5.12 ndian onom
the objectives, we may confidently conclude that level, there was a need for a permanent expert
all the aspirations of the Preamble,38 the Directive body which could take over the responsibility of
Principles of the State Policy,39 the Fundamental the whole gamut of planning, i.e., plan formation,
Duties and the Fundamental Rights have got resource aspects, implementation and review—as
their due place and weightage. All the aspirations planning is a technical42 matter. Thus, in March
of the nationalists and the freedom fighters look 195043 the Planning Commission (PC) was set
resonating in the very soul of the Indian planning up by the government by a Cabinet Resolution
system. (without resorting to legislation). Important
The above-given objectives of planning got details regarding the composition, legal status,
abolished with the Planning Commission. Under etc., of the PC were as under:
the new body—NITI Aayog—a holistic and (i) An extra-constitutional (i.e., non-
federal objectives of planning have been set by the constitutional) and non-statutory body
GoI (they have been discussed under the sub-title, (though planning originates from the
NITI Aayog at the end of this Chapter). Constitution there is no reference to the
PC in it).
(ii) An advisory body to the Government of
Once the National Planning Committee published India on an array of issues of economic
its Report (1949), there was a firm inclusion of development.
the need for ‘Economic and Social Planning’40 in (iii) A ‘think tank’ on economic development
the Constitution, the stage was set for the formal with the Prime Minister as its ex-officio
launching of planning in the country. Though the Chairman and with the provision or a
economy was run on the principles of planning Deputy Chairman.44 The main function
very much after the Independence itself41 it was of the Deputy Chairman was to co-
in a piecemeal manner only. For formal planning ordinate the work of the Commission.45
to begin, for the whole economy at the national
(iv) Had an open provision for the number
38. The Preamble was declared by the Supreme Court of its membership (as many area experts
as an integral part of the Constitution and any are required by the particular proposed
amendments amounting to a change in its meaning and
spirit amounted to the violation of the ‘basic feature’ period of planning) other than six
of the Constitution (Keshvanand Barti, 1973 and S.R. Union Cabinet Ministers as its ex-officio
Bommai, 1994 cases). This further magnified the members46 and a Member Secretary. The
objectives and role of Planning in India.
39. As the different Articles of the Directive Principles 42. Alan W. evans, ‘Economic and Planning’, in Jean
got interpreted as being complementary parts of Forbes (ed.), Studies in Social Science and Planning
the Fundamental Rights, their enforcement became (Edinburgh: Scottish Academy Press, 972), p. 121.
obligatory for the Government in coming times, still 43. I. Publications Division, The Gazetter of India, p. 10.
broadening the objectives of planning in the country.
II. S.R. Maheshwari (Indian Administration New
40. Distribution of Legislative Power, List-III, Entry 20. Delhi: Orient Longman, 2002, p. 121).
41. hough formal planning commenced in the fiscal III. (‘The Indian Economy Since Independence’, p. 949).
52, planning has already commenced with the Industrial
44. The post of Deputy Chairman was later given a Cabinet
Policy Resolution, 1948. More so, the Prime Minister
rank in the Union Council of Minister.
of ndia who headed the C had already ta en firm
decision that India would be a planned economy by 45. Publications Division, Gazetteer of India, p. 11.
August 1937 (Congress Working Committee, Wardha). 46. Publications Division, India 2008 (New Delhi: Ministry
hus, the economy ta es its first win in the planned of Information and Broadcasting, Govrnment of India,
era! 2009), p. 676.