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Kerala PSC Indian Economy Book Study Materials Page 522Book's First Page
20.2 ndian onom STs, OBCs, Minorities and Women) remains the IntroductIon offical policy of ‘inclusive growth’ for the country.4 Economic growth still remains the immediate The challenge is to formulate inclusive plans to focus of the world economies. But, income bridge regional, social and economic disparities. enhancement can only bring the desired The Approach Paper to the 12th Plan (2012–17) development in the country once it is supported rightly stresses the need for more infrastructural by a conscious public policy aimed at it. Again, investment with the aim of fostering a faster, the presence of ‘good governance’ in the policy sustainable and more inclusive growth. The GoI framework can hardly be missed. After the has been conscious about the development of the increased acceptance to welfare economics, the social sector which includes areas like, health, standard of life of the masses has emerged as the education, shelter, social welfare, social security, most popular tool to measure developmental etc. Once the economy commenced the process achievemnets of the economies—the idea is much of economic reforms we see an increased attention similar to the concept1 of ‘human development’ on the strengthening of social sector—enhancing articulated by the UNDP. In recent times, the the social infrastructre and situation.5 But India world has started accepting the role of people’s is faced with a variety of interconnected and attitudinal and behavioural dimensions, too in the interdpendent issues and challenges in the areas, gamut of devlopment promotion.2 Further, we see such as, inclusion, expansion, implementation, an increased and consensual acceptance among accountability, governance, decentralisation, etc.6 the nations on the issue of delivering ‘happiness’ By 2020, India is projected to be the youngest and ‘life satisfaction’ to the citizens.3 It means, nation in the world in terms of size—while this over the last few decades the whole idea about ‘youth bulge’ provides India great opportunities, it the ‘ultimate’ aim of the economies has gone for also ‘poses challenges’—these young people need a kind of metamorphosis. Human development, to be healthy, suitably educated and appropriately increased social welfare and well-being of the skilled to contribute optimally to the economy7. people have been the ultimate objective of The proportion of economically active population development planning in India. Increased social (15-59 years) in India has increased from 57.7 per welfare of the people requires a more equitable cent to 63.3 per cent during 1991 to 2013, as per distribution of development benefits along with Sample Registration System (SRS) data for 2013. better living environment. Development process, If India has to reap the benefits of this demographic therefore, needs to continuously strive for broad- dividend in the years ahead, it is imperative that based improvement in the standard of living and investments in social infrastructure are made quality of life of the people through an inclusive in appropriate measure to achieve the desired development strategy that focuses on both income educational and health outcomes. and non-income dimensions. Making growth and 4. Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007–12), Planning development percolate to the ‘marginalised and Commission, GoI, N. Delhi. disadvantaged sections’ of society (i.e., the SCs, 5. Increased allocations of fund as well as enhanced performance is reported by the Economic Surveys of 1. Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom, Oxford 1991–92 to 2014–15, MoF, GoI, N. Delhi. University Press, N. Delhi, 2000, pp. 3-11. 6. Amartya Sen and Jean Dreze, An Uncertain Glory: 2. World Development Report 2015: Mind, Society, and India and its Contradictions, Allen Lane, Penguin Behaviour, world Bank, Washigton DC, 2015. Books, London, 2013, pp. vii-xiii. 3. World Happiness Report-2012 and 2013, Sponsored 7. Economic Survey 2014–15, MoF, GoI, N. Delhi, by the UNO, N. York, 2013 and 2014. pp. 131–146.