8.12           ndian       onom
     2. The Chemical Fertilizers                                       6. Credit, Storage, Marketing/Distribution
     The seeds were to increase productivity provided                  For farmers to be capable of using the new and the
     they got sufficient level of nutrients from the land.             costlier inputs of the Green Revolution, availability
     The level of nutrients they required could not be                 of easy and cheaper credit was a must. As the
                                                                       farmlands suitable for this new kind of farming
     supplied with the traditional compostes because
                                                                       was region-specific (as it was only Haryana, Punjab
     they have low concentration of nutrients content
                                                                       and western Uttar Pradesh in India) storage of the
     and required bigger area while sowing—it meant                    harvested crops was to be done in the region itself
     it will be shared by more than one seed. That is                  till they were distributed throughout the country.
     why a high concentration fertilisers, were required,              Again, the countries which went for the Green
     which could be given to the targeted seed only—                   Revolution were food-deficient and needed the
     the only option was the chemical fertilisers—urea                 new yield to be distributed throughout the country
     (N), phosphate (P) and potash (K).20                              and a proper chain of marketing, distribution and
                                                                       transport connectivity was necessary. All these
     3. The Irrigation                                                 peripheral infrastructure were developed by the
                                                                       countries going for the Green Revolution with
     For controlled growth of crops and adequate                       softer loans coming from the World Bank—India
     dilution of fertilizers, a controlled means of water              being the biggest beneficiary.22
     supply was required. It made two important
     compulsions—firstly, the area of such crops                       imPAct of the green revolution
     should be at least free of flooding and secondly,                 The Green Revolution had its positive as well as
     artificial water supply should be developed.21                    negative socio-economic and ecological impacts
                                                                       on the countries around the world, we will
     4. Chemical Pesticides and Germicides                             specially study India here.
     As the new seeds were new and non-acclimatised                    1. Socio-economic Impact
     to local pests, germs and diseases than the
                                                                       Food production increased in such a way (wheat
     established indigenous varieties, use of pesticides
                                                                       in 1960s and rice, by 1970s) that many countries
     and germicides became compulsory for result-
                                                                       became self-sufficient (self sufficiency of food must
     oriented and secured yields.                                      not be confused with the idea of food security) and
                                                                       some even emerged as food exporting countries.
     5. Chemical Herbicides and Weedicides
                                                                             But the discrepancy in farmers’ income, it
     To prevent costlier inputs of fertilisers not being               brought with itself increased the inter-personal
     consumed by the herbs and the weeds in the                        as well as inter-regional disparities/inequalities in
     farmlands, herbicides and weedicides were used                    India.23 Rise in the incidence of malaria due to
     while sowing the HYV seeds.                                       water-logging, a swing in the balanced cropping
                                                                       patterns in favour of wheat and rice putting pulses,
       20.   This made it compulsory to use highly concentrate
             chemical fertilizers, pushing the traditional organic       22.   Publication Division, India 2002 (New Delhi;
             fertilizers (i.e., composte) out of fashion.                      Government of India, 2013).
       21.     his was the reason why the      was implemented firstly   23.   See Various volumes of the Economic Surveys,
             in the rainfall deficient regions of ndia, i.e., Haryana,         specially 1985–86 to 1994–86 to 1994–95, published
             Punjab and western Uttar Pradesh.                                 by the Government of India.