Mineral Nutrients or Dietary Mineral Macronutrients
These are the naturally occurring inorganic Elements which are present in large amounts
nutrients in the food and soil essential for the in plant tissues are called macronutrients. They
proper functioning of the plant and animal are in excess of 10 mmole per kg of dry
body. matter. e.g. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
nitrogen, phosphorous, sulphur, potassium,
Minerals are among the essential elements calcium and magnesium.
required by the body including carbohydrates,
proteins, fats, vitamins and water. Micronutrients or Trace Elements
These are two types, such as Macronutrients Elements which are present in small amounts,
and Micronutrients. i.e. less than 10 mmole per kg of dry matter
are called micronutrients. e.g. Iron,
manganese, copper, molybdenum, zinc,
copper, boron, chlorine and nickel.
Minerals and their Function in the Human body
Mineral Major Food Source Functions Deficiency Diseases
Calcium milk, dairy products, Muscle contraction, nerve Tetany & rickets
Ca green leafy vegetables, action, blood clotting and
fish the formation of bone.
Chlorine Salted food and Anion/cation balance and Loss of appetite muscle
Cl seafood. gastric acid formation. cramps.
Magnesium meat, whole grains, Formation of bone, Irregularity of metabolism,
Mg nuts, legumes, apricots, formation of coenzymes in Fatigue, poor memory,
bananas, chocolate and cell respiration. muscle twitching and rapid
green vegetable heartbeat.
Phosphorus Cheese, eggs, pea nuts Bone and tooth formation, Tetany & rickets
P and most foods. energy transfer from foods,
DNA, RNA and ATP
Potassium meat, chocolate, Muscle contraction, nerve Nervous disorder, poor
K oranges, bananas, action, active transport. muscles leading to paralysis.
Selenium nuts, fish, tuna, meat, Helps to prevent damage to Poor heart function, mental
Se chicken, mustard, cells and aids in the retardation
mushrooms, barley, functioning of the thyroid
cheese, garlic, tofu, gland. It is an antioxidant
seeds. for the body.
Sodium Any salted food, meat, Muscle contraction, nerve Fatigue, Nervous, depression,
Na eggs and milk. action and active transport. muscular cramps, PH dis-
Micronutrients (Trace Elements)
Iron Liver, kidney, red Helps the blood and Anemia and low immunity.
Fe meat, cocoa powder muscles carry oxygen to
and water-cress, green the body.
Fluorine salt water fish (salmon), Helps to make bones and Weak teeth and bones.
F tea, sea food, meat, teeth stronger. Improves
liver, beans, fluoridated resistance to cavities.