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Kerala PSC Indian Economy Book Study Materials Page 205Book's First Page
ri lt re and ood ana ement 8.11 10.92 per cent in the total operated area, as against 0.85 per cent and 11.82 per Green revolutIon cent respectively for 2005–06 Census. It is the introduction of new techniques of (vii) Share of different social groups in agriculture, which became popular by the name operational holdings stands as: 12.40 per of Green Revolution (GR) in early 1960s—at cent for SCs, 8.71 per cent for STs, 0.18 first for wheat and by the next decade for rice, per cent for institutional and 78.72 per too. It revolutionised the very traditional idea of cent for others. food production by giving a boost by more than (viii) In a total of 137.76 million operational 250 per cent to the productivity level.18 The Green holdings in the country, the highest Revolution was centred around the use of the High number belonged to Uttar Pradesh Yielding Variety (HYV) of seeds developed by the (22.93 million) followed by Bihar US agro-scientist Norman Borlaug doing research (16.19 million) and Maharashtra (13.70 on a British Rockfellor Foundation Scholarship in million). Mexico by the early 1960s. The new wheat seeds which he developed in vivo claimed to increase its (ix) Out of a total of 159.18 million hectares productivity by more than 200 per cent. By 1965, of the operated area in the country, the seeds were successfully tested and were being the highest contribution was made by used by farmers in food deficient countries such as Rajasthan (21.14 million ha) followed Mexico, Taiwan. by Maharashtra (19.84 million ha) and Uttar Pradesh (17.09 million ha). comPonents of the green revolution Agricultural holdings have been classified into The Green Revolution was based on the timely three categories: and adequate supply of many inputs/components. 1. Economic Holding A brief review on the Green Revolution is given below: It is that holding which ensures a minimum satisfactory standard of living in a family. In other 1. The HYV Seeds words, economic holding is a minimum essential These seeds were popularly called the ‘dwarf’ area for profitable agriculture. variety of seeds. With the help of repeated 2. Family Holding mutations, Mr. Borlaug had been able to develop a seed which was raised in its nature of nutrients Family holding is that holding which gives work supplied to the different parts of the wheat plant— to an average size family having one plough under against the leaves, stem and in favour of the grain. the traditional farming system. In other words, This made the plant dwarf and the grain heavier— family holding is a ‘plough unit’ which is neither resulting in high yield.19 less nor more for an average size family to cultivate These seeds were non-photosynthetic, hence it properly. non-dependent on sun rays for targeted yields. 3. Optimum Holding 18. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), World Bank, Washington DC, Maximum size of the holding which must be 1971. possessed and owned by a family is called optimum 19. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre holding. (CIMMYT), Mexico, 1971.