ri    lt re and ood         ana ement            8.41
               (c) Modifying crop management practices;   is no exception to it, better say it has been among
                   improving water management;            the few countries in the world spear-heading the
              (d) Adopting new farm practices such as     campaign against the biased provisions of the
                   resource-conserving technologies;      WTO concerning agriculture.
               (e) Crop diversification; improving pest        India was skeptical about the issue even before
                   management;                            joining the organisation, but once it became a part
               (f) Making available timely weather-       of it, it started assessing the situation objectively
                   based advisories;                      and moved towards crisis mitigation. Globalisation
                                                          as such opened unlimited prospects for the
              (g) Crop insurance; and harnessing the
                                                          economies, but at the same time brought several
                   indigenous technical knowledge of
                                                          challenges too. Yes, the challenges were different
                   farmers.
                                                          in nature for the developed and the developing
          The Indian Council of Agricultural Research     countries. We need to enquire the prospects and
     has initiated a scheme on National Initiative        the challenges brought by the WTO for Indian
     on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA). The        agriculture.
     initiative has been planned as a multi-disciplinary,      Had the agriculture of the leading and
     multi-institutional effort covering crops, livestock politically vocal developing economies not be of
     and fisheries, and focusing mainly on adaptation     subsistence level, the course of the world would
     and mitigation of climate change in agriculture.     have been completely different. It is the biggest
     It also has a component for demonstration of         hurdle in the process of globalisation and the success
     climate-coping technologies on farmers’ fields       of the World Trade Organization. Yes, the process
     in 100 most vulnerable districts. State-of-the-      of converting the sector into an industry has already
     art infrastructure is being set up at key research   started in most of the leading developing economies
     institutes to undertake frontier research on climate amidst tough resistance from the farmers, political
     change adaptation and mitigation.                    parties and the NGOs alike.
        wto And tHe IndIAn AGrIculture:                   the ProsPects
        ProsPects And cHAllenGes                          The oldest and the first document regarding the
                                                          impact of the implementation of the provisions
     With the operationalisation of the provisions        of the WTO, Uruguay Round (1995–2005)
     of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the           was prepared jointly by the World Bank, the
     process of globalisation commenced in the major      GATT54 and the OECD55. According to the joint
     parts of the world—the non-member countries,
     in the coming few years, also started negotiating      54.    General Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT) was
                                                                   a multi-lateral arrangement (not an organisation like
     for entry into the club. There has always been                WTO whose deliberations are binding on the member
     an air of confusion among the members and the                 countries) promoting multi-lateral world trade. Now the
     non-members of the WTO in assessing the pros                  GATT has been replaced by the WTO (since January.
                                                                   1995).
     and cons of globalisation on the health of their
                                                            55.    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
     economies. The sector which has created the                   Development (OECD) was set up as a world body of the
     highest number of deliberations in the WTO                    developed economies from the Euro-American region,
     as well as views and counterviews has been                    which today includes countries from Asia, too (such as
                                                                    apan and South orea . he first idea of glo alisation
     agriculture—an area of utmost concern for the                 was proposed by the OECD in the early 1980s at one
     developed and the developing worlds alike. India              of its Annual Meet (at Brussels).