Allotropes   Conductance        Crystal       Melting          Used in
                                    system        point
    Graphite     Good               Hexagonal     4026.85 °C       Pencils, making electrode, lubricant
    Diamond      Low                Cubic         3926.85 °C       protective windows for space
                                                                   probes, making cutting and grinding
                                                                   tools
    Fullerene    Superconductivity  Hexagonal     600 °C           Artificial photosynthesis, cosmetics,
                                    cubic                          surface coating, drug delivery
                                                                   system
Amorphous Carbon or diamond-like                        Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
carbon is free, reactive carbon that does not
have any crystalline structure. It is often                Hydrocarbons which contain one or more
abbreviated to aC for general amorphous                     double bonds between the carbon atoms
carbon, aC:H or HAC for hydrogenated                        are called alkenes. Their general formula
amorphous carbon.                                           is CnH2n.
                                                           Hydrocarbons which contain one or more
Graphene is a thin layer of pure carbon; it is a            triple bonds between the carbon atoms are
single, tightly packed layer of carbon atoms                called alkynes. Their general formula is
that are bonded together in a hexagonal                     CnH2n-2.
honeycomb lattice. It is the best electrical
conductivity of any material. It can be used to               No. of carbon atom(s)      Prefix
                                                              1                          Meth
make very small devices.
                                                              2                          Eth
                                                              3                          Prop
Organic Compounds                                             4                          But
                                                              5                          Pent
These are made up of carbon (C), hydrogen                     6                          Hex
(H) and oxygen (O) generally. Organic                         7                          Hept
compounds contains at least one C – H bond.                   8                          Oct
e.g. Methane (CH4), Methanol (CH3OH),                         9                          Non
                                                              10                         Dec
Glucose (C6H12O6)
Hydrocarbons
                                                        Suffix for alkane : ane
Compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen                Suffix for alkene : ene
only, are known as Hydrocarbons. It can
classified in two types, which are Saturated            Suffix for alkyne : yne
and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons.                           Inorganic Compounds
Saturated Hydrocarbons                                  These do not have any C – H bond. e.g. carbon
                                                        monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2)
Hydrocarbons which contain only single bonds
                                                        Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a colorless,
between the carbon atoms are called alkanes.
                                                        odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less
Their general formula is CnH2n+2.
                                                        dense than air. It is toxic in nature. Carbon
                                                        monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one
                                                        oxygen atom, connected by a triple bond that
                                                        consists of two covalent bonds as well as one
                                                        dative covalent bond.
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