nd str and n rastr          t re       9.35
     has taken various new initiatives to improve              cited by the Economic Survey 2016-17 (quoting
     urban infrastructure:                                     case studies)67 in this regard—of two different
     SBM (Swachh Bharat Mission) aims at making                time periods:
     India free from open defecation and at achieving                1. Gurgaon: It was in 2001 when Haryana
     100 per cent scientific management of municipal                      government removed restrictions on the
     solid waste in 4041 statutory towns/cities in the                    land acquisition process and empowered
     country. The targets set for the mission which                       the HUDA (Haryana Urban Development
     have to be achieved by 2 October 2019.                               Authority) and allowed private builders
                                                                          to develop township on the erstwhile
     HRIDAY (National Heritage City Development
                                                                          agricultural land—and here started the
     and Augmentation Yojana) aims at preserving
                                                                          development of today’s Gurgaon. Today
     and revitalizing the soul and unique character of
                                                                          the city is under the control of HUDA,
     heritage cities in India. In the first phase, it contains
     12 cities – Ajmer, Amaravati, Amritsar, Badami,                      Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon
     Dwarka, Mathura, Puri, Varanasi, Velankanni,                         (created in 2008) and the private builders.
     Kanchipuram, Gaya and Warangal.                                      In Gurgaon, the private sector has stepped
                                                                          in to address many of the failings of the
     AMRUT (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and                             public sector, with mixed success:
     Urban Transformation) aims at improving basic
                                                                              Corrected the failure of the public
     urban infrastructure in 500 cities/towns which
                                                                               sector by creating private sewage,
     will be known as mission cities/towns. This is a
                                                                               water, electricity, security and fire
     Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) funded by
     GoI, States and the local bodies.
                                                                              Rapid Metro in Gurgaon was built by
          A number of other initiatives in the existing
                                                                               DLF and Infrastructure Leasing &
     scheme of the policy framework have also been
                                                                               Financial Services Limited (IL&FS),
     taken – public transport through Bus Rapid
                                                                               with HUDA providing the requisite
     Transit Systems (BRTS) approved for 11 cities
     under the JNNURM (Jawaharlal Nehru National
     Urban Renewal Mission); Buses and Metro Rail                             Roads are of good quality.
     Projects to be equipped with ITS (Intelligent                            Shortfall in transport facilities is
     Transport System).                                                        covered by the private modes of
        PrIvate sector and urBanIsatIon                                   Precisely speaking, private players have
                                                                          addressed most challenges but they have
     Proper urban planning becomes an important                           been unable to provide services beyond
     issue for India as it is urbanising fast. Given the                  their own property line as cooperation
     Government push to the Smart City scheme,                            lacks amongst them and the authorities.
     it will be needful to tap the potential of every                     The public authorities have had limited
     possible candidate in this regard. One of such
                                                                          success in providing the city with large
     candidate is the private sector. There are few
     examples where we find the sector able to develop           67.   Economic Survey 2016-17 ol. , p.            cites the
     praiseworthy townships—in certain areas beating                   studies of S. Rajagopalan & A. Tabarrok, Lessons
                                                                       from Gurgaon, India’s Private City, in D. Anderson &
     the public sector also—though they have their                     S. oroni       d. , Cities and rivate lanning,
     own limitations, too. Two such cases have been                    Cheltenham,        dward lgar,        .