20.8        ndian     onom
                   about qualitative improvement in            million. At present, a little more than one
                   governance at decentralised level.          out of every six persons in the world is an
              (b) Transform them into vibrant                  Indian.
                   institutions and enable them to perform  2. As per Sample Registration System-2013
                   their envisaged role in participatory       (SRS) data—
                   planning, implementation, execution,        (a) There has been a gradual decline in
                   monitoring, and supervision and also            the share of population in the age
                   carry out social audit of all panchayat/        group 0-14 from 41.2 to 38.1 per
                   municipality-centric programmes.                cent during 1971 to 1981 and from
          Government has given high priority to                    36.3 to 28.4 per cent during 1991 to
     ‘inclusion’ factor—through the ideas of “inclusive            2013.
     growth” (as outlined by the 11th Plan, 2007-12)           (b) On the other hand, the proportion of
     and the “third generation of economic reforms”                economically active population (15-
     (launched 2002, on the margins of the 10th                    59 years) or, India’s ‘demographic
     Plan, 2002-07)—it is officially decided to use the            dividend’, has increased from 53.4 to
     PRIs as the main tool. In this way, it is essential           56.3 per cent during 1971 to 1981
     for the governments (centre and states, both) to              and from 57.7 to 63.3 per cent during
     use the untapped potential of the PRIs as the                 1991 to 2013.
     vehicle of decentralising the fruits of growth and        (c) On account of better education,
     development to the ‘grass-root’ level. For this the           health facilities, and increase in life
     PRIs need strengthening—newly created ‘think                  expectancy, the per centage of elderly
     tank’, the NITI can play as an instrumental                   (60+) has gone up from 5.3 to 5.7
     role in it (through its platform, the ‘Governing              per cent and 6.0 to 8.3 per cent
     Council’)—in reaching a broad consensus among                 respectively in the same two periods.
     the governments regarding it.                             (d) The growth rate of the labour force
                                                                   will continue to be higher than that
        deMoGrAPHIcs                                               of the population until 2021.
     The population of India has gone for some major        3. According to an Indian Labour Report
     changes in the recent decades. These changes              (Time Lease, 2007)—
     have not only restructured the contours of Indian         (a) 300 million youth will enter the
     demographics but have brought new openings                    labour force by 2025, and 25 per cent
     and challenges regarding it:                                  of the world’s workers in the next
          1. As per provisional results of Census                  three years will be Indians.
              2011, the following facts regarding the          (b) Population projections indicate that
              Indian population dynamics are of high               in 2020 the average age of India’s
              importance. The 2001–11 is the first                 population will be the lowest in the
              decade in independent India wherein,                 world—around 29 years compared
              the population momentum coupled with                 to 37 years in China and the United
              declining fertility has dampened the pace            States of America, 45 years in West
              of net additions to population. Thus,                Europe, and 48 years in Japan.
              the net addition in this decade is less          (c) Consequently, while the global
              than that of the pervious decade by 0.86             economy is expected to witness a