Zinc             Meat, liver and beans.    Enzyme activation and         Anemia, weak immunity and
  Zn                                         carbon dioxide transport.     fertility.
  Copper           beans, raisins,           Enzyme, melanin and           Anemia, weak blood vessels
  Cu               chocolate, nuts, meat,    hemoglobin formation.         and connective tissues.
                   shellfish
  Iodine           Seafood, iodized salt     Thyroxin production           Goitre - enlargement of the
  I                and fish.                                               thyroid gland.
  Manganese        Tea, nuts, spices and     Bone development and          Irregular growth of bones and
  Mn               cereals.                  enzyme activation.            connective tissues.
  Molybdenum       legumes, grains; leafy    Helps cells and nerves to     Rapid heart and respiratory
  Mo               green vegetables,         function.                     rates, headache, night
                   tomatoes, onions,                                       blindness
                   carrots.
  Chromium         beans, cheese, whole      Uptake of glucose.            Irregular metabolism.
  Cr               grain food , peas, meat
  Cobalt           Meat and yeast.           Synthesis of Vitamin B12      Anemia
  Co                                         formation of red blood
                                             cells
WATER                                                        The substance, which lowers or degrades
                                                              the quality of food material, is called an
 Water is defined as an essential nutrient                   adulterant.
  because it is required in amounts that                     It can lead to slow poisoning and various
  exceed the body"s ability to produce it.                    kinds of diseases, which can even result in
 All biochemical reactions occur in water.                   death.
  It fills the spaces in and between cells and
  helps form structures of large molecules                Some Common Adulterants in Food
  such as protein and glycogen.
 About 70% of the human body consists of                      Food Items           Adulterant
                                                               Milk, curd and       Water and urea
  water.
                                                               cheese
 As a general rule, adult males need 3.7                      Sweets               Saccharin, harmful
  liters of water per day, while adult women                                        colour
  need 2.7 liters per day.                                     Ghee                 Vanaspati and
 However, pregnant women should aim for                                            animal fats
  3 liters per day, and lactating women need                   Cereals              Stones, sand and grit
  3.8 liters per day.                                          Dhania               Powdered horse
                                                               Powder               dung
 The daily adequate intake of water is
                                                               Haldi Powder         Lead chromate
  lower before the age of 18.                                  Pulses               Metanil yellow
                                                               Edible oils          Argemone oil
FOOD ADULTERATION
                                                               Black pepper         Papaya seed
                                                               Sugar                Chalk powder,
 It is an addition of another substance to a
                                                                                    Washing soda
  food item in order to increase the quantity                  Honey                Sugar solution
  of the food item in raw form or prepared                     Besan                Khesari flour
  form, which may result in the loss of                        Vinegar              Mineral acid
  actual quality of food item.
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