It is an organic compound normally present as an essential component of living organism.
Characteristics of Biomolecules
Most of them are organic compounds. Carbohydrates are 3 types:
They have specific shapes and dimensions.
Monosaccharides are the simplest form of
Functional group determines their
carbohydrates with only one simple sugar.
They essentially contain an aldehyde or ketone
Many of them arc asymmetric.
group in their structure. e.g. Glucose -
Macromolecules are large molecules and
Fructose - Galactose
are constructed from small building block
molecules. Disaccharides are formed when two
Building block molecules have simple monosaccharides, or two single simple sugars,
structure. form a bond with removal of water. They can
Biomolecules first gorse by chemical be hydrolyzed to yield their saccharin building
evolution. blocks by boiling with dilute acid or reacting
them with appropriate enzymes. e.g. Lactose-
Types of biomolecules Sucrose-Maltose
A diverse range of biomolecules exist, Polysaccharides are polymerized
including: monosaccharides, or complex carbohydrates.
They have multiple simple sugars. e.g. Starch-
Small molecules (Lipids, fatty acids,
glycolipids, sterols, glycerolipids, Vitamins,
Hormones, neurotransmitters, Metabolites) Proteins
Monomers, oligomers and polymers.
It contains the elements Carbon,
Carbohydrates Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and
sometimes Phosphorus or Sulfur.
Carbohydrates (polysaccharides) are long
chains of sugars. Proteins are heteropolymers of stings of
amino acids. Amino acids are joined
A carbohydrate is a biological molecule
together by the peptide bond which is
consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H)
and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a formed in between the carboxyl group and
amino group of successive amino acids.
hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in
water); in other words, with the empirical Proteins are formed from 20 different
formula Cm(H2O)n (where m could be amino acids, depending on the number of
different from n). amino acids and the sequence of amino
The primary function of carbohydrates is
for short-term energy storage (sugars are Animal Protein contains the most
for Energy). biological value because it contains all
essential amino acids (Meat, Milk, Fish,
A secondary function is intermediate-term
energy storage (as in starch for plants and
glycogen for animals). Plant Protein contains a lower biological
value to humans because it contains fewer
essential amino acids (Cereals, Peas,