It is the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops.
Agriculture is derived from Latin words ‘ager’ (field) and ‘cultura’ (cultivation).
Agronomy                                                  FARMING SYSTEMS IN INDIA
It is the science and technology of producing             Irrigation Farming
and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land
reclamation. It has come to encompass work in             An irrigation farming system relies on help
the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology,            from an irrigation system supplying water
meteorology, and soil science.                            from a river, reservoir, tank, or well. As India
                                                          grows and there is an increasing demand for
Agricultural Seasons in India                             food, water is becoming more and more
                                                          crucial. Farming methods should be focused
Kharif Season                                             on sustaining or recycling water.
Crops are sown at the be-ginning of south-                Shifting Cultivation
west monsoon and harvested at the end of the
south-west monsoon.                                       Shifting cultivation systems cultivate one plot
                                                          of land for a period of years until the soil
Sowing Season: May to July.                               becomes infertile. As crop yield decreases, the
                                                          plot is deserted and the ground is re-fertilized
Harvesting Season : September to October.                 using the slash and burn technique. This
Important Crops: Jowar, Bajra, Rice, Maize,               method is popular in the northeast and the east
Cotton, Groundnut, Jute, Hemp, Tobacco etc.               coast of the country, and is used to cultivate
                                                          rain-fed rice, corn, buckwheat, millet, root
Rabi Season                                               crops, and vegetables. However, as the
                                                          population increases, more land is being used
Crops need cool climate during growth period              up without enough time to regenerate the
but warm climate during the germination of                natural condition of the soil. This has led to
seed and maturation. Sowing Season: October               severe soil degradation in many areas.
to December Harvesting Season: February to
April Important Crops: Wheat, Barley, Gram,               Commercial Agriculture
Linseed, Mustard, Masoor & Peas.
                                                          Commercial agriculture systems involve large-
Zaid Season                                               scale plantations, such as those used for wheat,
                                                          cotton, sugarcane, tea, rubber, and corn. The
These Crops are raised throughout the year                yields are exported to other countries for a
due to artificial irrigation.                             profit. There are three types of commercial
Zaid Kharif Crops                                         agriculture systems:
Sowing Season: August to September                        Intensive commercial farming: With small
Harvesting Season: December-January                       landholdings and a high population, many
                                                          farms use a lot of manpower on a relatively
Important Crops: Rice, Jowar, Rapeseed,                   small piece of land.
Cotton, Oilseeds.
                                                          Extensive commercial farming: This is the
Zaid Rabi Crops
                                                          opposite of intensive commercial farming. A
Sowing Season: February to March.                         small workforce is applied to a large piece of
Harvesting Season: April-May.                             land. Cultivation depends on mechanical
Important      Crops:      Watermelon,      Toris,
Cucum-ber & other vegetables.