BIOMOLECULE
It is an organic compound normally present as an essential component of living organism.
Characteristics of Biomolecules
    Most of them are organic compounds.              Carbohydrates are 3 types:
    They have specific shapes and dimensions.
                                                      Monosaccharides are the simplest form of
    Functional group determines their
                                                      carbohydrates with only one simple sugar.
     chemical properties.
                                                      They essentially contain an aldehyde or ketone
    Many of them arc asymmetric.
                                                      group in their structure.      e.g. Glucose -
    Macromolecules are large molecules and
                                                      Fructose - Galactose
     are constructed from small building block
     molecules.                                       Disaccharides are formed when two
    Building block molecules have simple             monosaccharides, or two single simple sugars,
     structure.                                       form a bond with removal of water. They can
    Biomolecules first gorse by chemical             be hydrolyzed to yield their saccharin building
     evolution.                                       blocks by boiling with dilute acid or reacting
                                                      them with appropriate enzymes. e.g. Lactose-
Types of biomolecules                                 Sucrose-Maltose
A diverse range of biomolecules exist,                Polysaccharides         are        polymerized
including:                                            monosaccharides, or complex carbohydrates.
                                                      They have multiple simple sugars. e.g. Starch-
Small molecules (Lipids, fatty acids,
                                                      Glycogen-Cellulose
glycolipids, sterols, glycerolipids, Vitamins,
Hormones, neurotransmitters, Metabolites)             Proteins
Monomers, oligomers and polymers.
                                                         It contains the elements Carbon,
Carbohydrates                                             Hydrogen,     Oxygen,      Nitrogen     and
                                                          sometimes Phosphorus or Sulfur.
    Carbohydrates (polysaccharides) are long
     chains of sugars.                                   Proteins are heteropolymers of stings of
                                                          amino acids. Amino acids are joined
    A carbohydrate is a biological molecule
                                                          together by the peptide bond which is
     consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H)
     and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a                 formed in between the carboxyl group and
                                                          amino group of successive amino acids.
     hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in
     water); in other words, with the empirical          Proteins are formed from 20 different
     formula Cm(H2O)n (where m could be                   amino acids, depending on the number of
     different from n).                                   amino acids and the sequence of amino
                                                          acids.
    The primary function of carbohydrates is
     for short-term energy storage (sugars are           Animal Protein contains the most
     for Energy).                                         biological value because it contains all
                                                          essential amino acids (Meat, Milk, Fish,
    A secondary function is intermediate-term
                                                          Eggs, etc.)
     energy storage (as in starch for plants and
     glycogen for animals).                              Plant Protein contains a lower biological
                                                          value to humans because it contains fewer
                                                          essential amino acids (Cereals, Peas,
                                                          Beans, etc.)
                                                 418