onomi    lannin         4.9
     will not be of the desired level among the target         (ii) reducing social prejudices against girls,
     population. Establishing an empathic relationship        (iii) educating people about the health
     between the programmes/schemes and target                      externalities of open defecation, and
     population is now considered an important aspect          (v) encouraging citizens to keep public spaces
     of planning and policymaking. Such a change in                 clean.
     the thinking is based on the experiences of India          Today, governments all over the world have
     and other countries of the world.                     embarked on systematic ways of studying how
          In January 2015, the Government of India         to promote behavioural change. The importance
     replaced the erstwhile body, Planning Commission,     and need of behavioural change were highlighted
     by the NYTl Aayog (a policy think tank). If we        by the World Development Report 2015 (World
     look into the functions and guiding principles of     Bank), too. All such policy interventions are
     the new body we come to know that India has           examples of normative policymaking.
     officially moved towards normative planning—               Economic planning is classified into more
     the new body has to follow a development model        types—sectoral and spatial. In sectoral planning,
     which is ‘all round, all pervasive, all inclusive and the planners emphasise the specific sector of the
     holistic’. In this process the NITI Aayog has been    economy, i.e., agriculture, industry or the services.
     further asked to enable the country to draw on        In spatial planning development is seen in the
     the vitality and energy of the bedrock of our ethos,  spatial framework. The spatial dimensions of
     culture and sustenance.                               development might be defined by the pressure and
          The Economic Survey 2015–16 points out           requirements of national economic development.
     how the government has come to recognise the          Indian planning has been essentially single level with
     importance of influencing social norms in a wide      a greater reliance on the sectoral approach though
     variety of sectors, such as:                          the multi-level regional and normative dimensions
          (i) persuading the rich to give up subsidies     are being increasingly emphasised since the early
               they do not need,                           1990s.