5.12         ndian      onom
     the objectives, we may confidently conclude that               level, there was a need for a permanent expert
     all the aspirations of the Preamble,38 the Directive           body which could take over the responsibility of
     Principles of the State Policy,39 the Fundamental              the whole gamut of planning, i.e., plan formation,
     Duties and the Fundamental Rights have got                     resource aspects, implementation and review—as
     their due place and weightage. All the aspirations             planning is a technical42 matter. Thus, in March
     of the nationalists and the freedom fighters look              195043 the Planning Commission (PC) was set
     resonating in the very soul of the Indian planning             up by the government by a Cabinet Resolution
     system.                                                        (without resorting to legislation). Important
          The above-given objectives of planning got                details regarding the composition, legal status,
     abolished with the Planning Commission. Under                  etc., of the PC were as under:
     the new body—NITI Aayog—a holistic and                               (i) An extra-constitutional (i.e., non-
     federal objectives of planning have been set by the                        constitutional) and non-statutory body
     GoI (they have been discussed under the sub-title,                         (though planning originates from the
     NITI Aayog at the end of this Chapter).                                    Constitution there is no reference to the
                                                                                PC in it).
        pLAnnInG coMMISSIon
                                                                        (ii) An advisory body to the Government of
     Once the National Planning Committee published                             India on an array of issues of economic
     its Report (1949), there was a firm inclusion of                           development.
     the need for ‘Economic and Social Planning’40 in                  (iii) A ‘think tank’ on economic development
     the Constitution, the stage was set for the formal                         with the Prime Minister as its ex-officio
     launching of planning in the country. Though the                           Chairman and with the provision or a
     economy was run on the principles of planning                              Deputy Chairman.44 The main function
     very much after the Independence itself41 it was                           of the Deputy Chairman was to co-
     in a piecemeal manner only. For formal planning                            ordinate the work of the Commission.45
     to begin, for the whole economy at the national
                                                                       (iv) Had an open provision for the number
       38.  The Preamble was declared by the Supreme Court                      of its membership (as many area experts
            as an integral part of the Constitution and any                     are required by the particular proposed
            amendments amounting to a change in its meaning and
            spirit amounted to the violation of the ‘basic feature’             period of planning) other than six
            of the Constitution (Keshvanand Barti, 1973 and S.R.                Union Cabinet Ministers as its ex-officio
            Bommai, 1994 cases). This further magnified the                     members46 and a Member Secretary. The
            objectives and role of Planning in India.
       39.  As the different Articles of the Directive Principles     42.    Alan W. evans, ‘Economic and Planning’, in Jean
            got interpreted as being complementary parts of                  Forbes (ed.), Studies in Social Science and Planning
            the Fundamental Rights, their enforcement became                 (Edinburgh: Scottish Academy Press, 972), p. 121.
            obligatory for the Government in coming times, still      43.    I. Publications Division, The Gazetter of India, p. 10.
            broadening the objectives of planning in the country.
                                                                             II. S.R. Maheshwari (Indian Administration New
       40.  Distribution of Legislative Power, List-III, Entry 20.                Delhi: Orient Longman, 2002, p. 121).
       41.    hough formal planning commenced in the fiscal                  III. (‘The Indian Economy Since Independence’, p. 949).
            52, planning has already commenced with the Industrial
                                                                      44.    The post of Deputy Chairman was later given a Cabinet
            Policy Resolution, 1948. More so, the Prime Minister
                                                                             rank in the Union Council of Minister.
            of ndia who headed the       C had already ta en firm
            decision that India would be a planned economy by         45.    Publications Division, Gazetteer of India, p. 11.
            August 1937 (Congress Working Committee, Wardha).         46.    Publications Division, India 2008 (New Delhi: Ministry
              hus, the economy ta es its first win in the planned            of Information and Broadcasting, Govrnment of India,
            era!                                                             2009), p. 676.