2.6       ndian   onom
     countries were broadly classified into three         scholars of the London School of Economics in
     categories with a range of points on the index:      1999 which concluded that, Bangladesh was the
          (i) High Human Development Countries:           most developed country in the world with the
              0.800–1.000 points on the index.            USA, Norway, Sweden getting the lowest ranks
         (ii) Medium        Human         Development     in the index.
              Countries: 0.500–0.799 points on the              Basically, it is very much possible to come
              index.                                      out with such an index. As for example, we may
        (iii) Low Human Development Countries:            say that peace of mind is a necessary element of
              0.000–0.499 points on the index.            development and betterment in human life which
                                                          depends heavily on the fact as to how much sleep
          The Human Development Report 2016 is
                                                          we get everyday. House theft and burglary are
     discussed in Chapter 20.
                                                          major determinants of a good night’s sleep which
     the DebAte continues                                 in turn depends on the fact as how assured we
                                                          go to sleep in our homes at night from burglars
     Though the UNDP commissioned team had                and thieves. It means we may try to know a good
     evolved a consensus as to what constitutes           sleep by the data of thefts and burglaries in homes.
     development, academicians and experts around         Since minor house thefts and burglaries are under-
     the world have been debating this issue. By          reported in police stations, the surveyor, suppose
     1995, economies around the world had officially      tried to know such cases with data as how many
     accepted the concept of human development            ‘locks’ were sold in a country in a particular year.
     propounded by the UNDP. Basically, the UNDP          In this way a country where people hardly have
     designed HDR was used by the World Bank since        anything to be stolen or no risk of being burgled
     the 1990s to quantify the developmental efforts of   might be considered having the best sleep in night,
     the member countries and cheap developmental         thus the best peace of mind and that is why this
     funds were allocated in accordance. Naturally,       will be the most developed country.
     the member countries started emphasising on                Basically, the HDI could be considered as one
     the parameters of income, education and life         possible ways of measuring development which
     expectancy in their policymaking and in this         was evolved by the concerned group of experts with
     way the idea of HDI got obligatory or voluntary      the maximum degree of consensus. But the index
     acceptance around the world.                         which calculates the development of economies
          For many years, experts and scholars came up    on certain parameters might be overlooking
     with their own versions of defining development.     many other important factors, which affect the
     They gave unequal weightage to the determinants      development of an economy and standard of
     defining development, as well as selected some       living. As per experts, such other determinants
     completely different parameters which could          affecting our living conditions might be:
     also denote development in a more suitable way.            (i) cultural aspects of the economy,
     Since quality is a matter of value judgement and
                                                               (ii) outlook towards aesthetics and purity of
     a normative concept, there was scope for this
                                                                    the environment,
     representation. Most of such attempts were not
     prescriptions for an alternative development             (iii) aspects related to the rule and
     index, but they were basically trying to show the              administration in the economy,
     incompleteness of the HDI, via intellectual satires.     (iv) people’s idea of happiness and prestige,
     One such attempt was made by economists and               (v) ethical dimension of human life, etc.