ri    lt re and ood         ana ement          8.33
               existing systems, has been the main part    states. There is need and scope for increasing the
               of the strategy for increasing production   coverage of irrigated area across the country to
               of foodgrains.                              increase productivity in agriculture. The total UIP
           With a view to ensuring early completion of     (Ultimate Irrigation Potential) of India is about
     projects for providing irrigation benefits to the     140 million hectares (Mha). There is substantial
     farmers, Rural Infrastructure Development Fund        gap between IPC (Irrigation Potential Created)
     (RIDF) has been in operation since 1995–96. The       and IPU (Irrigation Potential Utilized). There
     government launched the Accelerated Irrigation        is perceptible decline in the ratio of IPU to IPC
     Benefits Programme (AIBP) in 1996–97 to give          mainly due to:
     loan assistance to the states to help them complete         (i) lack of proper operation and maintenance,
     some of the incomplete major/medium irrigation             (ii) incomplete distribution system,
     projects, which were in an advanced stage of              (iii) non-completion of command area
     completion.                                                       development,
           There is need to expand the acreage under           (iv) changes in cropping pattern, and
     irrigation along with adoption of appropriate
                                                                (v) diversion of irrigated land for other
     technologies for efficient utilisation of water
     through suitable pricing to raise agricultural
     productivity in India. This could be done                   There is need to arrest the declining trend
     through– (i) Adoption of irrigation technologies      in efficient utilization of irrigation potential and
     which improve efficiency in the use of water is       also reverse it. A larger share of funds available
     imperative in a scenario where flood irrigation       under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
     has resulted in wastage of water. (ii) Focus on       Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)
     efficient irrigation technologies is important with   and other employment generating schemes need
     increasing water shortages owing to climate change    to be deployed for promotion of irrigation—for
     and indiscriminate wastage of water in agriculture    creation and maintenance of community assets,
     and other uses.                                       de-silting and repair of tanks and other water bodies.
           Having ‘more crop per drop’ through efficient
                                                           irrigAtion efficiency
     irrigation technologies should be the motto to
     improve productivity in agriculture which can         Agricultural productivity can be boosted in a
     ensure food and water security in the future.         big way by enhancing irrigation efficiency in
                                                           the use of irrigation systems. Over the time, the
     irrigAtion PotentiAl & use                            conventional systems of irrigation have become
                                                           non-viable in many parts of India®38 due to:
     As per the latest available data37 on irrigation, the
     all India percentage distribution of net irrigated          (i) increasing shortages of water,
     area to total cropped area during 2012–13 was              (ii) wastage of water through over irrigation,
     33.9 per cent. There is regional disparity in                     and
     irrigated farming, with net irrigated area to total       (iii) concerns of salination of soil.
     cropped area at more than 50 per cent in the                   Economically and technically efficient
     states of Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh,       irrigation technologies like – drip and sprinkler
     while it is at less than 50 per cent in the remaining
                                                             38.    NITI Aayog, Task Force on Agriculture, 2015, as quoted
       37.   Ministry of Finance, Economic Survey 2015–16,          Ministry of Finance, Economic Survey 2015–16, Vol. 2,
             Vol. 2, P. 103.                                        p. 104.