H man Development in ndia           20.11
     learning outcomes for a majority of children is still and SC students and, at all levels of education for
     a cause of serious concern. Some of the underlying    ST students.
     causes contributing to low quality of education in
     the primary sector are—                                  eMPloYMent scenArIo
          (i) Teacher absenteeism, and
                                                           Employment issues have always been among the
         (ii) Shortage of professionally qualified         priorities of the GoI. As it is considered the best
              teachers.                                    tool to alleviate poverty, the area gets even more
          Though the share of teacher component in         importance. The latest employment scenario12 and
     total Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) budget has          related concerns are as given below:
     been increasing over the years from 35 per cent                The overall employment increased by
     in 2011-12 to 59 per cent in 2014-15, teacher                  1.35 lakh—contributed by the IT/BPOs,
     absenteeism and the shortage of professionally                 textiles including apparels and metals
     qualified teachers remain an issue to be addressed.            sectors. However, the sectors such as
     Biometric attendance of teachers—monitored by                  gems and jewellery, handloom and power
     communities and parents together with putting                  loom, leather, automobiles and transport
     the data in public domain—may prove useful in                  saw decline in employment.
     this regard. This should be backed by adequate
                                                                    Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR)
     teaching aids, recorded lectures, etc. to fill in for
                                                                    was estimated at 50.3 per cent— for
     absentee teachers. learning outcomes should be
                                                                    females 23.7 per cent and males 75.0 per
     part of the whole exercise. Attention should be
                                                                    cent. The North Eastern and Southern
     given on the aspect of “quality teacher training”.
                                                                    States, in general, display high female
     Professional qualification and training: As                    LFPR as compared to low levels in
     per the latest report by the U-DISE (Unified-                  Northern States.
     District Information System for Education) on                  Unemployment rate for females (8.7 per
     School Education in India 2014–15, only 79 per                 cent) was higher than that of males (4.0
     cent of teachers are professionally qualified in               per cent) across rural and urban areas—
     the country. For the higher secondary level, the               with wide inter-state variations as seen in
     per centage of qualified teachers is around 69 per             case of the LFPR.
     cent. There is need to increase the per centage of
                                                                    Employment            growth     has      been
     qualified teachers and also the training of both
                                                                    sluggish. Further, States that show low
     qualified and under-qualified teachers.
                                                                    unemployment rates also generally rank
     Gender parity: As per the Ministry of HRD’s                    high in the share of manufacturing.
     Educational Statistics, the Gender Parity Index                While States compete to seek investment
     (GPI) at various levels of school education has                offering incentives, linking incentives to
     improved by 2014-15, except in the higher                      the number of jobs created, sustained
     education in the case of total and Scheduled Caste
     (SC) students. In the case of Scheduled Tribe           12.  The latest and the 5th Annual Employment and
                                                                  Unemployment Survey (EUS)-2015-16, Labour Bureau,
     (ST) students, parity between girls and boys has             Ministry of Labour and Employment—as quoted by the
     not been achieved across all levels of school and            Economic Survey 2016-17, MoF, GoI, N. Delhi, pp.
     higher education. There is need to bridge the                161-162.
     gender disparity in higher education among total