5.30         ndian   onom
               Now the funds can be allocated by a MP        seconD strAtA: stAte-level PlAnning
               outside of Constituency/State/UTs, too.
                                                             By the 1960s, the states were planning at the state
               It can converge with the other approved       level with their respective planning bodies, the
               Central (like MGNAREGA) and State             state Planning Boards with the respective CMs
               Government schemes.                           being their de-facto Chairman. The plans of the
               Funds from local bodies can be pooled         states were for a term of five years and parallel to
               with MPLADS works.                            the concerned Five Year Plans of the Centre.
               Public and community contribution is
               made permissible in the scheme.               thirD strAtA: District-level PlAnning
               ‘One MP–One Idea’, an annual                  By the late 1960s all the districts of the states
               competition for best innovation in solving    were having their own plans with their respective
               local problems.                               District Planning Boards89 with the respective
               A     proper    mechanism        for      its District Magistrate being the de-facto chairman.
               implementation and auditing have also         The district-level plans are implemented now via
               been put in place.                            municipalities or corporations in the urban areas
          To provide MPs a greater choice under the          and the panchayats via the blocks in the rural
     scheme, the list of indicative and illustrative shelf   areas.
     of projects has been expanded touching the fields
     of infrastructure development, drinking water,          fourth strAtA: block-level PlAnning
     education, roads, health, sanitation, natural           As a part of the district-level planning the block
     calamity, etc. The scheme has been given more           level planning came up which had the District
     dynamism and flexibility.                               Planning Boards as their nodal body. Below the
                                                             blocks, India developed the planning at the local
        MuLtI-LEVEL pLAnnInG                                 level, too.
     It was by the late 1950s and early 1960s that the
     states demanded the right to plan at the state
                                                             fifth strAtA: locAl level PlAnning
     level. By the mid-1960s, the states were given          By the early 1980s, plans were being implemented
     the power to plan by the Centre, advising them          at the local level via the blocks and had the District
     that they should promote planning at the lower          Planning Boards (DPBs) as the nodal agency.
     levels of the administrative strata, too, i.e., at the  Due to socio-economic differentiations among
     district level planning—via the municipalities and      the population, local-level planning in India
     corporations in the urban areas and via block level     developed with its three variants,90 namely:
     through panchayats and the tribal boards. By the
                                                               89.   After the implementation of the 74th Constitutional
     early 1980s, India was a country of multi-level                 Amendments they have become the District Planning
     planning (MLP) with the structure and strata of                 Committees (DPCs).
     planning as follows:                                      90.   While people in some areas have socio-cultural
                                                                     similarities (as in the hill areas with no tribal population
                                                                     and the people living in the plains, i.e., villages) they
     first strAtA: centre-level PlAnning                             lack economic similarities. Similarly, while people
     At this level three types of Central Plans had                  living in the tribal areas and the hill areas have economic
                                                                     similarities they lack socio-cultural similarities. That is
     evolved over the years—the Five Year Plans, the                 why all these three habitations had three sets of planning
     Twenty-Point Programme and the MPLADS.                          patterns.