ri    lt re and ood          ana ement         8.45
          Similarly, the issue of agricultural subsidies  serious deliberations on alternatives of bargaining
     (the Boxes) need to be equitably defined so that     power.
     they do not look biased. Here also the provisions         The second level suggestion to India was in the
     of the WTO need revision.                            area of preparedness for the WTO regime. India
          To fight out this typical challenge, experts    was required to set new and internationally best
     suggested that the WTO is not God-given. Its         standards in the area of production by boosting
     provisions may go in for change if concerted         areas such as—research and development,
     efforts are made by the member countries in this     biotechnology, information technology, health
     direction. Like-minded nations who face the
                                                          and phytosanitary matters. This will make Indian
     same kind of crises should come together and go
                                                          goods and services compete in the international
     for a joint effort, from inside the WTO, for the
                                                          market.64
     revisions or relaxations in its provisions. Morality
     related and ethical issues might be used as eye-
     openers and a handy tool to have the attention of       wto And AGrIculturAl suBsIdIes65
     the developed nations and the WTO alike.                Ams
          Prima facie this suggestion looked as a preach
                                                          The subsidies provided by the government to the
     easier said than done. Post-1995 saw a polarisation
                                                          agricultural sector (i.e., domestic support) is termed
     of like-minded countries inside the WTO that
                                                          by the WTO as Aggregate Measure of Support
     finally culminated into failure of the Seatle Round
     of the WTO deliberations. The most powerful          (AMS).66 It is calculated in terms of product and
     country in the world failed to convene a meeting     input subsidies. The WTO argues that the product
     that too in its most distant region (the Alaska)—a   subsidies like minimum support prices and input
     moral triumph of the poor over the rich. This        subsidies (non-product) like credit, fertilizers,
     incidence while indicating a possible failure of the irrigation and power will cut production cost of
     WTO itself, boosted the morale of the developing     farming and will give undue advantage to such
     countries to go for stronger groupings and even      countries in their access to the world market—
     sub-groupings under the WTO.                         such subsidies are called to cause ‘distortions’ to
          After the Doha Round the USA had hinted to      the world trade. Such subsidies are not permitted
     forget multilateralism and indicated its intentions  in one sense as they have a minimum permissible
     towards bilateralism. The European Union             limit de minimis under the provisions which is 5
     had the same intentions, but it did not show it      per cent and 10 per cent of their total agricultural
     as openly as the USA. The year 2002 came as a        output in the case of developed and developing
     watershed period for the WTO when the EU             countries, respectively.
     in its new diplomatic move announced to hear
     the agriculture-related issues of the developing       64.    Because even the agriculture related provisions are
     nations. The USA announced the intentions                     modified the global market will always run after
                                                                   the agri-products which are the best—pricewise,
     few days after the EU announcement—just few                   qualitywise, etc.
     days before the Cancun Meet of the WTO. The            65.    A simplified and easy to understand analysis done
     Hongkong deliberation of the WTO, though it                   on the basis of the documents of the Information
     did not give anything concrete to the developing              and Media Relations Division of the World Trade
                                                                   Organisation Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland,
     world, provided enough hope, there is no doubt                October, 2007.
     in it. The real picture emerges in the next meet       66.      efined in Article 1 and Annexures 3 & 4, Agreement
     for which the different pressure groups had                   on Agriculture (AoA), WTO, 1994.