2. The science dealing with the various Vaccine & Vaccination
phenomena of immunity, induced
sensitivity and allergy is called Vaccine: A product that stimulates a person’s
immunology. immune system to produce immunity to a
3. Immune Response - Third line of specific disease, protecting the person from
defence. Involve production of antibodies that disease. Vaccines are usually administered
and generation of specialized lymphocytes through needle injections, but can also be
against specific antigens. administered by mouth or sprayed into the
4. Antigens – Substances which stimulate nose.
the production of antibodies, when Vaccination: The act of introducing a vaccine
introduced into the body.
into the body to produce immunity to a
5. Antibodies – Immunoglobulins (Igs) specific disease.
which are produced in the body in
response to the antigen or foreign bodies. World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1974
6. All antibodies are immunoglobulins but all officially launched a Global Vaccination
immunoglobulins are not antibodies. Programme to protect children from six fatal
7. There are two major types of immunity: diseases. Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio,
Innate or Natural or Non-specific TB (Tuberculosis) and measles. It was
immunity and Acquired or Adaptive or launched in India in 1985.
The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived
from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow),
the term devised by Edward Jenner to denote
In 2014, Polio declared eliminated from India.
Age Vaccination Dose
Birth to 12 1. OPT (triple vaccine, against diphtheria, 1. Three doses (commonly oral) at
months whooping cough/pertussis and tetanus) intervals of 4-6 weeks.
2. Polio (Sabin"s oral, previously Salk"s 2. Three doses at intervals of 4-6
3. BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) 3. Intradermal and one vaccine
9-15 months Measles vaccine (MMR or Measles, Mumps One dose
8-24 months 1. OPT 1. Booster dose
2. Polio (oral) 2. Booster dose
3. Cholera vaccine (can be repeated every 3. One
year before summer)
5-6 years 1. DT (Bivalent vaccine against diphtheria 1. Booster dose
and tetanus) 2. Two doses at intervals of 1-2
2. Typhoid Paratyphoid vaccine months
10 years Tetanus, TAB (typhoid) Booster dose
16 years Tetanus, TAB Booster dose