Growth, Development and Happiness                     2.9
     way of life. The idea of development which was              (a UN body). The report is a 156-nation survey,
     followed by a large part of the world has been cent         sixth of its kind (in 2014 the report was not
     per cent ‘this-worldly’. And anybody can assess             published)— and is the outcome of a coalition
     today what kind of happiness the world has been             of researchers.8 The report measures happiness
     able to achieve in the end.                                 and well-being of the nations to help guide public
          A recent study by a senior economist from the          policy on the basis of the following six parameters:
     UNDP on the Bhutanese development experience                      1. GDP per capita (at PPP)
     under the GNH has vindicated the idea of ‘gross                   2. Social support (someone to count on)
     happiness’ which development must result into.
                                                                       3. Healthy life expectancy at birth
     As per the study, the period 1984–98 has been
     spectacular in terms of development with life                     4. Freedom to make life choices
     expectancy increasing by a hopping 19 years, gross                5. Generosity
     school enrolment reaching 72 per cent and literacy                6. Perception of corruption
     touching 47.5 per cent (from just 17 per cent).7                 Major highlights of the WHR 2018 are as
          After the terror attack on the World Trade             given below:
     Centre in the USA the whole world has gone for a                      Top 10 happiest countries (their 2017
     psychic metamorphosis and at least the euphoria of                    ranks given in brackets) in decreasing
     development from this world to that world has been                    order of their ranks are—Finland (5),
     shaken from its very base. The world which is in                      Norway (1), Denmark (2), Iceland (3),
     the process of globalisation at one hand has started                  Switzerland (4), Netherlands (6), Canada
     introspecting whether multicultural co-existence                      (7), New Zealand (8), Sweden (10) and
     is possible. The Human Development Report                             Australia (9).
     of 2004 was titled as Cultural Liberty in Today’s
                                                                           Burundi (147) is the unhappiest country
     Diverse World. We may conclude that mankind is
                                                                           on the earth which has been ranked
     passing through a phase of serious introspection
                                                                           156th— followed by Central African
     and transition where the dominant view in the
                                                                           Republic (155) and South Sudan (147).
     world may metamorphose into redefining the very
                                                                           Their ranks for the last year (2017) are
     idea of development by including ethical values
                                                                           given in the bracket.
     and spiritualism as important parts. But till now
     the proponents of development look a bit shy in                        India is ranked 133rd—slipping 11 ranks
     believing and accepting whole-heartedly that there                    from 2017 (when it was ranked 122nd,
     exists a non-material part of life, which needs to                    four ranks below its rank in 2016). It is
     be realised to make our development result into                       below all eight SAARC nations (except
     happiness.                                                     8.   The WHRs have three editors: 1. John F. Helliwell,
                                                                         Vancouver School of Economics, University of British
        haPPIness                                                        Columbia, and the Canadian Institute for Advanced
                                                                         Research (CIFAR); 2. Richard Layard, Director, Well-
     The World Happiness Report 2018 (WHR 2018)                          Being Programme, Centre for Economic Performance,
                                                                         London School of Economics; 3. Jeffrey D. Sachs,
     was released by mid-March, 2018 by the                              Director, The Earth Institute, Columbia University.
     Sustainable Development Solution Network                            [The reports were written by a group of independent
                                                                         experts acting in their personal capacities—any views
        7.  Stefan Priesner, a senior economist with the UNDP            expressed in these reports do not necessarily re ect the
            conducted the study for the John Hopkins University,         views of any organisation, agency or programme of the
            USA, in 2005.                                                United Nations.]