Darwinism                                            Genetic drift
The theory of evolution by natural selection,        It (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall
first formulated in Darwin"s book "On the            Wright effect after biologist Sewall Wright) is
Origin of Species" in 1859, is the process by        the change in the frequency of a gene variant
which organisms change over time as a result         (allele) in a population due to random
of changes in heritable physical or behavioral       sampling of organisms.
traits.
                                                     Modern Evolutionary Synthesis
                                                     It is a synthesis of ideas from several fields of
                                                     biology that provides an account of evolution
                                                     which is widely accepted as the current
                                                     paradigm in evolutionary biology, and reflects
                                                     the consensus about how evolution works.
As "Darwinism" became widely accepted in             The 19th Century ideas of natural selection by
the 1870s, caricatures of Charles Darwin with        Charles Darwin and Mendelian genetics by
an ape or monkey body symbolized evolution.          Gregor Mendel were united by Ronald Fisher,
                                                     one of the three founders of population
Mendelian inheritance                                genetics, along with J. B. S. Haldane and
                                                     Sewall Wright, between 1918 and 1932.
It is inheritance of biological features that
follows the laws proposed by Gregor Johann
Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in
1900.
                        THE CELL and ITS STRUCTURE
Discovery of Cells                                        many scientists and conclude that all
                                                          living organisms are made of cells. This
    1665 : Robert Hooke looks at cork under a            forms the basis of the Cell Theory of
     microscope. Calls the chambers he see                Biology
     "cells"
    1665 - 75 : Anton van Leeuwenhoek, the
     person incorrectly given credit for the
                                                     All organisms are composed of cells
     invention of the microscope (actually, he
     was just damn good at making and using              The cell is the structural unit of life - units
     them, and his scopes soon became the                 smaller than cells are not alive
     standard, and history has just given him
                                                         Cells arise by division of preexisting cells
     credit as the inventor of the microscope),           - spontaneous generation does not exist
     studies organisms living in pond water
                                                         Cells can be cultured to produce more
     (like you did in lab). He calls them
                                                          cells
     "Animalcules."
                                                          in vitro = outside organism or cell
    1830 : German scientists Schleiden and               in vivo = inside organism or cell
     Schawann summarize the findings of
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