Hyoid                                                      the thoracic vertebrae directly to the
                                                           sternum through their own band of costal
   The hyoid is a small, U-shaped bone found              cartilage.
    just inferior to the mandible.
   It is the only bone in the body that does          Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb
    not form a joint with any other bone - it is
    a floating bone.                                      The pectoral girdle connects the upper
                                                           limb (arm) bones to the axial skeleton and
   It helps in holding the trachea open and to
                                                           consists of the left and right clavicles and
    form a bony connection for the tongue
                                                           left and right scapulae.
    muscles.
                                                          The humerus is the bone of the upper arm.
Auditory Ossicles                                         It forms the ball and socket joint of the
                                                           shoulder with the scapula and forms the
The malleus, incus, and stapes - known                     elbow joint with the lower arm bones.
collectively as the auditory ossicles - are the
smallest bones in the body. Found in a small           Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb
cavity inside of the temporal bone, they serve
to transmit and amplify sound from the                    Formed by the left and right hip bones, the
eardrum to the inner ear.                                  pelvic girdle connects the lower limb (leg)
                                                           bones to the axial skeleton.
Vertebrae                                                 The femur is the largest bone in the body
                                                           and the only bone of the thigh (femoral)
   Twenty-six vertebrae form the vertebral                region.
    column of the human body. They are
                                                          The femur forms the ball and socket hip
    named by region: Cervical (neck) - 7
                                                           joint with the hip bone and forms the knee
    vertebrae, Thoracic (chest) - 12 vertebrae,
                                                           joint with the tibia and patella. Commonly
    Lumbar (lower back) - 5 vertebrae,
                                                           called the kneecap, the patella is special
    Sacrum - 1 vertebra and Coccyx (tailbone)
                                                           because it is one of the few bones that are
    - 1 vertebra.
                                                           not present at birth.
   With the exception of the singular sacrum
                                                          The patella forms in early childhood to
    and coccyx, each vertebra is named for the
                                                           support the knee for walking and crawling.
    first letter of its region and its position
    along the superior-inferior axis. For              Cartilage
    example, the most superior thoracic
    vertebra is called T1 and the most inferior           It is made up of specialized cells called
    is called T12.                                         chondrocytes.       These      chondrocytes
                                                           produce large amounts of extracellular
Ribs and Sternum                                           matrix composed of collagen fibres,
                                                           proteoglycan, and elastin fibers.
   The sternum, or breastbone, is a thin,
                                                          There are no blood vessels in cartilage to
    knife-shaped bone located along the
                                                           supply the chondrocytes with nutrients.
    midline of the anterior side of the thoracic
                                                          It is a firm tissue but is softer and much
    region of the skeleton. The sternum
                                                           more flexible than bone.
    connects to the ribs by thin bands of
                                                          It is a connective tissue found in many
    cartilage called the costal cartilage.
                                                           areas of the body including: Joints
   There are 12 pairs of ribs that together
                                                           between bones e.g. the elbows, knees and
    with the sternum form the ribcage of the
                                                           ankles, Ends of the ribs, Between the
    thoracic region. The first seven ribs are
                                                           vertebrae in the spine, Ears and nose and
    known as “true ribs” because they connect
                                                           Bronchial tubes or airways
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