ri    lt re and ood       ana ement       8.11
               10.92 per cent in the total operated area,
               as against 0.85 per cent and 11.82 per
                                                              Green revolutIon
               cent respectively for 2005–06 Census.       It is the introduction of new techniques of
         (vii) Share of different social groups in         agriculture, which became popular by the name
               operational holdings stands as: 12.40 per   of Green Revolution (GR) in early 1960s—at
               cent for SCs, 8.71 per cent for STs, 0.18   first for wheat and by the next decade for rice,
               per cent for institutional and 78.72 per    too. It revolutionised the very traditional idea of
               cent for others.                            food production by giving a boost by more than
        (viii) In a total of 137.76 million operational    250 per cent to the productivity level.18 The Green
               holdings in the country, the highest        Revolution was centred around the use of the High
               number belonged to Uttar Pradesh            Yielding Variety (HYV) of seeds developed by the
               (22.93 million) followed by Bihar           US agro-scientist Norman Borlaug doing research
               (16.19 million) and Maharashtra (13.70      on a British Rockfellor Foundation Scholarship in
               million).                                   Mexico by the early 1960s. The new wheat seeds
                                                           which he developed in vivo claimed to increase its
          (ix) Out of a total of 159.18 million hectares
                                                           productivity by more than 200 per cent. By 1965,
               of the operated area in the country,
                                                           the seeds were successfully tested and were being
               the highest contribution was made by
                                                           used by farmers in food deficient countries such as
               Rajasthan (21.14 million ha) followed
                                                           Mexico, Taiwan.
               by Maharashtra (19.84 million ha) and
               Uttar Pradesh (17.09 million ha).           comPonents of the green revolution
           Agricultural holdings have been classified into
                                                           The Green Revolution was based on the timely
     three categories:
                                                           and adequate supply of many inputs/components.
     1. Economic Holding                                   A brief review on the Green Revolution is given
                                                           below:
     It is that holding which ensures a minimum
     satisfactory standard of living in a family. In other 1. The HYV Seeds
     words, economic holding is a minimum essential
                                                           These seeds were popularly called the ‘dwarf’
     area for profitable agriculture.
                                                           variety of seeds. With the help of repeated
     2. Family Holding                                     mutations, Mr. Borlaug had been able to develop
                                                           a seed which was raised in its nature of nutrients
     Family holding is that holding which gives work       supplied to the different parts of the wheat plant—
     to an average size family having one plough under     against the leaves, stem and in favour of the grain.
     the traditional farming system. In other words,       This made the plant dwarf and the grain heavier—
     family holding is a ‘plough unit’ which is neither    resulting in high yield.19
     less nor more for an average size family to cultivate
                                                                 These seeds were non-photosynthetic, hence
     it properly.
                                                           non-dependent on sun rays for targeted yields.
     3. Optimum Holding                                      18.    Consultative Group on International Agricultural
                                                                    Research (CGIAR), World Bank, Washington DC,
     Maximum size of the holding which must be                      1971.
     possessed and owned by a family is called optimum       19.    International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre
     holding.                                                       (CIMMYT), Mexico, 1971.