3.4        ndian     onom
     Committee in 1938. Given the available resource          required by the emerging industries for a market
     base it seems an illogical decision as India lacked      success. The People’s Republic of China did the
     all those pre-requisites which could suggest the         same in 1949—taking a realistic evaluation of
     declaration of industry as its prime mover:              its resources, it declared agriculture as its prime
           (i) Almost no presence of infrastructure           moving force for the economy. The surplus
               sector, i.e., power, transportation and        generated out of agriculture was suitably invested
               communication.                                 to develop the pre-requisites for industrialisation
          (ii) Negligible presence of the infrastructure      and the country went for it in the 1970s.
               industries, i.e., iron and steel, cement,            The emergence of industrial China was so
               coal, crude oil, oil refining and electricity. vibrant that its impact was felt in the so-called
                                                              highly developed and industrialised economies
         (iii) Lack of investible capital—either by the
                                                              of the world—the industrial homework of China
               government or the private sector.
                                                              catapulted it into a giant.
         (iv) Absence of required technology to
                                                                    Was the political leadership of independent
               support the process of industrialisation
                                                              India not able to analyse the realities as we did
               and no research and development.
                                                              above and conclude that agriculture should have
          (v) Lack of skilled manpower.                       been the moving force of the economy in place
         (vi) Absence of entrepreneurship among the           of industry? Is it possible that Pandit Nehru in
               people.                                        command could have missed the rational analysis
        (vii) Absence of a market for industrial goods.       of the Indian realities, a giant among the Asian
       (viii) Many other socio-psychological factors          visionaries of the time (Mao was still to emerge
               which acted as negative forces for the         on the international scene)? How India could
               proper industrialisation of the economy.       have not opted for agriculture as its prime
           The obvious choice for India would have been       moving force whose leadership had fought the
     the agriculture sector as the prime moving force of      nationalist movement on the Gandhian fervour
     the economy because:                                     of villages, agriculture and rural development.
                                                              Even if Gandhi was not in the government there
           (i) The country was having the natural
                                                              were many devout Gandhians in it and no one
               resource of fertile land which was fit for
                                                              should doubt that the main internal force which
               cultivation.
                                                              vibrated throughout the governmental decisions
          (ii) Human capital did not require any kind         were nothing but ‘Gandhian Socialism’. There
               of higher training.                            were many decisions which were taken under the
           By only organising our land ownership,             influence of the main political force of the times,
     irrigation and other inputs to agriculture,              still some very vital ones were influenced by the
     India could have gone for better prospects of            visionary hunches of the political leadership
     development. Once there was no crises of food,           mainly being J. L. Nehru. This is why the economic
     shelter, basic healthcare, etc., to the masses, one      thinking of independent India is considered and
     goal of development could have been realised—a           said to be nurtured by Nehruvian Economics even
     general welfare of the people. Once the masses           today. If we go through the major literatures on
     were able to achieve a level of purchasing               the Indian economic history, views of the critiques
     capacity, India could have gone for the expansion        of the time and the contemporary experts, we may
     of industries. India was capable of generating           be able to feel the answer as to why India went
     as much surplus income for its masses as was             for industry as its prime moving force in place of