Some Important Medical Tests
A medical test is a kind of medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases,
disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.
Diagnostic                                              the endoscope. Tools are often passed through
                                                        a channel in the endoscope. One type of tool is
It is a procedure performed to confirm, or              used to cut and remove tissue samples.
determine the presence of disease in an
individual suspected of having the disease,             Biopsy
usually following the report of symptoms, or
based on the results of other medical tests.            Tissue samples are removed and examined,
This includes posthumous diagnosis. Such                usually with a microscope. The examination
tests include:                                          often focuses on finding abnormal cells that
                                                        may provide evidence of inflammation or of a
    Utilizing nuclear medicine techniques to           disorder, such as cancer. Tissues that are
     examine a patient having a lymphoma.               commonly examined include skin, breast,
    Measuring the blood sugar in a person              lung, liver, kidney, and bone.
     suspected of having diabetes mellitus,
                                                        Genetic Testing
     after periods of increased urination.
    Taking a complete blood count of an                Usually, cells from skin, blood, or bone
     individual experiencing a high fever, to           marrow are analyzed. Cells are examined to
     check for a bacterial infection.                   check for abnormalities of chromosomes,
    Monitoring electrocardiogram readings on           genes (including DNA), or both. Genetic
     a patient suffering chest pain, to diagnose        testing may be done in the following:
     or determine any heart irregularities.
                                                        1. Fetuses: To determine whether they have
Imaging                                                      a genetic disorder
                                                        2. Children and young adults: To
These tests provide a picture of the inside of
                                                             determine whether they have a disorder or
the body - in its entirety or only of certain
                                                             are at risk of developing a disorder
parts. Ordinary x-rays are the most common
                                                        3. Adults: Sometimes to help determine the
imaging tests. Others include ultrasonography,
                                                             likelihood that their relatives, such as
radioisotope (nuclear) scanning, computed
                                                             children or grandchildren, will develop
tomography (CT), magnetic resonance
                                                             certain disorders
imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography
(PET), and angiography.                                 Radiologic tests : In which, for example, x-
                                                        rays are used to form an image of a body
A viewing tube (endoscope) is used to directly
                                                        In vivo diagnostics which test in the body,
observe the inside of body organs or spaces
                                                        such as: Manometry
(cavities). Most often, a flexible endoscope is
used, but in some cases, a rigid one is more            In vitro diagnostics which test a sample of
useful. The tip of the endoscope is usually             tissue or bodily fluids. It can be classified
equipped with a light and a camera, so the              according to the location of the sample being
examiner watches the images on a television             tested, including: Blood tests, Urine tests,
monitor rather than looking directly through            Stool tests, Sputum (phlegm).