ri    lt re and ood         ana ement             8.7
     1. Abolition of Intermediaries                        as the most complex socio-economic problem of
                                                           human history.15 Data regarding the numerical
     Under this step, the age-old exploitative land
                                                           achievements of land reforms have been highly
     tenure systems of the Zamindari, Mahalwari and
     Ryotwari were fully abolished.                        discouraging.16
                                                                 (i) Tenancy reforms provided tenants with
     2. Tenancy Reforms                                                rights, but only on 4 per cent of the
     Under this broader step, three inter-related                      total operated areas in the country (14.4
     reforms protecting the land-tenants were effected:                million hectares of operated area by 11
                                                                       million tenants by 1992).
           (i) Regulation of rent so that a fixed and
               rational rate of rent could be paid by the      (ii) Redistribution of ownership rights of
               share-croppers to the land owners;                      land took place, but only upto 2 per cent
                                                                       of the total operated area in the country
          (ii) Security of tenure so that a share-cropper
                                                                       (less than 2 million hectares among the
               could feel secure about his future income
                                                                       4.76 million people by 1992).
               and his economic security; and
                                                              (iii) Taken together, the whole process of
         (iii) Ownership rights to tenants so that the
                                                                       land reforms could benefit only 6 per
               landless masses (i.e., the tenants, the
                                                                       cent of the operated area of the country
               share-croppers) could get the final rights
               for the land they plough—“land to the                   with a negligible socio-economic positive
               tillers”.                                               impact.
                                                                It was the failure of land reforms which
     3. Reorganisation of Agriculture                      made the government easily attracted towards
     This step again has many inter-related and highly     the new policy of the Green Revolution in the
     logical provisions in the direction of rational       coming times—land reforms had failed to increase
     agrarian reforms:                                     agricultural production, thus the government
                                                           opted for the route of increasing, productivity
           (i) Redistribution of land among the landless
                                                           to reach the same goal, i.e., initiation of new
               poor masses after promulgating timely
                                                           techniques of agriculture.
               ceiling laws—the move failed badly with
               few exceptions, such as West Bengal,
                                                           reAsons for fAilure of lAnD reforms
               Kerala and partially in Andhra Pradesh.
          (ii) Consolidation of land could only succeed    Out of the many reasons forwarded by the experts
               in the regions of the Green Revolution      responsible for the failure of the land reforms in
               (i.e., Haryana, Punjab and western Uttar    India, the following three could be considered the
               Pradesh) and remained marred with           most important ones:
               many loopholes and corruption.                    (i) Land in India is considered a symbol of
         (iii) Cooperative farming, which has a high                   social prestige, status and identity unlike
               socio-economic moral base, was only                     the other economies which succeeded in
               used by the big farmers to save their lands   15.    This was the view of the majority of experts around the
               from the draconian ceiling laws.                     world by the late 1960s.
           The whole attempt of land reforms in India        16.    P.S. Appu, Land Reforms in India: A Survey of Policy,
                                                                    Legislation and Implementation, (Mussouri: Land
     is considered a big failure by majority of experts.            Reforms Unit, Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy
     Many consider the issue of land reforms in India               of Administration, 1995), pp. 232–33.