2. The science dealing with the various                      Vaccine & Vaccination
    phenomena       of     immunity,       induced
    sensitivity and allergy is called                        Vaccine: A product that stimulates a person’s
    immunology.                                              immune system to produce immunity to a
3. Immune Response - Third line of                           specific disease, protecting the person from
    defence. Involve production of antibodies                that disease. Vaccines are usually administered
    and generation of specialized lymphocytes                through needle injections, but can also be
    against specific antigens.                               administered by mouth or sprayed into the
4. Antigens – Substances which stimulate                     nose.
    the production of antibodies, when                       Vaccination: The act of introducing a vaccine
    introduced into the body.
                                                             into the body to produce immunity to a
5. Antibodies – Immunoglobulins (Igs)                        specific disease.
    which are produced in the body in
    response to the antigen or foreign bodies.               World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1974
6. All antibodies are immunoglobulins but all                officially launched a Global Vaccination
    immunoglobulins are not antibodies.                      Programme to protect children from six fatal
7. There are two major types of immunity:                    diseases. Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio,
    Innate or Natural or Non-specific                        TB (Tuberculosis) and measles. It was
    immunity and Acquired or Adaptive or                     launched in India in 1985.
    Specific Immunity.
                                                             The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived
                                                             from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow),
                                                             the term devised by Edward Jenner to denote
                                                             cowpox.
                                                             In 2014, Polio declared eliminated from India.
  Age                 Vaccination                                       Dose
  Birth to 12         1. OPT (triple vaccine, against diphtheria,       1. Three doses (commonly oral) at
  months                 whooping cough/pertussis and tetanus)             intervals of 4-6 weeks.
                      2. Polio (Sabin"s oral, previously Salk"s         2. Three doses at intervals of 4-6
                         injectible)                                       weeks.
                      3. BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin)                 3. Intradermal and one vaccine
  9-15 months         Measles vaccine (MMR or Measles, Mumps            One dose
                      and Rubella)
  8-24 months         1. OPT                                            1. Booster dose
                      2. Polio (oral)                                   2. Booster dose
                      3. Cholera vaccine (can be repeated every         3. One
                         year before summer)
  5-6 years           1. DT (Bivalent vaccine against diphtheria        1. Booster dose
                         and tetanus)                                   2. Two doses at intervals of 1-2
                      2. Typhoid Paratyphoid vaccine                       months
  10 years            Tetanus, TAB (typhoid)                            Booster dose
  16 years            Tetanus, TAB                                      Booster dose
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