9.32        ndian    onom
              each way will operate by 2023, and will   Jammu and Kashmir, launched in November
              go up to 105 trains per day each way in   2004.
              2053.                                          By early 2017, few new initiatives were
              It will have approximately 36,000 daily   taken by the GoI – Bharatmala programme
              users per day (both ways) in 2023, which  to connect non-major ports; Backward Areas,
              will go up to 186,000 per day (both ways) Religious, Tourist Places Connectivity programme;
              or 68 million per annum by 2053.          Setubhratam Pariyojana to construct about 1500
                                                        major bridges; and the District Head Quarter
        roads                                           Connectivity Scheme for development of about
                                                        9000 km newly declared NHs.
     With about 52.32 lakh km of road network
     comprising National Highways, State Highways       Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna (PMGSY):
     and other roads, India has the second largest road Launched to provide single all-weather road
     network in the world. The NH in the country        connectivity to eligible unconnected habitations
     cover a total length of 1,00,475 km and carry      having population of 500 persons and above in
     about 40 per cent of the road traffic.             plain areas and 250 persons and above in hill states,
                                                        tribal (Schedule V) areas, desert (as identified
     Financing of the NHDP: A part of the fuel cess     in the Desert Development Programme) areas,
     imposed on petrol and diesel is allocated to the   and LWE-affected districts as identified by the
     NHAI for funding the implementation of the         Ministry of Home Affairs. Rural roads has also
     NHDP. The NHAI leverages the cess flow to          been identified as one of the six components of
     borrow additional funds from the debt market. Till Bharat Nirman which has the goal of providing
     date, such borrowings have been limited to funds   all-weather road connectivity to all villages with
     raised through 54 EC (capital gains tax exemption) a population of 1,000 (500 in the case of hilly or
     bonds and the short-term overdraft facility.       tribal areas).
     Government has also taken loans for financing
                                                             Bharatmala Pariyojana: Launched in 2015-16,
     projects under the NHDP from the World
                                                        this is a new umbrella program for the highways
     Bank (US$ 1,965 million), Asian Development
                                                        sector that focuses on optimizing efficiency
     Bank (US$ 1,605 million) and Japan Bank for
                                                        of freight and passenger movement across the
     International Cooperation (32,060 million yen)
                                                        country. It aims at bridging critical infrastructure
     which are passed on to the NHAI partly in the
                                                        gaps through effective interventions like
     form of grants and partly as loan. The NHAI has
                                                        development of Economic Corridors, Inter
     also availed a direct loan of US$ 180 million from
                                                        Corridors and Feeder Routes, National Corridor
     the ADB for the Surat-Manor Expressway Project.
                                                        Efficiency Improvement, Border and International
          Special Accelerated Road Development          connectivity roads, Coastal and Port connectivity
     Programme for North-East region (SARDP-NE)         roads and Green-field expressways. The objective
     aims at improving road connectivity to state       of the program is to achieve optimal resource
     capitals, district headquarters, and remote places allocation for a holistic highway development.
     of the north-east region. Development of roads
     in Left Wing Extremism (LWE)-affected areas in
                                                           cIvIl avIatIon
     the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh,
     Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra,            Airport infrastructure development continues
     Odisha, and Uttar Pradesh is continuing; Prime     to be a matter of concern. Upgradation of
     Minister’s Reconstruction Plan (PMRP) for          many airports, including construction of new