H man Development in ndia        20.3
           India has to evolve a multi-pronged strategy              However, it did make some gains between
     with focus on bridging the gaps in access to                    1990 and 2015, improving life expectancy
     social infrastructure through appropriate use                   by 10.4 years. Child malnutrition also
     of innovative technologies for enhancement of                   declined by 10 per cent.
     human potential for productive employment in                    Inequality in human development—
     various sectors and for improving the quality of                shave off 27 per cent from India’s HDI
     life. Mobilising the civil society, media and other             score.
     stakeholders of society in this regard will play a              Between 1-5 years of age, girls in India
     huge supportive role.                                           and Pakistan have a 30-50 per cent greater
                                                                     chance of dying than boys.
        Hdr 2016                                                     The report noted that untargeted subsidies
                                                                     take away a lot of government resources
     In the latest Human Development Report 2016                     that could otherwise have been spent
     (HDR 2016) of the UNDP, India has been raked                    on people, who need them the most—
     at 131st (falling one rank from HDR 2015) out of                in 2014, the richest 20 per cent of
     188 countries. The report measures progress (on its             India’s population enjoyed subsidies of
     Human Development Index) of the countries in                    $16 billion, thanks to six commodities
     three basic dimensions of human development—                    and services— cooking gas, railways,
     standard of living, life expectancy and knowledge.              power, aviation fuel, gold and kerosene.
     Major features of it for the period 1990-2015 are          Certain things, in case of India, have been
     given below (main focus being on India)8:             praised by the report—reservation policy (though
               World’s top three countries are—Norway      it has not remedied caste-based exclusions it has
               (0.949), Australia (0.939), Switzerland     had substantial positive effects—share of dalits
               (0.939).                                    in civil services has improved from 2 per cent in
               India’s HDI value of 0.624 (46 per          1965 to 11 per cent by 2001); Rural Employment
               cent growth) puts it in the ‘medium         Guarantee scheme; Right to Information Act;
               human development’ category, alongside      National Food Security scheme, and Right to
               countries such as Congo, Namibia and        Education Act; Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sanghatan
               Pakistan. It is ranked third among the      (for popularising ‘social audits’ of government
               SAARC countries (but lowest among the       schemes).
               BRICS countries), behind Sri Lanka (73)          The success of national development
               and the Maldives (105) both figuring in     programmes like Skill India, Digital India, Make
               the ‘high human development’ category.      in India and Beti Bachao Beti Padhao—aimed at
               India’s life expectancy at birth increased  bridging gaps in human development—will be
               by 10.4 years, mean years of schooling      crucial in ensuring the success of UN’s Sustainable
               increased by 3.3 years and expected years   Development Goals 2030 (unveiled in 2015), as
               of schooling increased by 4.1 years and     per the report.
               its Gross National Income per capita
               increased by about 223.4 per cent.             Gender Issues
               India’s public health expenditure was       India has gender discrimination embedded in its
               even lower, at 1.4 per cent of the GDP.     social fabric. It shows up in most spheres such
         8.  Human Development Report 2016, UNDP, N. York, as access to education, to social and economic
             USA, March 2017.                              opportunities. The reliance on a legal system to