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Kerala PSC Indian Economy Book Study Materials Page 93Book's First Page
lannin in ndia 5.7 and almost no dependence on foreign capital and some AreA-Wise rePorts technology, land reforms, self-dependent villages The idea for the need of a planned development and decentralised participatory form of planning of India became more and more popular by the and economic progress, to name the major ones.25 decade of the 1940s. It was under this popular Some of the acceptable ideas of the plan got their pressure that the Government of India started due importance when the Government of India taking some planned actions in this direction. promoted five year plans. In the 1940s, we see several area-specific reports By the early 1960s, Jayaprakash Narayan had being published:28 become highly critical of the Indian planning (i) Gadgil Report on Rural Credit process, especially of its increasing centralising nature and dilution of people’s participation (ii) Kheragat Report on Agricultural in it. Basically, the very idea of democratic Development decentralisation was disliked by the established (iii) Krishnamachari Report on Agricultural power structure, namely, the MLAs/MPs, the Prices bureaucracy and the state-level politicians.26 This (iv) Saraiya Report on Cooperatives led the Jayaprakash Narayan Committee (1961) (v) A series of reports on Irrigation (ground to decide against the centralising nature of Indian water, canal, etc.) planning. The committee pointed out that after All these reports, though prepared with having accepted Panchayati Raj as the agency great care and due scholarship, the government responsible for planning and execution of plans, had hardly any zeal to implement the plans on there is “no longer any valid reason for continuing their findings. But independent India was greatly the individual allocations subjectwise even to serve benefited when the planning started covering all as a guide.”27 these areas of concern. Disregarding the humble advice of the There is no doubt in drawing the conclusion committee, central schemes like small farmers that prior to Independence, there was thus a development agency (SFDA), drought-prone area significant measure of agreement in India between programme (DPAP), intensive tribal development programme (ITDP), intensive agricultural district the Government of India under the Secretary of programme (IADP), etc., were introduced by State, the Indian National Congress, prominent the government and were put totally outside the industrialists and the others on the following purview of the Panchayats. principles:29 It was only after the 73rd and 74th (i) There should be central planning, in Amendments effected to the Constitution (1992) which the state should play an active part, that the role of local bodies and their importance in for social and economic development to the process of planned development was accepted bring about a rapid rise in the standard of and the views of Jayprakash got vindicated. living; (ii) There should be controls and licencing 25. A.H. Hanson, The Process of Planning, p. 175. in order, among other things, to direct 26. George Mathew, Power to the People, in M.K. Santhanam (ed.), 50 Years of Indian Republic (New investments into the desired channels and Delhi: Publications Division, Government of India, ensure equitable distribution; 200), p. 32. 27. L.C. Jain, et al., Grass without Roots (New Delhi: Sage 28. A. H. Hanson, The Process of Planning, p. 180. Publications, 1985). 29. Publications Division, The Gazatteir of India, p. 5.