20.2        ndian      onom
                                                              STs, OBCs, Minorities and Women) remains the
        IntroductIon                                          offical policy of ‘inclusive growth’ for the country.4
     Economic growth still remains the immediate                     The challenge is to formulate inclusive plans to
     focus of the world economies. But, income                bridge regional, social and economic disparities.
     enhancement can only bring the desired                   The Approach Paper to the 12th Plan (2012–17)
     development in the country once it is supported          rightly stresses the need for more infrastructural
     by a conscious public policy aimed at it. Again,         investment with the aim of fostering a faster,
     the presence of ‘good governance’ in the policy          sustainable and more inclusive growth. The GoI
     framework can hardly be missed. After the                has been conscious about the development of the
     increased acceptance to welfare economics, the           social sector which includes areas like, health,
     standard of life of the masses has emerged as the        education, shelter, social welfare, social security,
     most popular tool to measure developmental               etc. Once the economy commenced the process
     achievemnets of the economies—the idea is much           of economic reforms we see an increased attention
     similar to the concept1 of ‘human development’           on the strengthening of social sector—enhancing
     articulated by the UNDP. In recent times, the            the social infrastructre and situation.5 But India
     world has started accepting the role of people’s         is faced with a variety of interconnected and
     attitudinal and behavioural dimensions, too in the       interdpendent issues and challenges in the areas,
     gamut of devlopment promotion.2 Further, we see          such as, inclusion, expansion, implementation,
     an increased and consensual acceptance among             accountability, governance, decentralisation, etc.6
     the nations on the issue of delivering ‘happiness’              By 2020, India is projected to be the youngest
     and ‘life satisfaction’ to the citizens.3 It means,      nation in the world in terms of size—while this
     over the last few decades the whole idea about           ‘youth bulge’ provides India great opportunities, it
     the ‘ultimate’ aim of the economies has gone for         also ‘poses challenges’—these young people need
     a kind of metamorphosis. Human development,              to be healthy, suitably educated and appropriately
     increased social welfare and well-being of the           skilled to contribute optimally to the economy7.
     people have been the ultimate objective of               The proportion of economically active population
     development planning in India. Increased social          (15-59 years) in India has increased from 57.7 per
     welfare of the people requires a more equitable          cent to 63.3 per cent during 1991 to 2013, as per
     distribution of development benefits along with          Sample Registration System (SRS) data for 2013.
     better living environment. Development process,          If India has to reap the benefits of this demographic
     therefore, needs to continuously strive for broad-       dividend in the years ahead, it is imperative that
     based improvement in the standard of living and          investments in social infrastructure are made
     quality of life of the people through an inclusive       in appropriate measure to achieve the desired
     development strategy that focuses on both income         educational and health outcomes.
     and non-income dimensions. Making growth and                 4.   Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007–12), Planning
     development percolate to the ‘marginalised and                    Commission, GoI, N. Delhi.
     disadvantaged sections’ of society (i.e., the SCs,           5.   Increased allocations of fund as well as enhanced
                                                                       performance is reported by the Economic Surveys of
        1.  Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom, Oxford                1991–92 to 2014–15, MoF, GoI, N. Delhi.
            University Press, N. Delhi, 2000, pp. 3-11.           6.   Amartya Sen and Jean Dreze, An Uncertain Glory:
        2.  World Development Report 2015: Mind, Society, and          India and its Contradictions, Allen Lane, Penguin
            Behaviour, world Bank, Washigton DC, 2015.                 Books, London, 2013, pp. vii-xiii.
        3.  World Happiness Report-2012 and 2013, Sponsored       7.   Economic Survey 2014–15, MoF, GoI, N. Delhi,
            by the UNO, N. York, 2013 and 2014.                        pp. 131–146.