blood sugar (high fasting plasma glucose).
         to track disease burden has also been           Unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing
         recommended by India’s National Health          (WaSH) was the second leading risk factor
         Policy of 2017.                                 in 1990, but its ranking has dropped to
         In 2016, malnutrition still remained the        seventh position in 2016. Around 5 per
         most important risk factor (14.6 percent)       cent of health loss is still attributable
         that results in disease burden in the           to this factor which is being addressed
         country though the disease burden due to        successfully by the government through
         it has dropped in India substantially since     the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM).
         1990.                                       Situation of States is also similar—
         Neonatal disorders and nutritional              States with higher life expectancy are
         deficiencies as well as diarrhoea, lower        reflecting lower DALYs rates means
         respiratory infections, and other common        lower incidence of diseases and vice-
         infections are manifestation of maternal        versa. Though, there have been dramatic
         and child malnutrition.                         fall in CMNNDs, however, States with