Anatomy of a Cell
Cells are of two types, eukaryotic, which contain a nucleus, and prokaryotic, which do not.
Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms, while eukaryotes can be either single-celled or
multicellular.
  Cell types                    Prokaryotes                    Eukaryotes
  Typical organisms             bacteria, archaea              protists, fungi, plants, animals
  Typical size                  ~ 1–5 μm                       ~ 10–100 μm
  Type of nucleus               nucleoid region; no true       true nucleus with double membrane
                                nucleus
  DNA                           circular (usually)             linear molecules (chromosomes)
                                                               with histone proteins
  RNA/protein synthesis         coupled in the cytoplasm       RNA synthesis in the nucleus
                                                               protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
  Ribosomes                     50S and 30S                    60S and 40S
  Cytoplasmic structure         very few structures            highly structured
                                                               by endomembranes and a cytoskeleton
  Mitochondria                  none                           one to several thousand
  Chloroplasts                  none                           in algae and plants
  Organization                  usually single cells           single cells, colonies, higher
                                                               multicellular organisms with
                                                               specialized cells
  Cell division                 binary fission                 mitosis and meiosis
  Chromosomes                   single chromosome              more than one chromosome
  Membranes                     cell membrane                  Cell membrane and membrane-bound
                                                               organelles
Animal and Plant cells                                   Plant cell
Animal cell                                                Plant cell are eukaryotic cells, they are
                                                            membrane bound organelles. They are
   All animals are mutlicellular. Human body               surrounded by a rigid cell wall.
    contains trillions of cells.                           Plant cells are similar to animal cells in
   All animal cells are eukaryotic, they are               being eukaryotic and they have similar cell
    surrounded by cell membrane and do not                  organelles.
    have a cell wall.                                      Generally, plant cells are larger than
   The components of animal cells are                      animal cells and are mostly similar in size
    centrioles, cilia and flagella, endoplasmic             and are rectangular or cube shaped.
    reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes,                 Plant cell contains a few distinctive
    microfilaments,                  microtubules,          features like a cell wall, large vacuole and
    mitochondria,      nucleus,      peroxisomes,           plastids.
    plasma membrane and ribosomes.
   There are many different cell types,
    approximately 210 distinct cell types in
    adult human body.
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