  It is a long, thick tube about 2 1⁄2 inches in
   diameter and about 5 feet long.
  It is located just inferior to the stomach
   and wraps around the superior and lateral
   border of the small intestine.
  It absorbs water and vitamins while
   converting digested food into Solid waste
   products and exit the body through the
   anal canal.
Digestive Process
1. Ingestion of food                                 Trachea or windpipe
2. Secretion of fluids and digestive enzymes
3. Mixing and movement of food and wastes               It is a 5-inch long tube made of C-shaped
   through the body                                      hyaline cartilage rings lined with pseudo-
4. Digestion of food into smaller pieces                 stratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
5. Absorption of nutrients                              It connects the larynx to the bronchi and
6. Excretion of wastes                                   allows air to pass through the neck and
                                                         into the thorax.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM                                      The rings of cartilage making up the
                                                         trachea allow it to remain open to air at all
  It allows us to take in vital oxygen and
                                                         times.
   expel carbon dioxide in a process we call
   breathing.                                           It is used to provide a clear airway for air
                                                         to enter and exit the lungs.
  It consists mainly of the trachea, the
   diaphragm and the lungs.                          Diaphragm
  The nose and nasal cavity form the main
   external opening for the respiratory system          It is the primary muscle used in the
   and are the first section of the body’s               process of inspiration, or inhalation.
   airway—the respiratory tract through                 It is a dome-shaped sheet of muscle that is
   which air moves.                                      inserted into the lower ribs. Lying at the
  Red blood cells collect the oxygen from               base of the thorax (chest), it separates the
   the lungs and carry it to the parts of the            abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity.
   body where it is needed. The red blood               The nerve that controls the diaphragm is
   cells collect the carbon dioxide and                  the phrenic nerve, which originates at
   transport it back to the lungs, where it              vertebral level C3-C5.
   leaves the body when we exhale.
  A decrease in oxygen is known as                  Lungs
   hypoxia and a complete lack of oxygen is             These are a pair of large, spongy organs
   known as anoxia.                                      found in the thorax lateral to the heart and
                                                         superior to the diaphragm.
                                                        Each lung is surrounded by a pleural
                                                         membrane that provides the lung with
                                                         space to expand as well as a negative
                                                         pressure space relative to the body’s
                                                         exterior.
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