2.8         ndian    onom
     of mind. Therefore, its idea might vary from one        has the following parameters to attain happiness/
     economy to the other.                                   development:
           Second, the period in which development was             (i) Higher real per capita income
     defined, it was considered that with the supply of           (ii) Good governance
     some selected material resources human life can be         (iii) Environmental protection
     improved. These resources were pin-pointed as, a
                                                                 (iv) Cultural promotion (i.e., inculcation of
     better level of income, proper level of nutrition,
                                                                       ethical and spiritual values in life without
     healthcare facilities, proper levels of literacy and
                                                                       which, it says, progress may become a
     education, etc.
                                                                       curse rather than a blessing)
           Happiness is a broader thing than development.
                                                                   At the level of real per capita income, the
     The so-called ‘development’ for which the world
                                                             GNH and the HDI are the same. Though the
     has been striving hard for the last many decades        HDI is silent on the issue of ‘good governance’,
     is capable of delivering material happiness to          today it should be considered as being promoted
     mankind. Happiness has its non-material side            around the world once the World Bank came
     also. It means, while the world has been trying         with its report on it in 1995 and enforced it upon
     to maximise its prospects of development, i.e.,         the member states. On the issue of protecting
     material happiness, it could not attend the non-        environment, though the HDI didn’t say
     material part of happiness. The non-material part       anything directly, the World Bank and the UNO
     of our life is rooted in ethics, religion, spiritualism had already accepted the immediacy of sustainable
     and cultural values. As development or human            development by then and by early 1990s there was
     development was defined in material terms, it           a seperate UN Convention on the matter (follow
     could only deliver us material happiness which is       up on this convention has been really very low till
     visibly available in the developed world. Due to        date which is a different issue).
     partial definition of development, the developed
                                                                   It means the basic difference between the GNH
     world has been able to achieve development, i.e.,
                                                             and the HDI looks at the level of assimilating the
     happiness, but only of material kind. For the non-
                                                             ethical and spiritual aspects into our (UNDP’s)
     material part of happiness, we need to redefine our
                                                             idea of development.
     ‘ideas’ of development.
                                                                   An impartial analysis sufficiently suggests that
           Somehow a very small kingdom had been
                                                             material achievements are unable to deliver us
     able to define development in its own way, which
                                                             happiness devoid of some ethics at its base. And
     included material as well as non-material aspects       ethics are rooted in the religious and spiritual texts.
     of life and named it the Gross National Happiness       But the new world is guided by its own scientific
     (GNH). This country is Bhutan.                          and secular interpretation of life and the world
     Gross National Happiness: Bhutan, a small               has always been suspicious about recognising the
     Himalayan kingdom and an economic non-                  spiritual factor in human life. Rather the western
     entity, developed a new concept of assessing            idea of secularism was defined after rejecting the very
     development in the early 1970s—the Gross                existence of anything like God and also rejecting
     National Happiness (GNH). Without rejecting             the whole traditional hypothesis of spiritualism as
     the idea of human development propounded                instances of ignorance and orthodoxy. And there
     by UNDP, the kingdom has been officially                should not be any doubt in accepting it that the
     following the targets set by the GNH. Bhutan            western ideology in the name of development has
     has been following the GNH since 1972 which             ultimately, dominated the modern world and its