nternational    onomi      r anisations      ndia    16.9
     Conference took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina                   (ii) As the future of the Doha Round appeared
     (December 10-13, 2017).                                                  in doubt, India sought and succeeded in
          Previous conferences: Nairobi (15-19                                obtaining a re-affirmative Ministerial
     December, 2015); Bali (3-6 December 2013);                               Decision on Public Stockholding for Food
                                                                              Security Purposes honouring both the
     Geneva (15-17 December 2011); Geneva (30
                                                                              Bali Ministerial and General Council
     November–2 December 2009); Hong Kong
                                                                              Decisions. The decision commits
     (13–18 December 2005); Cancun (10-14
                                                                              members to engage constructively in
     September 2003); Doha (9–13 November 2001);                              finding a permanent solution to this
     Seattle (30 November – 3 December, 1999);                                issue.
     Geneva (18–20 May 1998) and Singapore (9–13
                                                                       (iii) A large group of developing countries
     December 1996).
                                                                              has long been seeking an SSM (Special
                                                                              Safeguard Mechanism) for agricultural
        naIroBI negotIatIonS & IndIa                                          products. In order to ensure that this
     The WTO held its 10th Ministerial Conference                             issue remains on the agenda of future
                                                                              discussion in the WTO, India negotiated
     in Nairobi, Kenya during 15–19 December 2015.
                                                                              a Ministerial Decision which recognizes
     This was the first such meeting to be hosted by an
                                                                              that developing countries will have the
     African nation. The outcomes of the Conference,
                                                                              right to have recourse to an SSM as
     referred to as the Nairobi Package, are as given                         envisaged in the mandate. Members will
     below20:                                                                 continue to negotiate the mechanism in
           (i) The Nairobi Declaration reflects divergence                    dedicated sessions of the Committee on
                amongst the WTO membership on                                 Agriculture in Special Session.
                the relevance of reaffirming the Doha                  (iv) It was also agreed to the elimination of
                Development Agenda (DDA) as the basis                         agricultural export subsidies subject to the
                of future negotiations. This was despite                      preservation of special and differential
                the fact that India, along with many                          treatment for developing countries
                other developing countries, from groups                       such as a longer phase-out period for
                such as the G-33, LDCs, and the Africa                        transportation and marketing export
                Group, wanted a reaffirmation of the                          subsidies for exporting agricultural
                mandate of the Doha Round. While                              products. Developed countries have
                reflecting that there are divergences, the                    committed to removing export subsidies
                Ministerial Declaration also notes the                        immediately, except for a few agricultural
                “strong commitment of all Members to                          products, and developing countries will
                advance negotiations on the remaining                         do so by 2018.
                Doha issues”. It records that WTO                       (v) Developing countries will keep the
                work would maintain development at its                        flexibility to cover marketing and transport
                centre. It also reaffirms that provisions                     subsidies for agriculture exports until the
                for special and differential treatment shall                  end of 2023, and the LDCs and net food-
                remain integral.                                              importing developing countries would
                                                                              have additional time to cut such export
       20.    Ministry of Finance, Economic Survey 2015–16 (New               subsidies. The Ministerial Decision
              Delhi: Government of India, 2016), Vol. 2, pp. 73–75.
                                                                              contains disciplines to ensure that other