4.4           ndian     onom
                to continue with their progress. Second is                        industrial planning, irrigation planning,
                the idea of the natural resources which are                       road planning, house planning, etc.
                available. Resources (i.e., natural as well                 Simply said, the art of achieving any kind
                as human) could be of indigenous origin              of goal by the use of the resources we have is the
                or exogenous. Most of the countries                  process of planning. We may cite a very general
                doing planning tried to utilise their                example—students of a class are able to join the
                indigenous resources, yet some tried to
                                                                     class at the right time coming from different places
                tap the exogenous resources too, taking
                                                                     of their stay. How they are able to do so? All of
                leverage of their diplomatic acumen.
                                                                     them must be planning their time in such a way
                For example, the first country going for
                                                                     that they are able to join the class at the same
                national planning, i.e., Soviet Union,
                leveraged resources available in the East            time though their places of residence are not at an
                European countries. India also used                  equal distance from the class. All might be having
                exogenous resources for her development              their own ways of time planning—some might be
                planning wherever it was necessary and               having bed-tea, some might not, some might be
                possible to tap.7                                    having breakfast at their place, yet others might
          By the 1950s, planning had emerged as a                    think to take their breakfast in the college canteen,
     method or tool of utilising resources to achieve                etc.
     any kind of goals for policymakers, around the                         It means that even if we are not consciously
     world:                                                          planning or have not announced it as yet, we are
          (i) Trying to achieve a particular size of                 always planning our days. Same is correct in the
                family for different countries came to be            case of countries. Many countries announced that
                known as family planning.                            they will be planned economies, yet some others
         (ii) The process of providing suitable physical             didn’t go for any such policy announcements. The
                and social infrastructure for the erstwhile          soviet Union, Poland, China, France, India are
                or the upcoming urban areas came to be               examples of the former category while the USA,
                known as town/urban planning.                        Canada, Mexico fall in the latter category.8 But
       (iii) A country trying to optimise the use                    here we are concerned with the conscious process
                of its revenues for different categories             of planning. There will be some methods, some
                of expenditures came to be known as                  tools and types of planning emerging through
                financial planning. Financial planning               time as different countries will start their processes
                is more popularly known as budgeting.                of planning.
                Every budget, be it of the government
                or of the private sector is nothing but an              orIgIn and expansIon of plannIng
                excercises in financial planning.
        (iv) Similarly, at the macro and micro                       Planning as a method of achieving faster economic
                levels, there might be any number of                 progress. It has been tried by different countries at
                planning processes—agricultural planning,            different times and at different levels. We may see
                                                                     them as under:
       7.    Many of the PSUs in the 1950s and the early 1960s
             were not only set up with natural resources (capital as      .      hough the SA was the first to go for planning, ut
             well as machines) from USSR, Germany, etc., but even              at the regional level (Tennessee Valley Authority,
             the human resource was also tapped from there for few             1916)—it never announced its intention for national
             years.                                                            planning.