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Kerala PSC Indian Economy Book Study Materials Page 525Book's First Page
H man Development in ndia 20.5 (ii) In households with toilets, women (i) Review the family planning program reported far greater use—showing greater and re-orient it in such a way that it is need. Studies have found preference aligned with reproductive health rights of for households to defecate in the open women, and needs of India’s population. because of a variety of factors (caste and (ii) Increase budgets for quality services, soak pit latrines, especially). As per the static family planning clinics and quality ‘rapid study’, patterns of toilet usage are monitoring and supervision. better for women than men (this was also (iii) Address youth needs, induct more confirmed by the NSSO Survey of 2016). counsellors for sexual health, more youth- (iii) Women and girls use toilet more than friendly services, and adequate supply of their male counterparts—across rural and spacing methods. urban households. This pattern of toilet usage suggests a very important thing— women and girl-children could play a PoVertY estIMAtes key leadership role in Swachh Bharat’s Since India commenced the process of economic objective of creating defecation free reforms, a major shift has taken place in the communities (by nudging men and boys country’s poliy-orientation towards poverty of the household to change their own alleviation and employment generation—in defecation behaviours). place of wage employment, the focus has shifted (iv) Women did show positive behavioural to self-employment – so that ‘gainful employment’ patterns after getting access to sanitation could be created and poverty could be alleviated services. Again, if these services are permanently10. denied, they face considerable insecurity The Planning Commission used to estimate and nutritional risks. poverty using data from the large sample surveys For the reason cited above, ensuring safe and on household consumer expenditure carried out adequate sanitation—the objectives of Swachh by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) Bharat—is becoming a serious policy issue—after every five years. It defines poverty line on the basis all it is linked to the ‘fundamental right to privacy’. of monthly per capita consumption expenditure (MPCE). The methodology for estimation of the fAllouts of PoPulAtion Policy poverty followed by the Planning Commission The negative fallouts of pursuing a population has been based on the recommendations made policy that largely focuses on birth control also by experts in the field from time to time—the contributes to declining child sex ratios—if recent estimates based on the recommendations every family is to have fewer children, there is a of the Expert Group headed by Prof. Suresh D. greater anxiety that at least one of them should Tendulkar which submitted its report in December be male. In this instance, there may be a case for 2009. the government to undo as much as to do for example, by not setting targets expected levels As per this methodology, poverty estimates of achievement (ELA), withdrawing incentives (NSSO, 68th Round, 2011-12) for the period for female sterilisation and for mass camps. In 2004-05 to 2011-12 are as given below: addition, the Economic Survey 2014–15 suggested 10. Economic Survey, 1999–2000, Ministry of MoF, GoI, the following actions to the government: N. Delhi.