staina ilit and limate han e ndia and he           orld     19.9
           (i) Climate Change,                               It is estimated that India’s per capita emission in
          (ii) Food Security,                                2031 will still be lower than the global per capita
        (iii) Water Security,                                emission in 2005 (in 2031, India’s per capita
                                                             GHG emissions will be under 4 tonnes of carbon
         (iv) Energy Security, and
                                                             dioxide equivalent (CO 2 eq.) which is lower than
          (v) Managing Urbanisation.                         the global per capita emissions of 4.22 tonnes of
           Climate change is disturbing the natural          CO2 eq. in 2005).
     ecosystems and is expected to have substantial               Together with the national efforts in different
     adverse effects in India, mainly on agriculture (on     sectors, India also recognises that rural areas are
     which 58 per cent of the population still depends       equally prone to stress and pressures from natural
     for livelihood), water storage in the Himalayan         resource exploitation. In this context, schemes for
     glaciers which are the source of major rivers and       rural development and livelihood programmes
     groundwater recharge, sea-level rise, and threats       are very relevant. A vast majority of the works
     to a long coastline and habitations. Climate            under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
     change will also cause increased frequency of           Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)
     extreme events such as floods, and droughts.            are linked to land, soil, and water. There are also
     These in turn will impact India’s food security         programmes for non- timber forest produce-based
     problems and water security. As per the Second          livelihood, promotion of organic and low-chemical
     National Communication submitted by India to            agriculture, and increased soil health and fertility
     the UNFCCC, it is projected that the annual             to sustain agriculture-based livelihoods. These
     mean surface air temperature rise by the end of         schemes help mobilise and develop capacities of
     the century ranges from 3.5°C to 4.3°C, whereas         community institutions to utilise natural resources
     the sea level along the Indian coast has been rising    in a sustainable manner and their potential can be
     at the rate of about 1.3 mm/year on an average.         further developed.
     These climate change projections are likely to               Along with efforts to incorporate sustainability
     impact human health, agriculture, water resources,      in the rural development process, India is
     natural ecosystems and biodiversity.                    increasingly making efforts to integrate the three
           Concerned of the threats imposed by climate       pillars of sustainable development into its national
     change and pressures on natural resources,              policy space. In fact, environment protection
     sustainability and environment are increasingly         is enshrined in our Constitution (Articles 48 A
     taking centrestage in the Indian policy domain.         and 51A]). Various policy measures are being
     India has been part of 94 multilateral environmental    implemented across the domains of forestry,
     agreements. India has also voluntarily agreed to        pollution control, water management, clean
     reduce its emission intensity of its GDP by 20–25       energy, and marine and coastal environment. Some
     per cent over 2005 levels by 2020, and emissions        of these are policies like Joint Forest Management,
     from the agriculture sector would not form              Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment,
     part of the assessment of its emissions intensity.      Coastal Zone Regulation Zone, Eco Labelling
     Indian economy is already moving along a lower          and Energy Efficiency Labelling, Fuel Efficiency
     carbon and sustainable path in terms of declining       Standards etc. Over a period of time, a stable
     carbon intensity of its GDP which is expected           organisational structure has been developed for
     to fall further through lower carbon strategies.        environment protection.