DNA and RNA
                         DNA                                         RNA
  Structural Name        Deoxyribonucleic Acid                       Ribonucleic Acid
  Function               Medium of long-term storage and             Transfer the genetic code needed for the
                         transmission of genetic information.        creation of proteins from the nucleus to
                                                                     the ribosome. This process prevents the
                                                                     DNA from having to leave the nucleus, so
                                                                     it stays safe. Without RNA, proteins
                                                                     could never be made.
  Structure              Typically a double- stranded molecule       A single-stranded molecule in most of its
                         with a long chain of nucleotides.           biological roles and has a shorter chain of
                                                                     nucleotides.
  Bases/                 Long polymer with a deoxyribose and         Shorter polymer with a ribose and
  Sugars                 phosphate backbone and four different       phosphate backbone and four different
                         bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and       bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and
                         thymine.                                    uracil.
  Base                   A-T (Adenine-Thymine), G-C (Guanine-        A-U (Adenine-Uracil), G-C (Guanine-
  Pairing                Cytosine)                                   Cytosine)
  Stability              Deoxyribose sugar in DNA is less            Ribose sugar is more reactive because of
                         reactive because of C-H bonds. Stable in    C-OH (hydroxyl) bonds. Not stable in
                         alkaline conditions. DNA has smaller        alkaline conditions. RNA on the other
                         grooves where the damaging enzyme           hand has larger grooves which makes it
                         can attach which makes it harder for the    easier to be attacked by enzymes.
                         enzyme to attack DNA.
  Unique                 The helix geometry of DNA is of B-          The helix geometry of RNA is of A-
  Traits                 Form. DNA is completely protected by        Form. RNA strands are continually made,
                         the body i.e. the body destroys enzymes     broken down and reused. RNA is more
                         that cleave DNA. DNA can be damaged         resistant to damage by Ultra-violet rays.
                         by exposure to Ultra-violet rays.
Nuclear membrane                                              Ribosomes
It is the porous double membrane layer                        Ribosomes are found on the endoplasmic
surrounding the nucleus. It allows passage of                 reticulum.       Together      they     help       in
substances and is a distinctive characteristic of             manufacturing proteins for the cell following
the eukaryotic cell.                                          instructions of the nucleus.
Nucleoplasm                                                   Lysosomes
It is the semi-fluid substance inside the                     Lysosomes are membrane bound organelles,
nucleus, contains the genetic material and the                they contain digestive enzymes. They break
nucleolus.                                                    down the waste products and detoxify the cell.
Mitochondria                                                  Centrosome
Mitochondria is one of the largest organ of the               It is a small body located near the nucleus.
cell and is known as the "power house of the                  Centrioles are made in the centrosomes.
cell". It is a spherical or rod shaped organelles             During cell division the centromere organizes
and is enveloped by a double membrane. The                    the assembly of the micro-tubules.
mitochondria aids in conversion of glucose to
high energy molecules (ATP) for the cell.                     Endoplasmic reticulum
                                                              It is a large network of interconnecting
                                                              membrane tunnels. It is composed of both
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