Growth, Development and Happiness             2.11
     The responses of individuals to these different                   in the quality of the social fabric within greater
     questions are highly distinct. A very poor person                 Europe, there has also been some progress toward
     might report himself to be happy emotionally at                   equality in the distribution of well-being among
     a specific time, while also reporting a much lower                global regions. There have been important
     sense of happiness with life as a whole; and indeed,              continental crosscurrents within this broader
     people living in extreme poverty do express low                   picture. Improvements in quality of life have been
     levels of happiness with life as a whole. Such                    particularly notable in Latin America and the
     answers should spur our societies to work harder                  Caribbean, while reductions have been the norm
     to end extreme poverty.                                           in the regions most affected by the financial crisis,
          The WHR is based on the primary measures                     Western Europe and other western industrial
     of subjective well-being;9 life evaluations;10 life               countries; or by some combination of the financial
     satisfaction;11 and happiness with life as a whole.12             crisis, and political and social instability, as in the
     Thus, happiness, appears twice, once as an emotional              Middle East and North Africa.
     report, and once as part of a life evaluation, giving
     considerable evidence about the nature and causes of              The HDR Linkage
     happiness in both its major senses.                               The WHR 2013 investigated the conceptual
                                                                       and empirical relationships between ‘human
     Trends in Happiness
                                                                       development’ (the UNDP idea used in the
     The report presents data for the world showing                    Human Development Report) and ‘life evaluation’
     the levels, explanations, changes and equality                    approaches to understanding human progress.
     of happiness. The world has become a slightly                     It argues that both approaches were, at least in
     happier and more generous place over the                          part, motivated by a desire to consider progress
     past five years, despite the obvious detrimental                  and development in ways that went beyond the
     happiness impacts of the financial crisis (2007–                  mere comparison of GDPs, and to put people at
     08), as per the report. Because of continuing                     the centre. And while ‘human development’ is at
     improvements in most supports for better lives in                 heart a conceptual approach, and ‘life evaluation’
     Sub-Saharan Africa, and of continued convergence
                                                                       an empirical one, there is considerable overlap in
        9.   Guidelines on Measuring Subjective Well-being,            practice—many aspects of human development
             OECD, Paris, 2013.                                        are frequently used as key variables to explain
       10.   Used in the World Values Survey, the European Social      subjective well-being. The two approaches provide
             Survey and many other national and international
             surveys. It is the core ‘life evaluation’ question
                                                                       complementary lenses which enrich our ability to
             recommended by the OECD (2013), and used since            assess whether life is getting better.
             the first World Happiness Report.
       11.   The Gallup World Poll (GWP) – the GWP includes            Conclusion
             the ‘life satisfaction’ question on a 0 to 10 scale on an
             experimental asis, giving a sample sufficiently large     At the end, it may be concluded that there is now
             to show that when used with consistent samples the two    a rising worldwide demand that policy be more
             questions provide mutually supportive information on      closely aligned with what really matters to people
             the size and relative importance of the correlates.
                                                                       as they themselves characterise their lives. In past
       12.   The European Social Survey contains questions
             about ‘happiness with life as a whole’, and about life    few years, more and more world leaders (such as
             satisfaction, both on the same 0 to 10 numerical scale.   the German Chancellor Angela Merkel, South
               he responses provide the scientific ase to support the  Korean President Park Geun-hye and British
                H findings that answers to the two questions give
             consistent (and mutually supportive) information about    Prime Minister David Cameron) have been
             the correlates of a good life.                            talking about the importance of well-being as a