ri    lt re and ood      ana ement          8.35
                 cent in last two decades(Economic Survey          accounts for 20 to 25 per cent of productivity.42
                 2014–15).                                         Thus, the adoption of quality seeds needs
         (iii) Tractor penetration in the country is 38            promotion in India. There are multiple challenges
                 per cent for large farmers (with more             to the development and adoption of quality seeds
                 than 20 acres), 18 per cent for medium            in the form of –
                 farmers (5–20 acres) and just around 1                  (i) Inadequate        research       inputs     for
                 per cent for marginal farmers.40                             development of new seeds especially,
         (iv) The economic benefit of adoption of                       (ii) Early ripening and resistant (to pest,
                 improved implements is about Rs.                             moisture variations, etc.) varieties,
                 83,000 crore per annum, which is only                (iii) High cost of seeds for small and marginal
                 a small fraction of the potential (NITI                      farmers,
                 Aayog, 2016).
                                                                       (iv) Shortage of supply of quality seeds,
         (iv) Farm mechanisation has resulted in
                                                                        (v) Non-resolution of issues related to
                 generating employment to rural youth
                                                                              adoption of Genetically Modified Seeds,
                 and artisans for the production, operation,
                                                                              and
                 and maintenance of machines (Economic
                 Survey 2013-14.                                       (vi) Inadequate number of players restricting
                                                                              competition.
             Two important and contemporary policy
     suggestions41 may be given in this regard:                          The issues43 that require immediate attention
                                                                   are:
           (i) Due to increased fragmentation of
                 landholdings and low rates of tractor                   (i) Affordability: Open pollinated varieties of
                 penetration among small farmers, there is                    seeds can be developed by farmers from
                 need for a market in tractor rentals, akin                   their own harvested crops. However, for
                 to cars and road construction equipment,                     high-yielding hybrid varieties, the farmer
                 driven by private participation.                             has to depend on the market for each
                                                                              crop which gets very costly for the small
          (ii) Appropriate farm equipment which
                                                                              and marginal farmers.
                 are durable, light weight and low cost,
                                                                        (ii) Availability: Quality seeds have shortage
                 region, crop and operation specific using
                                                                              in supply. While there is a demand for
                 indigenous/adapted technologies need to
                                                                              banning non-certified seeds, certification
                 be made available for small and marginal
                                                                              per-se does not ensure quality seeds.
                 farmers to improve productivity.
                                                                              Presence of more players (both public and
                                                                              private) and competition in the market
        seed develoPment                                                      for seeds would improve this situation.
     Seed is the basic input for increasing productivity              (iii) Research and Development of Seeds and Seed
     in agriculture. It is estimated that the quality of seed                 technology: The first Green Revolution
       40.    Agricultural Machinery and Manufacturers Association   42.    As per the DAC&FW (Department of Agriculture,
              in India (AMMAI) was quoted in the Economic Survey            Cooperation & Farmers Welfare) – as quoted by the
              2015-16, op. cit., Vol. 2, p. 105.                            Economic Survey 2015-16, Vol. 2, p. 105.
       41.    Ministry of Finance, Economic Survey 2015–16,          43.    Ministry of Finance, Economic Survey 2015–16,
              p. 105.                                                       pp. 105-107.