16.10       ndian     onom
             export policies are not used as a disguised       (x) A group of 53 WTO members, including
             form of subsidies. These disciplines                   both developed and developing countries,
             include—                                               agreed on the timetable for implementing
             (a) terms to limit the benefits of financing           a deal to eliminate tariffs on 201
                 support to agriculture exporters;                  Information Technology products. This
                                                                    duty-free market will be available to all
             (b) rules on state enterprises engaging in
                                                                    WTO members (even to India, which
                 agriculture trade; and
                                                                    was not party to the agreement).
             (c) disciplines to ensure that food aid
                                                              (xi) As regards the introduction of other new
                 does not negatively affect domestic
                                                                    issues for discussion, the Declaration
                                                                    acknowledges the differences in views
        (vi) One of the Decisions adopted extends                   and states that any decision to launch
             the relevant provision to prevent ‘ever-               negotiations multilaterally on such issues
             greening’ of patents in the pharmaceuticals            would need to be agreed by all Members.
             sector. This decision would help in                    The rich (developed) countries wanted
             maintaining an affordable and accessible               the introduction of new issues of their
             supply of generic medicines.                           interests which included—global value
       (vii) India supported outcomes on issues of                  chain, e-commerce, competition laws,
             interest to LDCs including enhanced                    labour, environment and investments.
             preferential rules of origin for LDCs and
             preferential treatment for LDC services         BuenoS aIreS ConFerenCe and
             providers. India already offers duty-free,      IndIa
             quota-free access scheme to all LDCs,
             which provides a comprehensive coverage      The 11th Ministerial Conference (MC11) of
             with simple, transparent and liberal rules   World Trade Organisation (WTO) which took
             of origin. India has also recently (late     place in Buenos Aires, Argentina (10-13 December,
             2015) made available substantial and         2017) ended without a Ministerial Declaration or
             commercially meaningful preferences in       any substantive outcome, though the unanimous
             services to LDCs.                            view was that it was extremely well-conducted
                                                          with complete openness and transparency and the
      (viii) The issue of fisheries subsidies could not
                                                          process afforded everyone ample opportunity to
             be resolved due to lack of consensus.
                                                          express their views. Major developments (as per
             Including India, several other countries
                                                          the Economic Survey 2017-18) at the conference
             (China, Egypt, South Africa, Korea           were as given below:
             and Saudi Arabia, etc) were opposed to
                                                                   In the run-up to MC11, decisions were
             disciplining rules on fisheries subsidies
                                                                   expected on a permanent solution on
             due to the lack of clarity.
                                                                   food security and other agriculture issues.
        (ix) On the issue of Anti-dumping, India                   Unfortunately, the strong position of
             strongly opposed a proposal that would                one of the member (the USA) against
             give greater power to the WTO’s Anti-                 agricultural reforms based on current
             Dumping Committee to review Members’                  WTO mandates and rules, led to a
             practices. Due to lack of convergence, no             deadlock without any outcome on
             outcome was achieved.