vol tion o the ndian       onom        3.5
     an obvious and logical choice of agriculture (we               opinion regarding the agriculture sector.
     should not be happy to know that even today this               After the 1990s emphasis on this sector
     is a highly debatable issue among experts):                    by an economy was no more considered a
           (i) Looking at the resources available,                  sign of backwardness.
               agriculture would have been the obvious       (iii) The second World War has proved the
               choice as the prime moving force (PMF)               supremacy of defence power. For defence
               of the economy (i.e., cultivable land                a country needs not only the support
               and the humanpower). But as Indian                   of science and technology, but also an
               agriculture was using traditional tools              industrial base. India also required a
               and technology its modernisation as well             powerful defence base for herself as a
               as future mechanisation (later to some               deterrent force. By opting for industries
               extent) would have been blocked due to               as the prime moving force of the economy
               the lack of indigenous industrial support.           India tried to solve many challenges
               If India would have gone for import this             simultaneously—first, industry will
               would have required enough foreign                   give faster growth, second, agriculture
               reserves and a natural dependence on                 will be modernised in time and third
               foreign countries. By choosing industry              the economy will be able to develop its
               as the prime moving force, India opted               own defence against external threats .
               to industrialise the economy as well                 Since the economy had also opted for
               as modernise the traditional mode of                 scientific and technological preparedness,
               farming.                                             its achievements were to sustain the pace
          (ii) The dominant ideology around the                     of modernisation.
               world as well as in the WB and the IMF        (iv) Even before Independence, there was a
               was in favour of industrialisation as a              socio-economic consensus among social
               means to faster growth, which could be               scientists along with the nationalist
               translated into faster development. These            leaders, that India needed a boost towards
               international bodies were supporting the
                                                                    social change as the country lagged
               member countries from every point of
                                                                    behind in the areas of modernisation. A
               view to industrialise. Same was the case
                                                                    break from the traditional and outmoded
               with the developed economies. It was
                                                                    way of life and cultivation of a scientific
               possible not only to industrialise faster
                                                                    outlook was a must for the country. Such
               on these supports of the organisations
                                                                    feelings also made the political leadership
               but there was a hope for emerging as
                                                                    of the time go in favour of wholehearted
               an industrial exporter in the future. The
               same kind of support was not offered to
               an economy that opted for agriculture as       (v) By the time India got her independence
               the prime moving force. Basically, going             the might of industrialisation was
               for the agriculture sector was considered            already proven and there were no doubts
               a symbol of ‘backwardness’ at that time.             regarding its efficacy.
               The political leadership wanted to carry        Given above are some of the important reasons
               India ahead, and not in the backward       that worked to make Indian political leadership
               direction. It was only in the 1990s that   go in favour of industry as the economy’s prime
               the world and the WB/IMF changed its       moving force. Probably, the resource related and