20.12        ndian     onom
              efforts need to be considered as a tool to           about 19 hours by females. However,
              increase employment.                                 in the extended SNA activities, women
              There is a clear shift in employment                 spent 34.6 hours which included unpaid
              to secondary and tertiary sectors from               work at home and outside, as opposed to
              the primary sector. The growth in                    only about 3.6 hours by men.
              employment by category reflects increase        (ii) The declining female participation
              in both casual labour and contract workers.          rates in conventional surveys are largely
              This has adverse implications on the                 explained by the high share of women in
              level of wages, stability of employment,             unpaid work. Based on the findings of
              social security of employees owing to                the pilot TUS, the NCATUS (National
              the ‘temporary’ nature of employment.                Classification of Activities for Time
              It also indicates preference by employers            Use Studies), which also provides a
              away from regular/formal employment to               classification of unpaid activities that is
              circumvent labour laws.                              crucial for capturing the various activities
              The multiplicity of labour laws and the              of women in the economy, has been
              difficulty in their compliance have been an          developed.
              impediment to the industrial development
              and employment generation.                  skill gAP
                                                          For improving the employability of the
     Women’s unPAiD Work                                  population ‘skill development’ is the best
     The conventional employment and unemployment         tool. This can be imparted through vocational
     surveys have not been able to capture the various    education and training. However, there is a
     types of unpaid work that women engage in both       perception that vocational education and skill
     within and outside households in rural and urban     development are meant for people who have failed
     areas in India. Globally, men’s share in paid work   to join mainstream education. This perception is
     is around 1.8 times that of women, while women       strengthened by the significantly lower wages paid
     have a share three times that of men in unpaid       to employees with vocational training vis-à-vis
     work. Therefore, paid work which is visible and      those with formal education.
     accounted for by the System of National Accounts          As per the NSDC (National Skill Development
     (SNA) is dominated by men, while unpaid work         Corporation), there is a severe quality gap and
     which is not accounted for is dominated by women     lack of availability of trainers in the vocational
     and remains unrecognised and unaccounted for.        education and training sector. By 2017, this skill
          Valuing unpaid work is important since          gap within the vocational training sector including
     women’s work gets subsumed under several types       both teachers and non-teachers will reach a
     of activities. A TUS (Time Use Survey) was           figure of 211,000. The workforce requirement is
     conducted in India in six select states on a pilot   projected to increase to 320,000 by 2022.
     basis from July 1998 to June 1999. The results            There is a need of government investment in
     of the survey revealed the hidden contribution of    bridging the skill gap in the vocational education
     women to the economy—                                and training sector to improve the employability
          (i) Out of 168 hours in a week, males on an     of people. Across industries and their sub- sectors,
              average spent about 42 hours in SNA-        there are substantial skill gaps that need to be filled
              captured activities as compared to only     up through appropriate skill development plans