li  inan e in ndia      18.25
                                                                                 remains confined to the particular policy
        cut motIon                                                               and is open to members to advocate an
     In democratic political systems, there is a                                 alternate policy.
     provision of Cut Motion in the House/Parliament                     (iv) Guillotine is the process in which the
     (usually it is the opposition but floor might be                            Speaker puts all the outstanding demands
     crossed by members of the House belonging                                   made by the Budget directly to vote in
     to the government due to presence of inner-                                 the House—ending further discussions
     party politics). In the US, the budget provisions                           (intended to cut short the discussion on
     presented by the government must be passed by                               the Budget). Through this, the Speaker
     the Congress. Only then they can be enacted.                                may put the whole Budegt to vote (i.e.,
     Unlike this, in the British parliamentary system                            allowing ‘no discussion’ on the Budget by
     though the budget of the government is voted by                             the House). In recent years, this route was
     the House usually this is considered a political                            taken time and again by the Government
     document and passed unchanged. India has                                    of India, to avoid the aggressive mood of
     mixed provisions of voting on the budget after                              the Opposition.
     discussion in both the Houses. There are different                              Though, this is a short route to get the
     constitutional provisions by which the Parliament                           Budget passed by the House (avoiding
     starts discussion to reduce the demands, grants,                            criticism by the opposition benches),
     etc. proposed by the government in the Budget59 —                           it may turn out to be very dangerous
          (i) Token Cut: This motion intends to ‘reduce                          —as the voting process may take the
               the demand by Rs. 100’. Such a motion                             form of ‘no confidence motion’ and the
               is moved in order to express a specific                           government may be routed out of power.
               grievance which is within the sphere of                           But, till date, Guillotines never resulted
               the responsibility of the Government of                           into routing a government out of power
               India—the discussion remains confined                             in India (as India follows the British
               to the particular grievance specified in the                      Model of Parliamentary system).
         (ii) Economy Cut: This motion intends                           trIlemmas
               to ‘reduce the demand by a specified                   Putting the right kind of fiscal policy has always
               amount’ representing the economy (in                   been the most challenging policy decision to be
               expenditure) that can be affected. Such                taken by the democratic governments around
               specified amount may be either lump sum                the world, there are some famous ‘trilemmas’
               reduction in the demand or omission or                 related to this aspect. Economics have by now
               reduction of an item in the demnd—the                  many ‘trilemmas’ developed and articulated by
               discussion remains confined to the matter              economists from time to time and the process still
               in which the economy can be affected.                  continues. Let us see some highly popular and
        (iii) Disapproval of Policy Cut: This motion                  newsmaking ones:
               intends to ‘reduce the demand to Re. 1’.                     (i) The ‘financial stability trilemma’ put
               This represents disapproval of the policy                         forward by Dirk Schoenmaker60 (2008),
               underlying the demand—the discussion
                                                                        60.    Dirk schoenmaker, “A New Financial stability
       59.   Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok sabha,          Framework for Europe”, The Financial Regulator, o,
             Parliament secretariat, New Dehli.                                13 (3), 2009.