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Kerala PSC Indian Economy Book Study Materials Page 81Book's First Page
onomi lannin 4.5 1. Regional Planning through the introduction of economic planning It was at the regional level that planning was used at the national level. The nature and scope of as a part of development policy by any country Soviet planning (called the Gosplan) will have its for the first time. It was the USA which started direct or indirect bearings on all those countries the first regional planning after the Tennessee which went for economic planning, be state or Valley Authority (TVA) was set up in 1916— capitalist or mixed economies. India was to have for a large-scale rehabilitation in south-eastern direct influence of Soviet planning on its planning USA covering parts of seven states. With the process. In the first Soviet Plan, heavy industries primary aim of flood control, soil conservation was favoured over light industry, and consumer and providing electricity, the TVA/the regional goods were the residual sector after all the other plan was also involved in many related activities priorities had been met. We see the same emphasis such as industrial development, forestry, wildlife in the Indian planning process.11 The Soviet conservation, town planning, construction of road model of economic planning spread to the East and rail, encouraging sound agricultural practices European countries, especially after World War II and malaria control in the defined region.9 The and found its purest form of such planning in the US experience of regional planning became People’s Republic of China (1949). During the such a success in realising its well-defined goals early 1940s, the concept of national planning was that it emerged as a role model and an object of borrowed by France and the world saw national inspiration for many countries around the world planning being initiated by a hitherto capitalist in the coming decades—the Damodar Valley economy as well as by a non-centralised political Corporation (DVC) in India (1948), the Volta system (i.e., democratic system). France started River Project in Ghana (1966), etc. economic planning at the national level after 2. National Planning announcing itself as a mixed economy. The official experiment in the area of national types of plannIng planning is rooted in the Bolshevik Revolution of Russia (1917)—the Soviet Union. Dissatisfied After the first national planning was started by the with the pace of industrialisation, it was in Soviet Union, many more countries followed it, 1928 that Joseph Stalin announced its policy but with variations in their methods and practices. of central planning for the Soviet Union. The Though there are many variants of planning the collectivisation of agriculture and forced-draft most important one is on the basis of the type industrialisation were other radical new policy of economic organisation (i.e., state economy, initiatives announced by Stalin besides economic mixed economy). During the course of evolution, planning in 1928.10 The Soviet Union went for its planning has been classified into two types, based first five year plan for the period 1928–33 and the world was to have its first experience of national 11. Rakesh Mohan ‘Industrial Policy and Controls’ in the Bimal Jalan (eds), The Indian Economy: Problems planning. The famous Soviet slogan “great leap and Prospects, Penguin Books, New Delhi, 2004., forward” was initiated for rapid industrialisation p. 101. Also see Bipan Chandra et. al., India After Independence, Penguin Books, New Delhi, 2000, 9. leong, G.C. and Morgan, G.C., Human and Economic pp. 341–42, as well as A. Vaidyanathan, ‘The Indian Geography, oxford University Press, oxford, 1982, Economy Since Independence (1947–70)’ in Dharma p. 145. kumar (ed.), The Cambridge Economic History of 10. Alec Nove, An Economic History of the USSR, 3rd India, Vol. II, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ed., Penguin Books, Baltimore, USA, 1990, p. 139. 1983, pp. 949–50.