Plantation agriculture: A plantation is a large       and techniques be efficient. Tea, coffee, and
piece of land with an estate (typically in sub-       rubber are all commonly-grown on plantation
tropical or tropical countries) where crops are       farms. Teak wood, bamboo, and timber are
cultivated and then sold internationally as           also occasionally farmed using this method.
opposed to locally.
                                                      Crop Rotation
Ley Farming
                                                      This system is a type of subsistence farming.
This type of farming is used to restore soil          Usually, there are one or more farmers
fertility in India’s drylands. A plot of land is      responsible for the labour and the produce is
used for grain or other crops and when the soil       for their own consumption. A crop rotation
starts to degrade, the land is left uncultivated.     schedule includes different varieties of crops
It is used to grow hay or as a pasture for            such as wheat, barley, mustard, or millet being
grazing animals. After a number of years, it          grown during alternating seasons. The benefits
can be used for crops again as the nutrients are      are that weeds, pests, and diseases are
restored by ploughing. Land erosion during the        controlled, while soil fertility is maintained.
ley period is also prevented by the roots of the
grass.                                                Main Crops for Rotations
Plantation Farming                                    One yearly : paddy and wheat
As mentioned before, this is the large-scale          Two yearly : maize and cotton
cultivation of one crop on an estate or vast
property. This system is designed to make a           Three yearly : Tomato and Lady’s finger
profit and as such requires that all technology       Four yearly : Cotton and wheat
                                 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
It is the study of various breeds of domesticated animals and their management for obtaining better
products and services from them.
The term husbandry derives from the word “husband” which means ‘one who takes care’. When it
incorporates the study of proper utilisation of economically important domestic animals, it is called
Livestock Management.
Different Categories of Animals                       Importance of domestic animals
1. Wild –Those that breed better where they           On the basis of utility, domestic animals are
     are free than they do when they are              categorised into the following functional
     captivated. They have no common use for          groups :
     humans. Example Lion, Tiger, Rhinoceres,
     Deer etc.                                        1. Milk giving animals : Cattle, buffalo,
2. Tamed – Those, which are caught from                    goat, sheep etc.
     the wild and trained to be useful to             2. Draught animals : camel, elephant, yak
     humans in some way. Elephant,                         etc.
     Chimpanzee, Gorilla, Yak etc.                    3. Fibre, hide and skin yielding : Sheep,
3. Domesticated – Those that are of use at                 goat, cattle, buffalo, camel etc.
     home and are easily bred and looked after        4. Meat and egg yielding animals : Fowl
     by humans. Common domesticated                        (hen) and duck, goat, buffalo, pig etc.
     animals are dog, horse, cow, sheep,
     buffalo, fowl etc.