19.10            ndian      onom
                                                                   (v) To create an additional carbon sink of
        Indcs                                                              2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent
     The INDCs (Intended Nationally Determined                             through additional forest and tree cover
     Contributions) are plans by governments                               by 2030.
     communicated to the UNFCCC regarding the                     (vi) To better adapt to climate change by
     steps they will take to address climate change                        enhancing investments in development
     domestically. As per the COP 19 decision (Warsaw                      programmes in sectors vulnerable to
     2013), all Parties were requested to prepare their                    climate change, particularly agriculture,
     INDCs, without prejudice to the legal nature of                       water resources, the Himalayan region,
     the contributions towards achieving the objectives                    coastal regions, health and disaster
     of the Convention and communicate well in                             management.
     advance of COP 21.                                          (vii) To mobilize domestic and new and
     India’s INDC: India submitted its INDC to                             additional funds from developed
     the UNFCCC by early October 2015. It is                               countries for implementing these
     comprehensive and covers all elements, i.e.                           mitigation and adaptation actions in view
     adaptation, mitigation, finance, technology and                       of the resources required and the resource
     capacity building. India’s goal is to reduce the                      gap.
     overall emission intensity and improve the energy          (viii) To build capacities, create a domestic
     efficiency of its economy over time. It also covers                   framework and an international
     concerns to protect the vulnerable sectors and                        architecture for quick diffusion of
     segments of its society. The highlights of India’s                    cutting-edge climate technology in India
     INDC are as given below8:                                             and for joint collaborative R&D for such
                                                                           future technologies.
            (i) To put forward and further propagate a
                  healthy and sustainable way of living based India’s Challenges and Efforts: India houses 30
                  on traditions and values of conservation    per cent of the global poor, 24 per cent of global
                  and moderation.                             population without access to electricity, and 92
          (ii) To adopt a climate friendly and cleaner        million people without access to safe drinking
                  path than the one hitherto followed         water. Coupled with its vulnerability in terms of
                  by others at a corresponding level of       the impact of climate change, this entails that India
                  economic development.                       faces formidable and complex challenges in terms
                                                              of balancing the sustainable development agenda.
         (iii) To reduce the emissions intensity of its
                                                              Given the challenges it faces, it has prepared an
                  GDP by 33 to 35 per cent of the 2005
                                                              ambitious plan in terms of clean energy, energy
                  level by 2030.
                                                              efficiency and lower emission intensity while
         (iv) To achieve about 40 per cent cumulative         addressing the critical issue of poverty and food
                  electric power installed capacity from      security9—
                  non-fossil fuel- based energy resources            (i) India’s INDC sets ambitious renewable
                  by 2030 with the help of transfer of                     energy targets mainly in terms of solar and
                  technology and low cost international                    wind energy. With a potential of more
                  finance including from the Green Climate
                  Fund (GCF).                                     9.    Economic Survey 2016-17, Vol. 1 and Economic
                                                                        Survey 2015-16, Vol. 2, Government of India, Ministry
         8.    Ibid., pp. 183–84.                                       of Finance, N. Delhi.