Allotropes Conductance Crystal Melting Used in
Graphite Good Hexagonal 4026.85 °C Pencils, making electrode, lubricant
Diamond Low Cubic 3926.85 °C protective windows for space
probes, making cutting and grinding
Fullerene Superconductivity Hexagonal 600 °C Artificial photosynthesis, cosmetics,
cubic surface coating, drug delivery
Amorphous Carbon or diamond-like Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
carbon is free, reactive carbon that does not
have any crystalline structure. It is often Hydrocarbons which contain one or more
abbreviated to aC for general amorphous double bonds between the carbon atoms
carbon, aC:H or HAC for hydrogenated are called alkenes. Their general formula
amorphous carbon. is CnH2n.
Hydrocarbons which contain one or more
Graphene is a thin layer of pure carbon; it is a triple bonds between the carbon atoms are
single, tightly packed layer of carbon atoms called alkynes. Their general formula is
that are bonded together in a hexagonal CnH2n-2.
honeycomb lattice. It is the best electrical
conductivity of any material. It can be used to No. of carbon atom(s) Prefix
make very small devices.
Organic Compounds 4 But
These are made up of carbon (C), hydrogen 6 Hex
(H) and oxygen (O) generally. Organic 7 Hept
compounds contains at least one C – H bond. 8 Oct
e.g. Methane (CH4), Methanol (CH3OH), 9 Non
Suffix for alkane : ane
Compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen Suffix for alkene : ene
only, are known as Hydrocarbons. It can
classified in two types, which are Saturated Suffix for alkyne : yne
and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons. Inorganic Compounds
Saturated Hydrocarbons These do not have any C – H bond. e.g. carbon
monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2)
Hydrocarbons which contain only single bonds
Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a colorless,
between the carbon atoms are called alkanes.
odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less
Their general formula is CnH2n+2.
dense than air. It is toxic in nature. Carbon
monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one
oxygen atom, connected by a triple bond that
consists of two covalent bonds as well as one
dative covalent bond.